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Montenegro in 1914

Montenegro in 1914

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Montenegro had been fighting for its independence from Turkey for over 600 years. In 1912 Montenegro joined with Greece, Serbia and Bulgaria in a war with Turkey. This Balkan War helped to reinforce Montenegro's independence from Turkey.

By 1914 Montenegro had a population of about half a million. Most of its 15,000 square kilometres was mountainous. Although fairly small, the Montenegrin Army contained experienced guerrilla fighters and would be a useful ally if war broke out in Europe.

Feature Articles - The Minor Powers During World War One - Montenegro

Montenegro, now part of a shrunken Yugoslavia (along with Serbia) was, in 1914, a small independent kingdom with close ties to Serbia. When Austria declared war on Serbia on the 28th July 1914, Montenegro joined her neighbour shortly afterwards. Montenegro declared war on Austria on the 7th August and Germany on the 9th.

Austria sent a small force to Montenegro during her offensive against Serbia in October 1915. Serbia was defeated, and many Serbs fled to the Greek island of Corfu.

On the morning of the 8th of January 1916, a 500-gun barrage heralded the opening of the final offensive against Montenegro. 45,000 Austrian troops, alongside 5,000 Bosnian Muslims and 3,000 ethnic Italians serving in the Austro-Hungarian army, attacked Montenegro, and within 48 hours the Montenegrin forces had been driven from their fortress at Mount Lovcen, the "Adriatic Gibraltar".

The capital, Cetinje, fell on the 11th January, and Montenegro surrendered six days later. With no allies left in the Balkans, little Montenegro was doomed.

Those soldiers that managed to escape joined the remnants of the Serb army on Corfu to wait for the day they would retake their home.

Ethnic Montenegrins also served in the Austro-Hungarian army, but were stationed on the Russian front rather than risk setting them against their fellow-countrymen.

In September 1918, Montenegrin soldiers formed part of a "Yugoslav Division" fighting with the allies on the Salonika Front. This predated the creation of a Yugoslav state and shows the determination on the part of the Serbs, Croats, Slovenes, Montenegrins, Bosnians, Macedonians and others to win self-determination from Austria.

Altogether, about 3,000 Montenegrin soldiers died in the Great War.

Saturday, 22 August, 2009 Matt Simpson

The "Red Baron" was the allied nickname for German air ace Manfred von Richthofen, the leading ace of the war.

- Did you know?

Montenegro capitulates to Austro-Hungarian forces

After an eight-day offensive that marked the beginning of a new, aggressive strategy in the region, Austro-Hungarian troops under commander in chief Franz Conrad von Hotzendorf take control of the Balkan state of Montenegro.

By the end of 1915, after initial setbacks, the Central Powers had completed their conquest of Serbia, the upstart Balkan country that they claimed had provoked the war in June 1914, when a Serbian nationalist had assassinated Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand. Despite their success in the Balkans, Conrad was incensed that the victories had been achieved largely by German, not Austrian, forces. He opposed the establishment of a joint German-Austrian command in the region, fearing, with reason, that Austria would be subordinated to its stronger ally. Relations between Conrad and his German counterpart, Erich von Falkenhayn, who sought to turn German energies more fully toward France and the Western Front, had become so strained that they ceased direct communication almost entirely for a full month from December 1915 to January 1916. During that time, Conrad proceeded to develop Austria’s strategy for early 1916, which was to capture Montenegro in the winter and then turn toward Italy with an attack in the Trentino.

On January 8, 1916, with a 500-gun artillery barrage, 45,000 Austrian troops and 5,000 Bosnian Muslims attacked Serbia’s ally, the neighboring state of Montenegro. Events unfolded quickly: Within 48 hours, the Montenegrins had retreated to their capital, Cetinje, after being driven from their fortresses at Mount Lovcen on the Adriatic Sea. Cetinje fell on January 11 and the end was already in sight. Montenegro surrendered on January 16. When her emergency came, there was no one to help her, the American diplomat John Coolidge wrote of Montenegro, so she had to go.


