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2019 Second New 737 Max 8 Crashs - History

2019 Second New 737 Max 8 Crashs - History



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2019 Second New 737 Max 8 Crashes

On March 10, 2019, an Ethiopian Airlines flight from Addis Abbas to Nairobi crashed moments after taking off. All 157 souls on board perished as the aircraft plummeted nose-first into the ground. The plane was a new 737 Max 8


Ethiopian Airlines Flight 302 crashed six minutes after take off from Addis Abbas on a flight to Nairobi on the morning of March 10tbh . The crashed was extremely similar to the crash of Lion Air Flight 610 on October 29, 2018. As a result of the similarities of the two cases- new aircraft that crashed in good weather soon after take- off countries throughout the world grounded the aircraft. By March 13th the United States who was the last holdout ordered the grounding of the aircraft.

Investigations of both crashes center around the fact that the redesign of the plane included larger engines that were placed higher on the wing. This changed the aerodynamic of the aircraft, and tended to make its nose rise and thus make it suceptable to a stall. To compensate for that Boeing installed software to automatically compensate. The suspicion in both cases is that the software malfunctions and forced the plane down. Many questions exist including whether the pilots had received proper training on the changed that Boeing made.


The second Boeing 737 Max crash happened a year ago, here's what went down, the unanswered questions, and the ongoing fallout.

At 8:38 a.m. local time, Ethiopian Airlines Flight 302 took off from Addis Ababa.

Six minutes later, the jet slammed into the ground like a missile about 40 miles away, making impact at nearly 700 miles per hour. All 157 passengers and crew were killed.

Bound for Nairobi, Kenya, the sleek, modern Boeing 737 Max 8 jet was far from a niche or regional flight.

Ethiopian Airlines was, and remains, one of the largest and most successful African airlines, providing links from the Americas and Europe all across the African continent.

On this particular flight, passengers hailed from 35 countries including Canada, the US, the UK, Slovakia, Germany, Kenya, Ethiopia, Sweden, India, Russia, Norway, China, France, Israel, and more.

It was the second time in less than five months that a Boeing 737 Max had crashed. The first crash, Lion Air Flight 610 in Indonesia, set off a flurry of alarm about the plane, particularly when a new automated flight system called MCAS was implicated as a cause.

Despite some calls to ground the plane, however, it was allowed to continue flying. Boeing and the FAA issued an emergency notice referencing the MCAS system — though not by name — and directions for how to manage erroneous activations.

After Ethiopian 302, a consensus that there was something wrong with the plane came swiftly. Fewer than 400 planes had entered service, and already two of them had crashed.

The plane type was grounded around the world within the next two days — a year later, the plane still hasn't returned to service.

Now, one year later, here is what happened to Ethiopian Flight 302 that March morning, the ongoing legacy of the crash, and the questions that remain.


'Disturbing Revelations' About Boeing 737 Max Crashes Made Public in New Report

Two plane crashes in 2018 and 2019 involving the new Boeing 737 Max aircraft weren’t a result of one single issue, but instead were caused by the failures of Boeing staff, Boeing management, and the Federal Aviation Administration, according to a new 245-page report released Wednesday by the U.S. House Transportation and Infrastructure Committee. In short: It was a perfect storm of shit where everyone made deadly mistakes.

Lion Air Flight 610 crashed near Indonesia on October 29, 2018, killing all 189 people on board, and Ethiopian Airlines Flight 302 crashed in Ethiopia on March 10, 2019, killing all 157 people on board.

The two crashes were just five months apart and led to several countries immediately grounding their 737 Maxes for safety assessments. The planes were eventually pulled from service indefinitely, worldwide. The U.S. was the last country to ground the new aircraft model, but has acted as the lead investigator into its failings, if only because Boeing is an American company.

“The MAX crashes were not the result of a singular failure, technical mistake, or mismanaged event,” the new report, which was posted online Wednesday morning, reads .

“They were the horrific culmination of a series of faulty technical assumptions by Boeing’s engineers, a lack of transparency on the part of Boeing’s management, and grossly insufficient oversight by the FAA—the pernicious result of regulatory capture on the part of the FAA with respect to its responsibilities to perform robust oversight of Boeing and to ensure the safety of the flying public.”

