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When Millikin University first opened its doors to students in 1903, the brand new campus had two different railway lines that helped to form its eastern and southern boundaries. At the east end of campus, cutting diagonally across the southeast corner were the tracks of the Wabash Railroad and in the center of West Main St., the southern boundary and "front" of the campus, were rails and electric cables for the Decatur Railway & Light streetcar which would soon link up with the "Interurban" or Illinois Traction System that would later be called the Illinois Terminal Company.
The close proximity of the railways to campus, and Decatur being such an important railway hub in general, meant that Millikin University and the railroads would have long and interesting relationships over the coming years. This exhibit tells story of those relationships, utilizing materials from the Millikin University Archives & Special Collections.
This map shows the railways that ran through the Millikin Univeristy Campus (Green). The red shows the Wabash Railroad tracks and the blue shows the Decatur Railway & Light streetcar tracks which the "Interurban" used as well (blue arrows point to "diamond sidings" which were used as Illinois Traction System stops.
[Colors were added to enhance the map for this exhibit - Map courtesy of Dale Jenkins]
Kansas Historical Notes - August 1946
Lawrence voters on April 2, 1946, approved a $325,000 bond issue for a new city building which will provide quarters for the Douglas County Historical Society as well as veterans' organizations and the fire and police departments. Sponsors of the project pointed out that the new structure will provide room for a museum to preserve items of historical value now scattered over the city.
A description of old Shawnee Friends Mission was given by Dr. Charles Loomis at a meeting of the Shawnee Mission Indian Historical Society at Merriam, April 22, 1946. The mission was located on property long owned by the Loomis family and the site is in the present Merriam community. Loomis also mentioned the town of Gum Springs, now Shawnee. The present name of the latter town was derived from the Indian tribe. Mrs. Pauline Van Hercke and others spoke on Catholic churches and schools of Shawnee township at the March 25 meeting of the society held at Shawnee.
Chancellor Deane W. Malott of the University of Kansas addressed a dinner of the William Allen White Foundation in New York City, April 24, 1946. Chancellor Malott said the foundation was planned to provide" realistic teaching material" for the school of journalism and public information at the University of Kansas. Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower was guest of honor at the dinner. Other speakers included Sen. Arthur Capper Frank E. Tripp, general manager of Gannett, newspapers A. D. Willard, Jr., executive vice-president of the National Association of Broadcasters, and Francis Hannon, vice-president of the Motion Picture Producers' Association.
The Ness County Historical Society is planningto erect markers in memory of Dr. George Washington Carver, one upon the quarter- section of land south of Beeler which the famed Negro scientist homesteaded in the late 1880's, and the other on nearby K-96 highway. Dr. Carver was for years head of agricultural research at Tuskegee Institute.
Preliminary steps for the organization of the Decatur County Historical Society were taken at a meeting at Oberlin, May 22, 1946. Temporary offIcers chosen were: H. Q. Banta, president E. R. Woodward, vice-president Ben Miller, secretary, and Dr. A. J. Thomsen, treasurer. Temporary officers plan to call a countywide meeting to complete a permanent organization.
The 100th anniversary of the arrival of theill-fated Donner
358 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY
party at Alcove Springs in present Marshall county and the death of Mrs. Sarah Keyes was observed by the Marysville D. A. R. May 26, 1946, with commemorative services at the historic camping grounds on the old California-Oregon road seven miles south of present Marysville. In 1941 the Kansas state legislature memorialized the National Parks Board to make a national monument or historic shrine of the Alcove Springs area, but as yet no action has been taken.
A marker at the site of Lamb's Point, one-half mile east of Detroit, Dickinson county, was dedicated June 14, 1946, with Charles M. Harger of Abilene, former president of the Kansas Historical Society, giving the dedicatory address. Lamb's Point, named for William Lamb, was the seat of the county government for a time in the late 1850's, and was a stopping place on early stage lines. The memorial was erected by the Dickinson County Historical Society and members of the Lamb family.
Citizens residing in Riley county 50 or more years were honored at a basket dinner and program sponsored by the Riley County Historical Association at Manhattan June 16, 1946. The featured speaker, Alvin Springer, Manhattan attorney, discussed early days in Kansas. Walter E. McKeen is president of the association.
Former students of old Garfield University, 1887-1890, the predecessor of present Friends University, of Wichita, unveiled a bronze tablet at the university on June 18, 1946, commemorating the establishment of Garfield University. A bronze plate was fastened to the door of a room which is to serve as a Garfield memorial room.
The histories of Crawford county's Catholic churches and patriotic organizations and the story of Washington Irving's trip across the county were highlights of the summer meeting of the Crawford County Historical Society at Pittsburg, June 20, 1946. Dr. O. P. Dellinger is president of the society and Mrs. C. M. Paris is secretary.
Miss Stella B. Haines, president of the Augusta Historical Society, has announced that the society's museum will be open to the public each Sunday afternoon during the summer. New postal cards of the museum are on sale.
The Dodge City Historical Society has contracted for the purchase of show cases for its museum objects. They will be placed in a Southwest Fair building until permanent space is available in the new municipal auditorium.
KANSAS HISTORICAL NOTES 359
Plans are being made to organize a Shawnee County Historical Society. Paul B. Sweet, of Topeka, is temporary treasurer.
More than 100 articles from the museum of theUniversity of Wichita have been lent to the Wichita Public Historical Museum for display at the forum. Some of the larger pieces are an ox yoke, a wheel for fixing wool in strands, a cradle for cutting wheat and a loom with pedals. Museum hours are 1:30 to 4:30 p. m., Tuesdays through Saturdays. Mrs. Frank Slay is curator.
Aerial views of business districts and industrial sites in 16 Kansas cities are included in a 220-page, illustrated volume, Kansas Industrial Properties, recently issued by the Union Pacific Railroad Company. The book features pictures of buildings and maps of industrial sections, together with data on area and population, major industrial activities, labor, climate, railroads, industrial power, water and gas, financial institutions and natural resources. The state's general industrial activities, potential resources and transportation are also discussed. Kansas cities described in the volume are: Kansas City, Elwood, Leavenworth, Lawrence, Topeka, Manhattan, Marysville, Junction City, Clay Center, Concordia, Abilene, Salina, McPherson, Russell, Hays and Ellis.