Archaeological evidence indicates that the Balkans were populated well before the Neolithic Period (New Stone Age about 10,000 years ago). At the dawn of recorded history, two Indo-European peoples dominated the area: the Illyrians to the west and the Thracians to the east of the great historical divide defined by the Morava and Vardar river valleys. The Thracians were advanced in metalworking and in horsemanship. They intermingled with the Greeks and gave them the Dionysian and Orphean cults, which later became so important in classical Greek literature. The Illyrians were more exclusive, their mountainous terrain keeping them separate from the Greeks and Thracians.

Thracian society was tribal in structure, with little inclination toward political cohesion. In what was to become a persistent phenomenon in Balkan history, unity was brought about mostly by external pressure. The Persian invasions of the 6th and 5th centuries bce brought the Thracian tribes together in the Odrysian kingdom, which fell under Macedonian influence in the 4th century bce . The Illyrians, ethnically akin to the Thracians, originally inhabited a large area from the Istrian peninsula to northern Greece and as far inland as the Morava River. During the 4th century bce they were pushed southward by Celtic invasions, and thereafter their territory did not extend much farther north than the Drin River. Illyrian society, like that of the Thracians, was organized around tribal groups who often fought wars with one another and with outsiders. Under the Celtic threat they established a coherent political entity, but this too was destroyed by Macedonia. Thereafter the Illyrians were known mainly as pirates who disturbed the trade of many Greek settlements on the Adriatic coast. The Romans were also affected and took police action, annexing much of Illyrian territory in the early 3rd century bce . An Illyrian kingdom based in modern-day Shkodër, Albania, remained an important factor until its liquidation by Roman armies in 168 bce .


Although situated close to the Mediterranean Sea, Bosnia and Herzegovina is largely cut off from its climatic influence by the Dinaric Alps. The weather in the Bosnia region resembles that of the southern Austrian highlands—generally mild, though apt to be bitterly cold in winter. In Banja Luka the coldest month is January, with an average temperature of about 32 °F (0 °C), and the warmest month is July, which averages about 72 °F (22 °C). During January and February Banja Luka receives the least amount of precipitation, and in May and June it experiences the heaviest rainfall.

Herzegovina has more affinity to the Croatian region of Dalmatia, which can be oppressively hot in summer. In Mostar, situated along the Neretva River, the coldest month is January, averaging about 42 °F (6 °C), and the warmest month is July, averaging about 78 °F (26 °C). Mostar experiences a relatively dry season from June to September. The remainder of the year is wet, with the heaviest precipitation between October and January.


The Republic of Montenegro (Crna Gora or "Black Mountain") is located on the Adriatic Sea in southeastern Europe. Bordered by Bosnia and Herzegovina to the northwest, Serbia to the northeast, the autonomous province of Kosovo to the east, Albania to the southeast, and the Adriatic to the southwest, Montenegro in early 2001 belonged to the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY), along with Serbia. A referendum was anticipated for the second half of 2001 or early 2002 to decide Montenegro's future status as either an independent republic or a republic within the FRY. Montenegro's roughly diamond-shaped territory measures 13,938 square kilometers, which is slightly less than the U.S. state of Connecticut, and constitutes about 13.5 percent of the FRY's total territory.

Montenegro was settled by Slavic tribes and belonged to the Serbian kingdom as part of the Zeta province during the Middle Ages. With the incursion of the Ottoman Turks into southeastern Europe and Albanian families settling in the Kosovo region that separates Montenegro from Serbia, Montenegro became more separate from Serbia and developed a distinct variation of Orthodox Christian practice and a somewhat different version of the Serbian language, although the Cyrillic alphabet continued to be used. The Montenegrin version of Serbo-Croatian is more similar to Croatian than it is to Serbian. Fighting the Ottoman Turks from the mountains, Montenegro maintained its independence until 1516 when a Greek Catholic Bishop named Vladika assumed civil authority of the territory. Rule of Montenegro was transferred to other prince-bishops for three and a half centuries, until Nicholas I gave Montenegro its first constitution in 1868. During the World War I, Austria occupied Montenegro in 1916. When Austria-Hungary lost the war, Montenegro joined the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and the Slovenes in 1918, which was renamed Yugoslavia in 1929. With the advent of World War II and the invasion of the Balkans in 1941 by the Axis powers, Montenegro was declared independent and became a protectorate of Italy. In 1945, following the war, Montenegro became one of the republics of socialist Yugoslavia.