The report, written by Democrats in the House, is the culmination of 18 months of investigation to identify the primary cause of the crashes. Early reports suggested that technical failures involving the Maneuvering Characteristics Augmentation System (MCAS) in the planes were to blame.

Boeing made fundamentally faulty assumptions about critical technologies on the 737 MAX, most notably with MCAS. Based on these faulty assumptions, Boeing permitted MCAS—software designed to automatically push the airplane’s nose down in certain conditions—to activate on input from a single angle of attack (AOA) sensor. It also expected that pilots, who were largely unaware that the system existed, would be able to mitigate any potential malfunction. Boeing also failed to classify MCAS as a safety-critical system, which would have attracted greater FAA scrutiny during the certification process. The operation of MCAS also violated Boeing’s own internal design guidelines related to the 737 MAX’s development which stated that the system should “not have any objectionable interaction with the piloting of the airplane” and “not interfere with dive recovery.”

While it’s true that the MCAS system incorrectly believing the plane was stalling out forcing the nose down unnecessarily during the aforementioned fatal crashes, there were a lot of other issues involved, according to Congressional investigators. Not only did regulators at FAA have conflicts of interest that would potentially give Boeing more leeway, the race to compete with Airbus contributed to Boeing taking more shortcuts than it should have.

There’s been a slow drip of information ever since the crash in March 2019 that made people believe there might be systemic problems with the relatively new planes. Internal emails obtained by the Congressional committee even revealed that Boeing employees had doubts about the approval process for the Max series . In one particularly damning email from April of 2017, a Boeing employee wrote, “this airplane is designed by clowns, who in turn are supervised by monkeys.”

Other documents obtained by the committee revealed that Boeing obtained a special exemption from the FAA allowing the aviation company to not install an Engine Indicating and Crew Alerting System (EICAS) that may have allowed pilots to better prioritize problems from the cockpit. Boeing even gave an internal presentation in 2012 noting that if the company had to install EICAS in its latest model it would create new financials costs.

Boeing was well aware early on of the risk posed to the 737 MAX program if it was required to implement an EICAS on the MAX. In June 2012, a Boeing employee gave a presentation titled: “737 MAX Certification Basis Risk Review: EICAS.” The presentation defined the issue this way: “Numerous crew alerts on the 737 Max are new or revised and per changed product regulation are required to meet latest amendment level. Current 737 flight crew alerting methods won’t comply with latest regulation.”274 The presentation went on to say that a “compliant design would be similar to the 787 or 767 tanker and include” EICAS as well as other features. Significantly, the schedule risk,” it asserted, and “significant impact” on pilot training requirements.

It was also revealed early on that the FAA allowed Boeing to do a lot of the certification of its own new aircraft, “delegating” oversight that should have been done by proper government authorities.

“Our report lays out disturbing revelations about how Boeing—under pressure to compete with Airbus and deliver profits for Wall Street—escaped scrutiny from the FAA, withheld critical information from pilots, and ultimately put planes into service that killed 346 innocent people. What’s particularly infuriating is how Boeing and FAA both gambled with public safety in the critical time period between the two crashes,” Rep. Peter DeFazio, the chairman of the committee, said in a statement posted online .

Boeing apologized to the families of the victims in an unsigned statement published Wednesday morning , but sought to assure the public that when the Max is allowed to fly again it will be “one of the most thoroughly scrutinized aircraft in history.”

The revised design of the MAX has received intensive internal and regulatory review, including more than 375,000 engineering and test hours and 1,300 test flights. Once the FAA and other regulators have determined the MAX can safely return to service, it will be one of the most thoroughly scrutinized aircraft in history, and we have full confidence in its safety. We have also taken steps to bolster safety across our company, consulting outside experts and learning from best practices in other industries. We have set up a new safety organization to enhance and standardize safety practices, restructured our engineering organization to give engineers a stronger voice and a more direct line to share concerns with top management, created a permanent Aerospace Safety Committee of our Board of Directors as well as expanded the role of the Safety Promotion Center.

But this new report has identified many problems that seem to be cultural rather than technical, including damning allegations that, “Boeing withheld crucial information from the FAA, its customers, and 737 MAX pilots.”

Democrats stressed that getting this full report out to the public was important in the name of transparency and making consumers feel safe as they venture out into the world again.