The new 136-page book, Wichita People, issued by the Wichita Chamber of Commerce, is an excellent review of Wichita in pictures and story. In addition to the sections devoted to the activities of Wichita citizens, there are thirty-two pages filled with photographs of articles manufactured or produced in the city's metropolitan area
Fifty Years of Secondary Education in Oxford, Kansas, is the title of a 151-page history of Oxford Rural High School prepared and written by members of the 1945-1946 offIce-practice class and E. Esther Griswold, teacher. The high school was organized as a twoyear course beginning in 1895. The school's 1946 annual, Oxford Wildcats, also observed the golden anniversary by publishing historical sketches of the athletic teams and pictures of teams and classes of earlier years. Views of the first school buildings were included.
Seventy-five Years of Kansas City Livestock Market History is the title of a 40-page booklet issued by the Kansas City Stock Yards Company. The growth and development of the livestock market is sketched in three 25-year periods and is illustrated with drawings and photographs of early structures and photographs of the present yards and offices.
360 KANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY
Kansas cities and towns are again issuing colored illustrated folders or booklets featuring their business and community life and historical background. Included among the cities whose booklets have reached this Society are Topeka, Smith Center, Lawrence and Phillipsburg.
An illustrated 52-page booklet, Wealth in Depth-The Minerals of Kansas, has been issued by the Kansas Industrial Development Commission, Topeka. The publication features pictures of mineral formations and products, and geological and ground water supply maps. A folder, Kansas Horizons, was also recently issued by the Development Commission. It contains pictures of the Kansas state flag, flower, bird, and state house incolors and discusses the state's productive record under the heading, "Kansas, the Balanced State."
Birds in Kansas is the title of a 340-page book published in March, 1946, by the Kansas State Board of Agriculture. The author is Dr. Arthur L. Goodrich, Jr., of the department of zoology of Kansas State College. In addition to six sketches of Kansas birds in color by Margaret Whittemore, there are numerous other illustrations. Also featured are a list ofcolloquial names and "finding lists," which consist of tabulations of more commonKansas birds by habitat, by time of year or residence, and by their major colors.
A 326-page book, General George Crook-His Autobiography, edited and annotated by Martin F. Schmitt, was published in'March, 1946, by the University of Oklahoma Press, Norman. General Crook spent his military career, excepting the four Civil War years, in Western United States and was commanding general of the Department of the Missouri, "the largest and most active of all frontier commands," at his death in 1890.
The Social Science Research Council of New York City has published a 177-page bulletin entitled Theory and Practice in Historical Study: A Report of the Committee on Historiography. Subjects include "Grounds For a Reconsideration of Historiography," and "Problems of Terminology in Historical Writing," by Charles A. Beard "Controlling Assumptions in the Practice of American Historians," by John Herman Randall, Jr., and George Haines, IV "What Historians Have Said About the Causes of the Civil War," by Howard K. Beale, and "Selective Reading List on Historiography and the Philosophy of History," by Ronald Thompson.
Kansas History: A Journal of the Central Plains
The latest in scholarship on Kansas history, published quarterly since 1978 by the Kansas Historical Foundation.
- Buildings--Georgia--Atlanta 11
- Churches--Georgia--Atlanta 3
- Dwellings--Georgia--Atlanta 3
- Dwellings--Georgia--Stone Mountain 3
- Galleries and museums--Georgia--Atlanta 3
- Historic buildings--Georgia--Stone Mountain 3
- Houses--Georgia--Stone Mountain 3
- King, Martin Luther, Jr., 1929-1968 3
- Martin Luther King Jr. Center for Performing and Cultural Arts 3
- New Deal, 1933-1939--Georgia 3 See All Values for Subject »
- United States, Georgia, Fulton County, Atlanta 24
- United States, Georgia, Fulton County, Atlanta, Auburn Avenue 7
- United States, Georgia, Atlanta, Peters Street 3
- United States, Georgia, DeKalb County, Stone Mountain 3
- United States, Georgia, Atlanta, Murray Hill 2
- United States, Georgia, Fulton County, Mechanicsville 2
- United States, Georgia, Butts County 1
- United States, Georgia, DeKalb County, Atlanta, Kirkwood 1
- United States, Georgia, DeKalb County, Decatur 1
- United States, Georgia, Fulton County, Hapeville 1 See All Values for Location »
Full Text Available
Color photographs from 1979 of locations in metropolitan Atlanta, including images of the central city, Roswell, and Stone Mountain.
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Contains photographs of the Decateur Railroad station - History
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DIGITAL RESEARCH LIBRARY OF ILLINOIS HISTORY®
A resource of the Living History of Illinois and Chicago® community.
FOR THE LOVE OF HISTORY
T he Digital Research Library of Illinois History® was developed to support the Facebook history group "Living History of Illinois and Chicago ®" (LHIC) as a knowledgebase and repository for Illinois documents, books, research papers, and other Illinois history resources.
Our mission is to present, preserve and investigate Illinois history. Use by students, researchers, educators and the general public, the Digital Research Library of Illinois History® is a resourc not to be missed.
THE 1893 WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION
READING ROOM ™
W e've got your ticket to the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition. If you love the Chicago World's Fair. you found Utopia!
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The Reading Room contains antique books, research papers, photographs, listing of the "special days," and 13 amazing 3D CAD video tours.
T he Journal presents Illinois history in a friendlier format than Facebook does, with better search functions and imbedded images. Being membership free, anybody can add their comments to the postings in the Journal.
The Journal had reached over 3,420,000 readers since 11/2016, and we continue to grow!
LISTEN TO AN AUDIO
RECORDING OF HISTORY
To play, click the  next to the title.
T he evolution of teaching and presenting history, in a meaningful and memorable way, has taken a huge leap forward. The use of social media allows Living History of Illinois and Chicago ® group members and the non-membership Digital Research Library of Illinois History Journal™ to add to the richness of the historical presentions with their historical knowledge, personal experience and supporting documents.