The population of Montenegro in the year 2000 was estimated to be 680,158 people, including 46,631 refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs), according to the UN High Commissioner for Refugees. Due to extensive population movements in the Balkan peninsula during the 1990s resulting from ethnic violence and warfare and the very difficult economic circumstances and living conditions of this politically troubled region, population measures during the 1990s were either not taken or relatively unreliable for the most part. In the year 2000, about 230,000 displaced persons from Kosovo were living in other parts of the FRY (such as Montenegro), as were 500,000 refugees from Bosnia and Croatia. Population statistics and education-related counts for the 1990s and the early-2000 decade thus should be interpreted with care. A new census scheduled for March 2001 in the FRY should yield updated statistics toward the end of 2001.

In 1991 the ethnic composition of Montenegro was 61.9 percent Montenegrin, 14.6 percent Bosniac, 9.3 percent Serb, 6.6 percent Albanian, 0.5 percent Roma, and 7.1 percent other. In terms of religious affiliation, approximately 65 percent of the combined population of Serbia and Montenegro was Orthodox, 19 percent was Muslim, 4 percent was Roman Catholic, 1 percent was Protestant, and 11 percent was other. About 95 percent of this same population spoke Serbian, though the Montenegrin version of the language differs slightly from the language principally spoken in Serbia and 5 percent spoke Albanian. Approximately 70 percent of Montenegrins lived in urban areas in 1991. With a population density of 47 persons per square kilometer, Montenegro is rather sparsely populated, especially in the north, although greater concentrations of Montenegrins live along the coast and inland around the capital, Podgorica, near northwestern Albania. In 1911 just 18,907 Montenegrins (8.9 percent of the country's total population) had lived in towns of 2,000 inhabitants or more. In 2000 a significant proportion of Montenegrins still resided in villages.

In 2000 the total fertility rate in Montenegro was about two children per woman. An estimated 22 percent of the country's population was 14 years old or younger while nearly two-thirds of the population was between 15 and 64 and about 12 percent were 65 years of age or older. (Again, this assumes an age balance in 2000 equivalent to that in 1991, when the last census was taken. Due to population shifts, this may not be the case.) In 2000 Montenegro had an infant-mortality rate of 11 per 1,000 live births. The average life expectancy at birth in the year 2000 was 75.5 years (71.5 for men and 79.8 for women&mdasha significant gender difference).

The Montenegrin workforce in 1999 was composed as follows: 30.5 percent of the labor force was employed in industry and mining, and just 4.3 percent was employed in agriculture, fisheries, and forestry 65.2 percent was employed in service jobs. In 1999 the FRY had an annual economic growth rate of -20 percent of the GDP. Economic outputs were declining substantially, and the area stood in great need of international economic assistance, although international aid, especially to Serbia, was limited because of Serbia and Montenegro's lack of favor in the world's eye due to the FRY's reluctance to cooperate with the United Nations International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia before late June 2001. In 1999 Montenegro's real GDP was only 58 percent of the 1990 real GDP. However, significant black-market activity and gray-market activity also existed in the FRY, making it difficult to state with much accuracy the actual economic output of the FRY in the 1990s. GDP per capita in Montenegro in 1998 was estimated at US$1709. Unemployment in Montenegro in July 2000 ranged from 0.2 to nearly 32 percent, depending on the skill level and educational attainment of the worker. Unskilled laborers, persons with intermediate specialist training, and skilled workers had the highest unemployment rates (31.0 percent, 29.4 percent, and 26.9 percent, respectively). Earlier, as part of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Montenegro had been one of the poorest of the six republics, with its economy, based mainly on industry and large state-owned enterprises, reaching only 75 to 80 percent of the average level of development for the socialist federation. During the late 1990s, Montenegro increased its revenues from tourism and the marine trade, profiting from its favorable location on the Adriatic in contrast to landlocked Serbia.