“On behalf of the families of the victims of both crashes, as well as anyone who steps on a plane expecting to arrive at their destination safely, we are making this report public to put a spotlight not only on the broken safety culture at Boeing but also the gaps in the regulatory system at the FAA that allowed this fatally-flawed plane into service,” De Fazio said.

“Critically, our report gives Congress a roadmap on the steps we must take to reinforce aviation safety and regulatory transparency, increase Federal oversight, and improve corporate accountability to help ensure the story of the Boeing 737 MAX is never, ever repeated.”

The FAA is reportedly planning on allowing the Max to fly again soon, but we’ll see whether this report gives the agency any pause about moving too quickly. Boeing has previously said that it might change the name of the Max, but if that’s the plan, it hasn’t been made public yet.


Second crash of new Boeing 737 MAX 8 aggravates safety concerns

A plane crash that killed 157 in Ethiopia on Sunday morning is likely to aggravate concerns over the safety of one of Boeing’s newest commercial jets, aviation analysts say. The tragedy comes as the company faces intense scrutiny over another deadly plane crash involving the same plane, the 737 MAX8.

In a statement addressing the crash, Boeing said it has a technical team prepared to provide assistance at the direction of the U.S. National Transportation Safety Board.

“Boeing is deeply saddened to learn of the passengers and crew on Ethiopian Airlines Flight 302, a 737 MAX 8 airplane,” Boeing said in a statement. “We extend our heartfelt sympathies to the families and loved ones of the passengers and crew on board and stand ready to support the Ethiopian Airlines team.”

With an investigation into the causes of the crash in its earliest phases, it’s too early to know whether the Ethiopia crash was caused by the same issues that doomed an Indonesian flight.

An Ethiopian Airlines executives said Sunday that the airplane had “no technical remarks” and was flown by an experienced pilot. He said the pilot mentioned he had difficulty and wanted to return, before losing contact with air traffic control.

Aviation analysts say they are anxiously awaiting the results of the Indonesian airline’s investigation, suggesting the company’s future business could be affected if any parallels are found.

“If this has any relationship at all with (the) Lion Air incident, it’s a pretty good bet that the (Federal Aviation Administration) will move to have all 737 MAX aircraft inspected immediately,” said Mike Boyd, an aviation analyst with Boyd Group International. If the results of such an inspection turn up significant design flaws in the 737 MAX, it could lead the planes to be grounded worldwide, he said.

The Federal Aviation Administration issued a brief statement saying it was planning to assist in the investigation of the crash, which killed eight Americans and 18 Canadians.

“The FAA is closely monitoring developments in the Ethiopian Flight 302 crash early this morning,” the agency said in a statement. “We are in contact with the State Department and plan to join the NTSB in its assistance with Ethiopian civil aviation authorities to investigate the crash.”

So far Boeing’s investors and customers seem to have shrugged off the issues related to the Lion Air crash. Boeing had a banner year last year amid accelerating international sales of its commercial jetliners. The 737 is the best-selling plane model in its history.

The 737 MAX8 has been an important driver of business for Boeing since it was introduced in 2017, and it is critical to Boeing’s broader international ambitions as it competes with its European rival, Airbus.

Boeing has delivered 354 of the jets globally and has another 2,912 on order, according to market estimates maintained by Boyd Group International. The jet that crashed Sunday morning was one of five 737 MAX 8’s operated by Ethiopian Airlines, which has another 25 on order. In the United States, Southwest Airlines and American Airlines have 59 of them between their two fleets, with another 304 on order.

The Indonesia plane crash turned a harsh spotlight on the MAX 8, Boeing’s latest update to its workhorse 737. A preliminary investigative report released in late November found that a malfunctioning sensor and an automated response from the aircraft’s software left pilots to fight furiously to control the aircraft before it careened into the Java Sea outside Indonesia shortly after takeoff, killing 189 people.

The report found that a sensor measuring the plane’s “angle of attack” fed erroneous data into the plane’s flight control system, at which point an automatic feature kicked in, sending the plane into a nose dive.

The report stopped short of assigning blame for the crash. But the company quickly received criticism from multiple pilots organizations in the United States after Boeing disclosed that it had made certain changes to the MAX’s autopilot software — adding a new flight control feature called the Maneuvering Characteristics Augmentation System, or MCAS.

The new software was meant to account for design changes to the 737 MAX, seeking to make the plane operate as similarly as possible to older 737 models despite having larger engines placed farther forward on the plane’s wings.