ILLINOIS BOOKS & FILES
100 Years of Progress, The Centennial History of Anna, IL. pub:1954
A Woman's Story of Pioneer Illinois, by Christiana Holmes Tillson. Pub:1919
A Timeline of Illinois History
African-American Postal Workers in the 20th Century.
Alton Illinois Illustrated. pub:1912
American Bottom Region of Illinois
Army Life of an Illinois Soldier, Including a Day by Day Record of Sherman's March to the Sea. pub:1906
Belleville, Illinois - Illustrated. pub:1905
Biography in Black, A History of Streator, Illinois. pub:1962
Blue Island Story, 1835-1962. pub:1962
Broadwell Inn & Tavern, Clayville, Illinois. [built in 1824]
Burma-Shave History. Including over 500 multi-sign advertising messages seen on Illinois and US Highways.
Centennial History of Illinois, Volume - 01, 02
Chain of Rocks Bridge, Chouteau Island, Illinois.
Clarence Darrow, Timeline of His Life and Legal Career.
Complete History of Southern Illinois' Gang War. pub:1927
Constitution of the State of Illinois 1818. pub:1819
Dwight Centennial, 1854-1954: A Great Past - A Greater Future
East Saint Louis, Illinois: Race Riots of 1917
Freeburg, Illinois, Centennial Celebration, 1859-1959
French and Indians of the Illinois River. pub:1874
Galena Illinois Guide. pub:1937
Galena Illinois' Old Stockade Used during the Black Hawk War of 1832
Glimpses of Prairie du Rocher, Illinois, history from 1722 to 1942
Gurdon Saltonstall Hubbard, Autobiography of by Gurdon Saltonstall Hubbard pub:1911
Gurdon Saltonstall Hubbard, Incidents and Events in the Life of by Gurdon Saltonstall Hubbard pub:1888
Historical Encyclopedia of Illinois. pub:1900
Historical Encyclopedia of Illinois, with Commemorative Biographies, Vol 2. pub:1926
History of Belleville, Illinois. pub:1951
History of East St. Louis. pub:1875
History of Gazette Building in Champaign, Illinois.
History of Illinois from its commencement as a state in 1818 to 1847 by Gov. Thomas Ford. pub:1854
History of Millstadt, Illinois
History of Mokena, Illinois
History of Negro Servitude in Illinois and of Slavery Agitation in that State 1719-1864. pub:1904
History of New Milford, Illinois, 1835-1975
History of Sears Modern Homes and Sears Honor Bilt Homes.
History of the City of Cairo, Illinois. pub:1910
History of the City of Quincy. Illinois by General John Tillson. pub:1880
History of the Illinois Training School for Nurses, 1880-1929. pub:1930
History of Southern Illinois, its Historical Progress, People, Principal Interests. pub:1912 - Volumes 01, 02, 03
History of the Swedes of Illinois. pub:1908
Illinois Crime Survey, by Illinois Association for Criminal Justice. pub:1929
Illinois in 1818, by Solon Justus Buck. pub:1918
Kinsella Log Cabin (two-story) built in 1854, Fairview Heights, Illinois. [photography by N.Gale]
Laws of Illinois, Relating to Cities and Villages. pub:1878
Laws of the Illinois Territory, 1809-1818. pub:1950
Life of Black Hawk as dictated by himself. pub:1834
Maeystown, Illinois - The Entire Village is on the National Register of Historic Places since 1978.
Mother Bickerdyke, Her Life and Labors for the Relief of Our Soldiers. pub:1886
Nicholas Jarrot Mansion, Cahokia, Illinois - Illinois' Oldest Brick House Blueprints. [completed 1806]
Old Illinois Houses, by John Drury. pub:1941
Origins of Nude Swimming in Illinois Public Schools.
Pana, Illinois. pub:1913
Panic of 1893 in Illinois and Chicago.
Past and Present of the City of Rockford and Winnebago County, Illinois. pub:1905
Pioneer History of Illinois containing the Discovery in 1673 to 1818. pub:1887
Skokie (Niles Centre), Illinois - Old businesses within a block radius from downtown Skokie's center.
Springfield: the home of Abraham Lincoln. pub:1926
Story of Illinois and Its People, pub:1910, Rev. ed.1913
The Early History of Illinois: from discovery by the French in 1673, until cession to Great Britain in 1763.
The First Settler of Evanston and Wilmette - Antoine Ouilmette 1790-1826.
The Life of Logan Belt the Noted Desperado of Southern Illinois. pub:1888
The Pioneer History of Illinois containing the discovery in 1672.
The Rivalship of Insignificant Villages: Springfield, Illinois and Sangamo Town Development. 1817-1840
Two hours in Springfield by the Passenger Department of the Chicago and Alton Railroad. pub:1909
Two Years' Residence on the English Prairie of Illinois. pub:1822
Wood River, Illinois Massacre of 1814
Zeigler, Illinois. A Breath Away from Being the Nation's Capitol.
LOST TOWNS OF ILLINOIS
CONTAINS SETTLEMENTS (WITHIN CURRENT ILLINOIS BOUNDARIES) BEGINNING IN 1673 FROM THE ILLINOIS COUNTRY THE NORTHWEST INDIANA AND ILLINOIS TERRITORIES UNTIL PRESENT DAY.
CHICAGOLAND BOOKS & FILES
A Guide to the City of Chicago, with a map of the city. pub:1868. [pre 1871 Chicago Fire]
55 Chicago History Stories You Probably Were Not Aware Of.
American Negro Exposition 1863-1940, July 4 to Sept. 2, 1940, Chicago, IL.
Bachelor’s Grove Cemetery Haunted History, Midlothian, Illinois
Bygone Days in Chicago Recollection of the "Garden City" of the Sixties [1860s]. pub:1910
Captain Streeter, Pioneer. pub:1914 [Streeterville Neighborhood of Chicago]
Cemetery History of Early Chicago
Chicago and the Old Northwest, 1673-1835 (inc. Fort Dearborn). pub:1913
Chicago and the Great Conflagration, pub:1871
Chicago Antiquities, comprising original items, relations, letters, extracts, pertaining to early Chicago. pub:1881
Chicago City Railways "The Trail of the Trolley," pub:1909
Chicago Flood of 1992.
Chicago in the early 1800s, an area in transition.