While the MCAS system was ostensibly added to make the plane safer, pilot unions in the United States said they had been left “in the dark” about the new software update, and initially criticized Boeing for failing to cover the new system in pilot training.

A Boeing spokesman did not respond to questions about whether the company had updated the MCAS system following the Indonesia plane crash. Dennis Tajer, a spokesman for the Allied Pilots Association, a union that represents pilots at American Airlines, said Boeing executives had initially told his members that the company had been looking at potential software design issues, but had not received any word about whether the system had been changed. He also said pilots at American Airlines still do not have flight simulators reflecting updates to the MAX 8.

“We have not been briefed on any changes to the software at this point,” Tajer said.

The company has not seen any orders of new 737’s cancelled as a result of the crash. But airlines considering future orders will be watching the situation in Ethiopia closely.

“You now have had two 737 MAX 8s that have crashed shortly after takeoff. … The airlines are going to be very interested to know whether this was a problem with the airplane, the training, or both,” said Henry Harteveldt, an aviation market analyst with Atmosphere Research. “For airlines that are debating whether to order the (Boeing 737) MAX and how that would compare to other planes on the market, it’s very possible that tomorrow Airbus reps will get a few calls from people that have been considering Boeing.”

There is also the possibility that the crash could cause a broader backlash on the part of customers, who might prefer to wait for the results of the investigation before choosing to fly in a 737 MAX8.

The Washington Post’s Faiz Siddiqui contributed to this report.


What is the Boeing 737 Max?

Built to compete with the Airbus A320neo, the 737 Max is a family of commercial aircraft that consists of four models. The Max 8, which is the most popular version, made its first flight on Jan. 29, 2016, and entered passenger service with Malaysia's Malindo Air on May 22, 2017. (Malindo no longer flew the plane by the time of the first crash.) Seating between 162 and 210 passengers, depending on the configuration, it's designed for short- and medium-haul routes, but also has the range (3,550 nautical miles, or about 4,085 miles) to fly transatlantic and between the mainland US and Hawaii. The larger Max 9 first flew in 2017, and the Max 10 has yet to fly (it made its formal debut Nov. 22, 2019). The smaller 737 Max 7 flew for the first time in May 2018.

The design of the 737 Max series is based on the Boeing 737, an aircraft series that has been in service since 1968 . As a whole, the 737 family is the best-selling airliner in history. At any given time, thousands of some version of it are airborne around the world and some airlines, like Southwest and Ryanair, have all-737 fleets. If you've flown even occasionally, you've most likely flown on a 737.


Boeing 737 MAX design flaws were a factor in Lion Air crash, report says

Veuer’s Elizabeth Keatinge explains why the grounded Boeing 737 may mean more expensive flights for you. Buzz60

JAKARTA, Indonesia – An Indonesian investigation found a Lion Air flight that crashed and killed 189 people a year ago was doomed by a combination of aircraft design flaws, inadequate training and maintenance problems.

A final accident report released Friday said Lion Air flight 610, from Indonesia’s capital Jakarta to the island of Sumatra, crashed because the pilots were never told how to quickly respond to malfunctions of the Boeing 737 Max 8 jet’s automated flight-control system.

The jet plunged into the Java Sea just 13 minutes after its takeoff on Oct. 29, 2018.

Indonesia’s National Transportation Safety Committee said the automated system, known as MCAS, relied on a single “angle of attack” sensor that provided erroneous information, automatically shoving the nose of the Max jet down.

The report also identified various missteps prior to the crash. The aircraft, only in use for two months, had problems on its last four flights, including one the day before its fatal accident.

The Indonesian report followed another last month from U.S. federal accident investigators who concluded that Boeing and the Federal Aviation Administration underestimated how a blizzard of visual and auditory warnings would slow pilots’ ability to respond quickly enough to avert crashes.

Just five months after the Indonesian crash, the same kind of malfunction caused a Max jet to crash in Ethiopia, killing all 157 people on board.

That led to the grounding of all 737 Max jets and put Boeing under intense pressure to explain problems associated with the MCAS system. The aircraft still has not resumed flying.

Boeing recently reported its third-quarter earnings dropped 51% to $1.17 billion in part because it added $900 million more in costs for the Max.