Chicago Loop's Cowpath at 100 W. Monroe - since 1844
Chicago Map Book of 77 Community Areas
Chicago Park District history, background, and organization. pub:1936
Chicago Past and Present a manual for the citizen, the Teacher and the Student. pub:1906
Chicago Photographers 1847 through 1900, as listed in Chicago City Directories.
Chicago Public Transportation - Street Railways.
Chicago Railroad Fair Official Guide Book - Wheels a-Rolling, 1948
Chicago Railroad Fair Official Guide Book - Wheels a-Rolling, 1949
Chicago Telephone Exchange Names and History.
Chicago Shelter Cottages - After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871.
Chicago Street Renaming Document of 1909
Chicago Street Renumbering Document of 1909
Chicago Street Renumbering Document of 1911 for Chicago Loop Addresses.
Chicago The Origin and Meaning of the Name.
Chicago's Greatest Issue an Official Plan. pub:1911
Chicago's Jitney Cab War of 1950
Chicago's Magnificent Melting Pot (Devon Avenue), American Way - American Airlines. June 2015
Chicago’s Smallest Cemetery the Andreas Von Zirngibl Gravesite.
Chicago’s Underground Freight Railway History & The Great Flood of 1992
Des Plaines, Illinois Centennial Celebration. pub:1935
Dime Museums in Chicago, Illinois [approx. 1890s to 1920s]
Dutch Communities of Chicago, pub:1927
Early Chicago: as seen by a cartoonist. pub:1947
Everleigh Club, Chicago, Illinois - Most Famous Brothel in USA History.
Five Schlitz Brewery Tied-Houses & One Schlitz Brewery Stable Building built between 1898 to 1906 in Chicago.
Four Plus One (4+1), Mid Century, Mid Rise Apartment Buildings, Chicago, IL.
Glass Blocks a Chicago Invention.
Givins Castle, (aka: Irish Castle) 10244 S Longwood Dr, Chicago, IL.
Guide to the City of Chicago, pub:1862
Geographic Background of Chicago, pub:1926
History of Chicago Alleys
History of Chicago from the earliest period to the present time, pub:1884 - Volumes 01, 02, 03
History of Chicago Sidewalk Stamps
History of Chicago: Its Commercial and Manufacturing Interests and Industry. pub:1862
History of Niles, Illinois - Centennial, 1899-1999
History of Palatine, Illinois - Centennial Book, 1855-1955
History of the Chicago Police: from Settlement to 1886. pub:1887
History of the Swedish Engineers' Society of Chicago, 1908-1948
History of the Yards 1865-1953. Chicago Union Stock Yards.
Indian Trails and Villages of Chicago and Cook Dupage Will Counties of Illinois 1804
Interactive Google Map of Chicago Neighborhoods
Interstate Industrial Exposition Building, Chicago, Illinois.
Marshall Field Funds and Battles for the Columbian Museum of Chicago
Meigs Field, Chicago, Illinois, Airport History.
Old Monroe Street, Notes on the Monroe Street of Early Chicago Days. pub:1914
Municipal control of tuberculosis in Chicago 1915
Olson Memorial Park, Waterfall and Rock Garden, Chicago. (1935-1978)
Oscar Mayer Enterprise. Chicago, Illinois
Personal experiences during the Chicago fire. pub:1871
Plan of Chicago by Daniel H. Burnham. pub:1909
Raising Chicago Streets Out of the Mud in 1858
Reminiscences of early Chicago and vicinity. pub:1902
Rookery Building, Chicago. Built in 1886
Schwinn Bicycle History Arnold, Schwinn and Company, Chicago, IL.
Skokie Swift, The Commuters Friend. pub:1968.
The Alpha Suffrage Record Volume 1, Number 1, March 18, 1914 [by "Alpha Suffrage Club" of Chicago]
The Story of Jewish Life in Chicago.
Township of Jefferson, Illinois. pub:1911
Twenty years at Hull House by Jane Addams. Pub:1910
Wau-Bun, the Early Day in the Northwest, by Juliette Augusta Magill Kinzie. pub:1873 [John H. Kinzie's wife]
Uptown Theater in Chicago - Opening Program -1925
Waste Disposal History of Chicago
Why the North-South Chicago Streets Jog at North Avenue.
Zenith's Story, a History from 1919.
Contains photographs of the Decateur Railroad station - History
The introduction of various photographic methods during the nineteenth century brought about wider usage of the medium to capture images of everyday life. Though the subjects of the photographs in this collection may have changed greatly or no longer exist, the images have survived and recorded views of people, places, everyday subjects, and even curiosities across Texas during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
Scope and Contents
The Texas Photographs Collection consists of photographic materials which document varied aspects of Texas life and history. This in an ongoing collection comprised of numerous accessions. Materials in the collection are grouped together for ease of patron access. The materials are organized alphabetically within four series: Places, People, Subjects, and Lantern Slides and Negatives. When known, the photographer is listed. This collection is a rich resource of photographic images offering a pictorial journey through Texas history.
Grierson’s Raid During the Vicksburg Campaign
In the early months of 1863, Major General U.S. Grant’s primary objective was Vicksburg, the last Confederate stronghold on the Mississippi River. If that city could be taken, the North would control the entire river, splitting the Confederacy down the middle. Before Grant could take Vicksburg, however, he had to get there, which was proving to be a very annoying problem.
Grant’s three divisions were located well north of their target, on the wrong side of the Mississippi. Traveling directly downriver would require running Rebel batteries at Vicksburg, something Grant was hesitant to try. But all other endeavors to advance southward, including two attempts to dig canals bypassing Vicksburg and two attempts to force passage through the swamps and bayous east of the river, had failed miserably.
Finally, on the night of April 16, ironclads and supply-laden transports steamed past the Vicksburg guns. Confederate cannons blasted away at the steam-driven fleet, but only a single transport was lost. Another successful run was completed on April 22. Grant’s infantry had already marched south, and with supplies and river transports now plentiful, the Union Army could finally cross the watery barrier.