“We are very angry (at Boeing) because their negligence has caused our loved ones to die,” said Muhammad Asdori, 55, whose brother and nephew were killed in the Lion Air crash.

“They should have anticipated any kind of problems with adequate training for pilots who fly their planes. We were even more angry when we learned that they had only admitted their mistake when the second MAX8 plane crashed in Ethiopia.”


Second brand-new Boeing 737 Max crash in 5 months raises questions, 346 dead

Second brand-new Boeing 737 Max crash in 5 months raises questions, 346 dead

The integrity of Boeing 737 Max 8 aircraft come under question following the tragic crash of Ethiopian Airlines Flight 302 on Sunday. The flight crashed just 12 minutes after taking off from Addis Ababa airport. See Details of Crash here

Ethiopian Airlines flight ET302 was operating on a new aircraft. The 737 Max 8 was delivered to the airline on 15 November 2018, and had spent just about 4 months in service.

This is the second fatal crash involving a Max 8 in 5 months. In October, Lion Air Flight JT610 crashed into the sea off Jakarta, killing all 189 on board. On October 29, Lion Air Flight JT610 plunged into the Java Sea just 13 minutes after taking off. All 189 on board were killed in the tragic crash. The aircraft in operation was a Boeing 737 Max 8, delivered to the airline just two months earlier. Boeing would later admit that there was a problem with one of the sensors.

  • All 189 passengers presumed dead Lion Air Flight JT 610 crash
  • Black box recovered from wreckage of sunken Lion Air Flight JT610
  • Crash Animation of Lion Air Flight JT610 Boeing 737 plane
  • Black boxes reveal Lion Air plane had airspeed problems on last 4 flights

The MAX versions of the 737s are touted for their LEAP jet engines which Boeing says “redefine the future of efficient and environmentally friendly air travel.” Boeing says the 737 MAX jets are 10% to 12% more efficient that their predecessors.

The 737 Max 8 has an advanced anti-stall feature, to prevent the aircraft from entering a “stall” if the pilots accidentally raise the nose too high. In the case of the Lion Air flight, the sensor guiding this system was sending erroneous data. And investigations so far suggest that the anti-stall system may have pushed the aircraft down when it was flying level.

Following the incident, Boeing said that the malfunctioning sensor on the MAX 8 could “cause the flight crew to have difficulty controlling the airplane,” leading to “possible impact with terrain”. Not only is this a serious problem, but several pilots and airlines would also later complain that they were not even aware of the risks associated with the feature. Boeing maintains the aircraft is safe.

Today crash will stoke concerns about the safety of the 737 Max, the upgraded model of the popular narrow-body, which started service less than two years ago.

Boeing did not immediately respond to a CNN request for comment regarding the model, but have released a statement saying it is “deeply saddened to learn of the passing of the passengers and crew.” It added that a “Boeing technical team is prepared to provide technical assistance at the request and under the direction of the U.S. National Transportation Safety Board.”

But until an investigation is launched, it is difficult to determine whether the disaster was the result of a failure in the aircraft, human error, or another factor.

The U.S. National Transportation Safety Board is sending a team of four to assist in the investigation, spokesman Eric Weiss said in an email. Boeing said it was ready to provide technical help.

As of January 31, 2019, Boeing had 5,011 firm orders from 79 identified customers for the 737 MAX, and the top three identified airline customers for the 737 MAX are: Southwest Airlines with 280 orders, Flydubai with 251 orders, and Lion Air with 201 orders.


'Halt the process'

"The FAA should immediately halt the recertification process for the 737 Max in light of this report," said Michael Stumo, whose daughter Samya Rose Stumo died in the Ethiopian crash in March 2019.

"The FAA and Boeing hid information before and are doing it again," he added.

"Both Boeing and the FAA have refused to provide their data that support their efforts to unground the plane. The Max should not fly until Boeing and the FAA provide this data, so independent experts and the public can confirm the aircraft is safe."

British national Zipporah Kuria, whose father was killed in the same crash, said it would be "grossly irresponsible" to recertify the 737 Max.

"My heart is shattered. My dad lost his life and I lost him," she said

"If Iɽ lost him because of a faulty sensor, I may have come to accept it as an incident, but I lost my dad to greed, corruption and lack of human decency.

"This is why we need to axe the Max. The public shouldn't continue bearing the cost for corner-cutters who do not seem to have a conscience."