A major part of Grant’s plan was to distract the Confederate commander, Lt. Gen. John C. Pemberton, while he crossed the river and swung around to approach Vicksburg from the east. Major General William T Sherman played a part in the plan: his division remained north of Vicksburg, demonstrating against the Chickasaw Bluffs. The local Confederate commander sent a panicky message to Pemberton, claiming that ‘the enemy are in front of me in force such as never before been seen at Vicksburg. Send me reinforcements.’ In reality, Sherman represented only about a third of Grant’s command and probably could not have taken the bluffs if he tried. (In fact, he had already tried and failed the previous December.) Nevertheless, Pemberton sent 3,000 troops that had been marching south to oppose Grant.
Another diversion, one that would prove wildly successful, was a cavalry raid launched into Mississippi from La Grange, Tenn., on April 17. It was the beginning of 16 days of nearly non-stop movement, widespread destruction and frequent battle. When it was over, Grant would accurately describe it as one of the most brilliant cavalry exploits of the war.’
Grant had first considered such a raid as early as February 1863, suggesting a volunteer force of 500 be used. As his strategy evolved, the importance of the raid increased. By mid, March, the strength of the raiders had been dramatically enlarged and the volunteer stipulation had vanished.
The man assigned to lead the raid was 36-year-old Colonel Benjamin H. Grierson, a prewar music teacher from the Midwest who, in less violent times, had traveled to various small towns organizing amateur bands. Later he went into the produce business and, in 1860, wrote campaign songs for Abraham Lincoln. When the war began, Grierson enlisted as a private in the infantry. He very much wanted to do his share of the fighting on foot while a child, he had been kicked in the face by a horse and still harbored a severe dislike for the equine creatures.
This was not to be. In May 1862, Grierson was commissioned a major in the 6th Illinois Cavalry. A man with little military training or experience–and a pronounced dislike of horses–would soon prove to be one of the most skilled cavalry leaders of the war.
The raid began at dawn on the 17th. Grierson rode south from La Grange with 1,700 men: Colonel Reuben Loomis’ 6th Illinois Cavalry, Colonel Edward Prince’s 7th Illinois Cavalry, and Colonel Edward Hatch’s 2nd Iowa Cavalry, along with a battery of six 2-pounders. Grierson alone knew the extent of their orders, to penetrate deep into the Rebel-held state, cut Pemberton’s supply line, and then return to Union lines by whatever route seemed best. To guide him, Grierson brought a compass and a pocket map of Mississippi.
They moved quickly, covering 30 miles on the first day. During the afternoon of the 18th, they crossed the Tallahatchee River at three separate points. A battalion of the 7th Illinois was the first to meet opposition. Crossing at New Albany, they encountered Southern troops attempting to destroy the bridge. The Illinoisans advanced and were fired on. They pressed forward, and the outnumbered Rebels were forced to run. The bridge was repaired and the crossing made.
Six miles farther up the Tallahatchee, Hatch’s 2nd Iowa also met the enemy, numbering about 200. Hatch fought skirmishes that day and the next morning. Armed with Colt revolving rifles, Hatch’s men emerged victorious, taking a number of prisoners.
After a night of torrential rains, the command re-formed on April 19 and continued south to Ponotoc, where they burned a mill and again skirmished with Confederate soldiers. Dawn of April 20 found the Northerners 80 miles inside Confederate territory, with Grierson forming his men for inspection. He culled out 175 men suffering from dysentery and saddle galls. Calling themselves the ‘Quinine Brigade, ‘ these men escorted the prisoners back through Ponotoc that night, in the hopes of convincing the Confederates that the entire command was returning to Tennessee. Grierson himself continued south with the two Illinois regiments, while the 2nd Iowa and a 2-pounder broke off and turned eastward the next morning, with orders to cut the Mobile & Ohio Railroad.
Hatch’s men arrived at Palo Alto that afternoon, drawing Confederate cavalry away from Grierson. Hatch was met by Lt. Col. C.R. Barteau’s 2nd Tennessee Cavalry. A skirmish ensued, and the Iowans’ revolving rifles again gave them a decided advantage. Hatch retreated north along the railroad, with Barteau in close pursuit. He destroyed the rails at OkoIona and Tupelo. Barteau caught him again near Birmingham on April 24. After a two-hour battle, Hatch retreated across Camp Creek and burned the bridge behind him. Barteau, his own men exhausted and his ammunition low, gave up the pursuit.
Hatch returned to La Grange on April 26, his diversion within a diversion a roaring success. He brought with him 600 horses and mules, with about 200 able-bodied civilians to lead them, and claimed 100 Confederate casualties while losing only 10 men himself
Grierson, in the meanwhile, had not been idle. Hatch had drawn away what little cavalry the Confederates had to field in northern Mississippi (most had been detached to General Braxton Bragg in Tennessee), and Grierson’s 950 remaining men could gallop south without worries of pursuit from the rear.
They entered Starkville about 4 p.m. on the 21st, capturing and destroying government property. just south of town, Grierson detached another unit to operate independently. The 7th Illinois’ Company B, under Captain Henry Forbes, moved east, then galloped south down the Mobile & Ohio Railroad. They raided Macon, and despite the tiny size of his command, Forbes demanded that the town of Enterprise surrender to him. Not surprisingly, Rebel troops there refused and Forbes moved on to rejoin Grierson at the Pearl River.
By now, the Confederates were desperate to stop the Union raiders. Thanks to Hatch, Forbes, and the Quinine Brigade, Pemberton was receiving confused and exaggerated reports of Grierson’s strength and position. Lacking sufficient cavalry, he was diverting more and more infantry from Vicksburg and Grand Gulf, where Grant was preparing to cross. An infantry brigade marching to Vicksburg from Alabama was halted at Meridian. Three regiments and supporting artillery were sent to Morton against the possibility that Grierson might turn toward Jackson, Pemberton’s headquarters. Routes north and northwest were blocked by troops at Okolona, Canton and Carthage. Troops as far away as Port Hudson, La., were mobilized against the hard-riding former music teacher.
All was to no avail. It was swift-footed cavalry against slow, plodding infantry. It was impossible for the Confederates to effectively close in on Grierson’s men.
Leaving Starkville, Grierson moved south toward Louisville, Miss. His Illinoisans pushed through a swamp–‘a dismal swamp nearly belly-deep in mud,’ as Grierson later described it–and swam their horses across streams. He detached a battalion to destroy a large tannery and shoe factory. The battalion succeeded, doing an estimated $50,000 in damage.
They pressed on, still moving, with no road visible, through the swamp and water of the Nuxubee River bottom, arriving at Louisville after sunset on the 22nd. Grierson threw out two battalions as pickets, bottling up the citizens to prevent any information about his route from getting out. Still, he showed real concern that Southern civilians and their property be protected, as the orders to the pickets included instructions to ‘drive out stragglers, preserve order, and quiet the fears of the people.’ Considering the behavior of many Union soldiers regarding the South during the war, such concerns were not unfounded. Grierson, though, could later write with justifiable pride that ‘they [the Southerners] were protected in their persons and their property.’ His men passed through Louisville without incident.
They soon struck another swamp and lost several horses to drowning. By midnight, they had reached a plantation 10 miles south of town, halting there until daybreak. They moved past Philadelphia, resting again until 10 o’clock that night. Two battalions of the 7th Illinois then moved on, ordered to pass through Decatur and hit the Southern Railroad at Newton Station, a major supply junction due east of Vicksburg. Grierson followed with the main column an hour later.
Preceding everyone, including the two point battalions, were nine men clad in Confederate uniforms. These volunteer Illinoisans, under the command of Sergeant Richard Surby, had been designated the ‘Butternut Guerrillas’ and were to prove their value as scouts again and again during the raid. This day they seized a telegraph station, preventing a warning of Grierson’s approach.
Grierson arrived at Newton Station around 6 a.m. The advance battalions seized the hamlet and captured two trains. The main column soon joined them. Here was property of legitimate military value, and Grierson had no qualms about laying waste. Two locomotives, 25 freight cars filled with commissary stores and ammunition (including artillery shells intended for the garrison at Vicksburg), were burned, along with additional stores and 500 muskets found in town.
A battalion from the 6th Illinois rode east, destroying bridges, trestleworks and telegraph wire. Seventy-five prisoners were taken, but were soon paroled. Several men found–and inevitably helped themselves to–a supply of whiskey, but all were ready to move out by 2 p.m.
The Federals continued south, soon reaching Garlandville. Here they were met by shotgun-wielding civilians, ‘many of them,’ wrote Grierson, ‘venerable with age.’ The Illinoisans were fired upon and one man was wounded. A quick charge broke up the untrained Southerners, capturing several.
According to Grierson, the prisoners were apologetic, ‘acknowledging their mistake, and declared that they had been grossly deceived as to our real character. One volunteered his services as a guide and upon leaving us declared that hereafter his prayers should be for the Union Army.’ Grierson used this as a sample of the attitudes he encountered among civilians during the raid, describing the ‘hundreds who are skulking and hiding out to avoid conscription, only to await the presence of our arms to sustain them, when they will rise up and declare their principles and thousands who have been deceived upon vindication of our cause would immediately return to loyalty.’
To a point, the attitudes of the citizens of Garlandville must be taken with a grain of salt. They were, after all, surrounded by heavily armed soldiers whom they had very recently shot at and were thus liable to be disagreeable. Still, such dissension did exist in the South throughout the war. Poverty, food shortages, government policies that unfairly favored large plantation owners over poor farmers, destruction of home’s and livelihoods–all this was stripping away loyalty to the Confederacy from many Southerners. The people of Garlandville had been willing to fight to defend their homes, but once they discovered the raiders meant them no harm, the obligation to bear arms against them disappeared. This was not really, as Grierson implied, due to any latent loyalty to the Union, but was rather part of the quite human desire to keep a roof over one’s head and a moderate amount of food in one’s stomach.
The raiders rode another 12 miles, stopping that night on a plantation belonging to a Dr. Mackadora, 50 miles from Newton Station. Newton had been the primary tactical objective of the raid. After leaving there, Grierson had complete discretion as to his route and final destination. The ride south through Garlandville had been to find a spot to rest and forage. His men would not be on the move again until the morning of the 26th. In the meantime, the Butternut Guerrillas were out gathering information about Confederate troop dispositions.
One of the scouts, dressed as a civilian, turned north, back toward the Southern Railroad, to cut the telegraph and perhaps burn a bridge or trestlework. Seven miles from the tracks, he ran into a regiment of Rebel cavalry from Brandon searching for Grierson. They were riding directly toward the Mackadora plantation, but the quick-thinking scout bluffed them. Claiming to have seen the raiders recently, he sent the horsemen galloping off in the wrong direction.
Grierson soon learned that Pemberton had been reinforcing Jackson and points east with infantry and artillery. He decided to move southwest, crossing the Pearl River and hitting the New Orleans, Jackson & Great Northern Railroad at Hazelhurst. From there, he would flank Confederate forces and eventually join Grant at Grand Gulf.
Pemberton, though, had finally guessed correctly regarding Grierson’s intentions. He ordered Maj. Gen. John Bowen, commander of the Grand Gulf garrison, to detach seven Mississippi cavalry companies to intercept the raiders. This, in turn, further weakened Bowen, who would soon be meeting Grant’s far superior force in battle. Pemberton was in a no-win situation. He could hardly allow a thousand enemy troops to romp around behind his lines, but the only way to stop them was by diverting men from strategically vital areas. By now, there was more than a division’s worth of troops scattered about the state hoping to stop Grierson. This, of course, was the primary objective of the raid, beyond damaging Pemberton’s supply line.
Rested and reprovisioned, the raiders set out again at 6 a.m. on April 26. They crossed the Leaf River, burning the bridge behind them. Arriving at Raleigh, they captured the county sheriff and confiscated $3,000 in cash, and then stopped for the night at Westville.
On April 27, the Butternut Guerrillas were again dressed in Confederate uniforms. Moving ahead of the main column, they seized a ferryboat on the Pearl River, presenting Grierson with an easy method of crossing. Reunited here with Forbes’ B Company, the raiders moved on to Hazelhurst. Here a string of boxcars was burned, but the flames spread to nearby buildings and suddenly the whole town was in danger of going up. Grierson set his men to work alongside the townspeople, fighting to save Hazelhurst. A hard rain fell that night, helping to contain the blaze. It was not until well after dark that the Illinoisans could move on. Now their course was due west, toward Grand Gulf.