Boeing reports $2.9 billion quarterly loss — its worst ever — after taking 737 Max charge

Boeing reported a massive second-quarter loss of $2.9 billion on Wednesday — its worst ever — as costs pile up for the aerospace giant while its flagship 737 Max jet remains grounded after two fatal crashes.

Shares of Boeing declined 3.1% from its previous close of $373.07, helping to drag down the Dow Jones Industrial Average.

Boeing lost $5.82 a share in the second quarter of 2019, with revenue falling sharply as well to $15.8 billion. Boeing's quarterly loss is the biggest in history for the company, according to FactSet, topping a $1.6 billion setback during the financial crisis in 2009.

The company delivered 104 fewer airplanes to customers in the second quarter compared with last year, as deliveries of the company's mass-produced 737 Max aircraft are halted. Boeing took a $4.9 billion charge last week because of the Max.

But while Boeing's performance remains under pressure, Melius Research analyst Carter Copeland told CNBC's "Squawk Box" that the results were not too bad considering the circumstances.

"The more you sift through the numbers . this is actually a lot less scary than it could have been," Copeland said.

Boeing's earnings dropped nearly 275% from the same quarter last year, when the company earned $3.33 a share. Additionally, Boeing's revenue this quarter represents a drop of about 35% from the second quarter of 2018, when it brought in $24.8 billion.

"This is a defining moment for Boeing," Chairman and CEO Dennis Muilenburg said in a statement. He added that the company remains focused on safely returning the 737 Max to service.

The loss reflects last week's charge due to the worldwide grounding of its 737 Max planes after two fatal crashes killed 346 people. The charge amounted to $8.74 a share in earnings. In the earnings report, Boeing said the costs were "partially offset by higher defense and services volume."

The 737 Max has been grounded since mid-March. While Boeing is testing changes to the 737 Max's software, the company said that it remains unclear how long it will be until the airplane returns to flight.

Boeing's commercial airplane business swung to a loss after the company halted deliveries for the widely ordered 737 Max aircraft. As a result, commercial aircraft deliveries dropped to 90 from 194. Boeing said the hit to its profit from the 737 Max delays was partially offset by improving margins on its 787 Dreamliner aircraft.

The company's services business remained strong, with revenue increasing 11% to $4.5 billion from $4.1 billion a year earlier.

Boeing's defense unit saw a $6.6 billion second-quarter revenue increase driven by a rise in volume across F/A-18 fighter jets, satellites and weapon programs. The defense firm continued to bag hefty Pentagon contracts this quarter, including an additional $194 million to build the next-generation MH-47G Chinook helicopter for the Army Special Operations Aviation Command and a $250 million Air Force contract for the Joint Direct Attack Munition, or JDAM, bomb. The aerospace giant also continued delivery of the Air Force's KC-46 tanker.

Ahead of Boeing's earnings, Refinitiv survey said that analysts expected Boeing to report earnings of $1.87 a share and revenue of $18.6 billion. But that estimate was revised twice after the report due to the last-minute charge. Refinitiv first revised its second quarter consensus estimate to a loss of $6.67 a share but then again revised it to a loss of $1.28 a share. FactSet gave a consensus estimate of $6.69 a share, similar to Refinitiv's first revision. Both of these intend to take into account the $4.9 billion charge and both estimates would make the $5.82 a share loss better than expected.


What's next

As the probes continue, the FAA plans to host other civil aviation authorities from around the world in Fort Worth, Texas on Thursday to update them on the 737 Max. The FAA was the last major air safety authority to ground the planes in March after the Ethiopian crash, drawing questions from U.S. lawmakers, consumers and some airline employees.

Also Thursday, the International Air Transport Association, an industry group that represents more than three-quarters of the world's airlines, is meeting with carriers in Montreal to discuss the aircraft and its potential return to service, and topics are likely to include how to address passenger concerns.

The FAA's acting head, Dan Elwell, faced heat from lawmakers again this week at a second congressional hearing since March that aimed to look into the crashes and the agency's longtime practice of designating company officials to help certify aircraft, in this case the Boeing 737 Max. Lawmakers say they're seeking additional information about the plane.

Congress hasn't called Muilenburg or any other Boeing executives to testify — despite a history of quickly hauling company officials to Capitol Hill to testify following public safety incidents like the Max crisis.