They continued west on the 28th. A battalion from the 7th Illinois was detached to double back to the railroad, destroying rails, telegraph wire and government property. The main column stopped at a plantation that afternoon, but the break did not prove restful. Without warning, the pickets were fired upon and Rebel horsemen charged forward, their sudden attack panicking many of the Illinoisans.
Grierson led a counterattack, and the Southerners, consisting merely of two understrength companies, were pushed back. The Federals kept pushing, driving the Rebels through the nearby town of Union Church and occupying it that night. The detached battalion rejoined them there.
The attackers were part of Colonel Wirt Adams’ command, the Mississippi cavalrymen detached from Grand Gulf. The bulk of Adams’ men were west of Union Church, waiting to ambush Grierson. A Butternut Guerrilla again saved the day, riding ahead in disguise and speaking with some of the Mississippians. Warned of the ambush, Grierson changed his plans. He made a brief demonstration to the west, then doubled back to the east. His final destination was now Baton Rouge. His men would have to ride an extra 100 miles, but the decision was unavoidable. Adams pursued, staying on Grierson’s tail as far south as Greensburg, La.
Five hundred armed citizens and conscripts awaited the raiders at Brookhaven, a town astride the Great Northern Railroad 20 miles south of Hazelhurst. The raiders charged into town, quickly ending resistance. The town proved to contain a ‘camp of instruction’–what would nowadays be called boot camp. Prisoners were paroled and the camp, along with the railroad and the telegraph was destroyed. Once again, flames jumped onto civilian buildings and once again, despite the loss of precious time, Grierson’s men helped to save a town. The raiders turned south, riding eight more miles before making camp at a plantation.
Elsewhere on the 29th, William Sherman was carrying out his demonstration near Chickasaw Bluffs. Farther south Union gunboats spent six hours bombarding Grand Gulf in preparation of Grant’s crossing. But the Confederate positions remained intact. Grant was forced to move again, intending now to cross at undefended Bruinsburg.
The raiders continued south on April 30, destroying bridges, water tanks and trestleworks, and burning the depot and 15 freight cars at Bogue Chitto Station. They reached Summit as sunset neared. Grierson ordered the destruction of 25 freight cars and a large cache of government sugar, but spared the depot itself. He did not want to risk a fire again spreading into town, and he could not afford to lose more time while his men fought the blaze.
Grierson ordered his men to remount–some were a bit unsteady in the saddle after discovering a supply of rum–and made six more miles before camping. On May 1 they turned west, then south, making a’straight line for Baton Rouge, and let speed be our safety,’ as Grierson phrased it. The raiders were to cover 76 miles in the next 28 hours.
They neared Magnolia and later 0syka, but both towns were bypassed because they contained enemy troops. About noon, they reached Wall’s Bridge across the Tickfaw River. Three companies of the 9th Tennessee Cavalry greeted them there.
Grierson’s lead company suffered eight casualties (accounting for nearly all the battle losses he suffered throughout the raid), but the Illinoisans pressed their attack against their outnumbered foe. The Confederate pickets were captured, then Grierson’s artillery rumbled up and shelled the enemy position across the river. A charge swept the bridge and sent the Tennesseans running, leaving a number of dead, wounded and captured comrades behind.
‘The enemy were now on our track in earnest,’ wrote Grierson. Captured dispatches told him that Rebel troops were closing in from all sides. He continued to gallop south, riding all that night, pushing his exhausted men to their limits. They crossed the Amite River at Williams’ Bridge at midnight, two hours ahead of a heavy column of infantry and artillery.
By now, the Confederates had plenty else to keep them occupied. Grant’s troops crossed the Mississippi on May 1 and were moving up to take Grand Gulf from the rear. Bowen moved his 6,000 available troops to Port Gibson, intercepting Grant. But the unfortunate Bowen, stripped of his cavalry and having received no reinforcements, was outnumbered 4-to-1. He fought all day, inflicting a disproportionate number of casualties, but was inevitably forced to retreat and abandon Port Gibson. Grant, at last, had a secure bridgehead on the east side of the Mississippi.
Grierson’s men reached Sandy Creek at dawn on May 2, surprising and capturing a Southern cavalry unit camped there. The camp, with 150 tents, plus guns, ammunition and documents, was destroyed.
The raiders kept going, surprising another cavalry unit at Roberts’ Ford across the Comite River. After a brief skirmish, 40 Rebels were captured along with their horses and equipment. They forded the river, with many of the horses forced to swim across the deep water.
The men reached their limit just six miles short of Baton Rouge. Grierson called a halt, letting them sleep alongside the road. Grierson himself wound down by playing a piano found in a nearby plantation house, but was interrupted by a picket shouting that they were about to be overrun by Rebels coming at them from the west.
Grierson guessed the identity of the approaching men and rode out to meet them. As he suspected, they were Union cavalry from Baton Rouge, riding out to meet the raiders. Grierson’s exhausted and filthy troops rode into the Louisiana capital at 3 p.m., greeted by cheering soldiers and civilians alike. They paraded around the public square, then found a magnolia grove south of town where they could simply collapse and catch up on two weeks’ worth of sleep.
Grierson’s raiders had traveled more than 600 miles in 16 days, virtually without rest and often limited to one hastily eaten meal per day. One hundred Confederates had been killed or wounded and another 50D had been captured (most of whom were later paroled). The raiders destroyed more than 50 miles of railroad and telegraph, 3,000 stand of arms and thousands of dollars worth of supplies and property. A thousand mules and horses were also captured. In addition, they had tied up virtually all of Pemberton’s cavalry, one-third of his infantry, and at least two regiments of artillery.
All this was accomplished at a cost of only three dead and seven wounded. Five men too sick to continue had been left behind, and nine men, presumed stragglers, were missing. The 7th Illinois’ surgeon and sergeant major stayed behind with a mortally wounded officer at Wall’s Bridge. Added to Hatch’s losses, the casualties numbered 36, only about 2 percent of the total command. Grierson was quite justified when he later remarked, ‘The Confederacy is a hollow shell.’ Rebels in Mississippi, as everywhere else in the South, were spread too thin to do their jobs.
Grierson suddenly and uncomfortably discovered he was a hero. ‘I, like Byron,’ he wrote his wife, Alice, ‘have had to wake up one morning and find myself famous.’ He was sent by steamboat to New Orleans, where he encountered ‘one continuous ovation.’ His picture was featured on the covers of Harper’s Weekly and Leslie’s Illustrated. He was breveted to brigadier general and later major general of volunteers.
Grierson continued to serve with distinction, commanding first a division, then a cavalry corps in Tennessee. Despite his continuing distrust of horses, he remained in the Regular Army after the war, battling Indians as a colonel with the 10th U.S. Cavalry. He retired as a brigadier general in 1890 and died in 1911.
Following the raid, Grant continued to advance eastward. Joined by Sherman’s division, he now had 40,000 men in Mississippi. Pemberton had 30,000, but many of them were scattered across the state and he lacked time to concentrate his forces. Bowen was forced to abandon Grand Gulf, and Grant was virtually unopposed as he marched to Jackson, burning that city, and then swung west to besiege Vicksburg. He advanced with a supply line–Grierson had helped to demonstrate that troops could live off the land, appropriating food from farms and plantations as they progressed. It was a lesson dramatically learned and daringly taught–that others would study in the flame-darkened days to come.
This article was written by Tim DeForest and originally appeared in the September 2000 issue of America’s Civil War.
For more great articles be sure to pick up your copy of America’s Civil War.
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Appreciating the ‘art’ in M-ART-A
Every day, thousands of people use the MARTA rail system headed to work, school, shopping and elsewhere just as envisioned by foresighted leaders back in the 1960’s and s.
Conceived in an era where planes had pubs, James Bond was Roger Moore, and the United States was constructing iconic towers like the John Hancock in Boston, World Trade Center in New York, Sears Tower in Chicago and Atlanta’s own Westin Peachtree Plaza, the public spaces of MARTA reflect their time including the provision of art in every station to help patrons pass the time.
Back in 2013, Curbed Atlanta looked at some of the stations, but didn’t delve into some of the specifics of the art work at the stations.
Additionally, with the recent proposed Transit Oriented Developments at Avondale and Edgewood / Candler Park stations, I thought it might be interesting to investigate the art at three stations that opened on initial segment between Avondale and Georgia State in June of 1979 – Avondale, Decatur and Edgewood / Candler Park.
At the Avondale MARTA station, Jim Zambounis’ translucent acrylic panels in gentle pastels is called: “Georgia Landscape” (Photos by John Crocker)
The original end of the line, Avondale station is unique in the MARTA system because it has four sets of tracks. This configuration allows for trains to originate directly from the rail yard just to the east of the station or to continue to/from the 1993 extension to Kensington and Indian Creek stations.
Avondale architecture by Willier-Watz-Diedrich consists of clean lines of concrete and wood that is open on the sides to allow for plantings to provide a view of the changing seasons of Georgia.
The official art work by Jim Zambounis is a series of translucent acrylic panels called in gentle pastels called “Georgia Landscape” placed discretely between the pedestrian bridges leading to the bus transfer area and exit to the north parking lot.
The only true subway station on the initial segment, Decatur suffered through massive disruption during the construction of MARTA. Bbut the result is a station integrated into the downtown fabric of a neighborhood voted one of the top 10 in the United States by the American Planning Association.
Decatur MARTA station’s Westbound Mural by Larry Connaster
Reconstructed in the mid-2000s, in 2015, the entrance to Decatur station off Church Street is an elegant granite clad exterior with playful touches such as old MARTA tokens embedded into the concrete pavers leading to the station entrance.
Inside the station, one is transported back to the 1970s with wood, brick and a reflective ceiling, but attention soon focuses on the two large two story painted masonry murals by Larry Connaster.
These bright pieces with greens, blues and pinks provide a contrast with the brown tile and brick walls and provide two wonderful pieces of public art to contemplate while waiting on the train.
Edgewood / Candler Park
From the outside, Edgewood / Candler Park station is a straightforward concrete structure sitting between DeKalb Avenue and CSX railroad as you approach from either parking lot to access the station.
However, the station contains a few surprises. First, like Inman Park / Reynoldstown and East Lake stations, the pedestrian bridges that cross the road and railroad are completely outside of the paid area meaning that they serve a dual function of access to the station while providing a pedestrian connection between the communities they serve.
Edgewood MARTA Station – architectural firm Mayes Sudderth Ethridge and Cowwel offers artistic twists in the station
Second, on entering the paid area, the grey concrete and brown floor tile is broken by a blue paneled ceiling and the ceramic tile art of Ron Coney on the elevator shaft.
This piece at first seems to be a straight line, but spreads out like a Mayan or Aztec serpent at the platform level.
Not to be outdone, the architects of Mayes Sudderth Ethridge and Cowwel used a similar touch by folding the support column of the skylight on the eastern edge of the platform into curves like a concrete tulip.
Finally, the architects also break up what could be a monotonous and boring platform and ceiling by bending the skylights above the platform creating a visually interesting wave pattern. What at first seems like a concrete box actually holds a few surprises to delight and interest you while waiting for your train.
Hidden in plain sight
These are just three stations from the early MARTA system, but MARTA continues to maintain its commitment to art with the new Buckhead north entrance having a commissioned sculpture.
Next time you are riding MARTA, take a minute and look around and find some of the art and thoughtful architecture that is hidden in plain sight.
More photos of the art in the three MARTA stations:
- "Of interest in Athens is a nicely restored station turned furniture store, an L&N freight depot in good shape, . ."
"There is a nice Spanish mission style depot at Bridgeport as well as a very small CSX yard here. The depot appears to be in the process of renovation and should be a great attraction when finished. "
"Cullman, AL is also home to a well restored depot."
Hartselle. "There is a nice area for train-watching in downtown Hartselle complete with a well restored depot and freight station."
This is Montgomery's Union Station located on Water Street in the heart of downtown. It was at one time the centerpiece of commerce, and has been restored to it original grandeur. It is now home to the official Hank Williams Museum, as well as a bank and some offices. - Text and graphic by Kyle Kessler.