Montenegro required substantial international development assistance during the 1990s and early twenty-first century to recover from the economic disruptions caused by a decade of war in the Balkans, sanctions imposed by the international community on the FRY in 1993, and sanctions Serbia itself imposed on Montenegro in 1999 for Montenegro's attempts to politically distance itself from Serbia. Until the international donors conference met on June 29, 2001, to discuss assistance to the FRY, Montenegro's aid packages from abroad were somewhat limited. At the June 2001 conference representatives from about 40 countries, UN agencies, and the World Bank met in Brussels, Belgium, and pledged about US$1.2 billion to assist the FRY primarily with rebuilding infrastructure and paying the salaries of teachers and doctors.

The Home Front: Economy and War Financing ↑

The Serbian economy was basically agricultural and export-based. Coal and mineral mining, textile, glass, wood, bricks and armament production made up most of its economy. Serbian currency (dinar) value was based on gold, silver and foreign loans. The currency conversion rate to the French franc was one-to-one.

The previous Balkan Wars pushed Serbian financial and economical sources to the limits. With the war debt, Serbia had to repay a total of 1.15 billion francs, but it needed longer to heal from the financial impact on its economy. Immediately before the July crisis, Serbia succeeded in obtaining a French loan of 130 million francs. The unexpected war put its recovery and future at stake. The Serbian government was fully aware that the harvest would provide enough food for the people and cattle during 1914, but not for 1915. Since there would be no export of goods, financial stability would be jeopardized as well. The only way out was to appeal to the Allies to provide Serbia with aid and loans. Serbia needed 30 million per month to keep currency stable to provide military equipment and armaments to nourish 522,000 enlisted in the army’s service: 40,000 Montenegrin combatants, 60,000 POWs, some 200,000 refugees, and to nourish 130,000 horses and oxen. The Allies responded as early as mid-August. France approved 90 million francs for the first three months, and Russia 20 million francs. The latter was followed by the first joint loan of 150 million at the end of 1914, and a subsequent loan worth 200 million in April of 1915. Under the new circumstances, after the disasters of 1915, the Allies continue to pay 30 million monthly until September of 1919. The Serbian gold reserves worth 60 million were evacuated to France in December 1914. [78]

Additional assistance by the Allies was provided for the recovery of the Serbian Army remnants on Corfu, Bizerte, and Salonika. The Serbian Army also depended on full-scale supply during the operations on the Salonika front. Great Britain and France in February of 1916 came to terms about supplying the Serbian Army with approximately 140,000 and 30,000 cattle, respectively. The Allies’ convention on supplying the Serbian Army from February 1916 was renewed on 25 July 1918. Meanwhile, the United States was directly involved and paid 1 million U.S. dollars per month. France provided armaments, ammunition and airplanes, and other countries provided clothes, tents, vehicles, food and medical supplies. [79]

Serbia enjoyed widespread sympathy in many Allied countries, as well as among neutrals. In the moments of desperate need for relief many doctors and volunteers rushed to Serbia to offer help. Since Serbia had only 360 doctors and medical staff, but tens of thousands wounded and more than 100,000 affected by the typhus epidemic in 1915, everyone was welcomed. According to the War Ministry there were fifteen foreign medical missions with 364 members in March 1915. Among them were three Russian, six British (Scottish) missions and four American missions. Many doctors did not belong to the missions, but worked at Serbian hospitals. The rate of mortality from typhus among medical staff was high.

The Serbian government supported a large community of refugees in Greece, Tunisia, Italy, France, Switzerland and Great Britain, and helped its own POWs through the International Red Cross. The accurate number of Serbian refugees from 1914 to 1918 has never been established. With some certainty, historians could claim that by 1917, around 17,000 refugees were in France and some 4,000 in Russia with some 8,000 in Salonika and 1,500 in Lerin by 1915 (Greece). [80]

The aforementioned countries showed readiness to help educate Serbian youth at their schools and universities. The role of France was of the utmost importance. A mixed Franco-Serb “University Committee for Serb Youth” was formed in December 1915. The Committee helped to organize the acceptance of some 2,700 pupils and students at French institutions and 300 at British institutions. The French government donated 65,000 francs and the Serbian government aditional 50,000 as the initial support. The students were dispersed through universities in Paris, Bordeaux, Montpellier, Rennes, Dijon, Poitier, Grenoble, Nancy, Toulouse, Clermont-Ferrand and Besançon in France, as well as at the universities in Oxford and Cambridge in Great Britain, and at the universities of Geneva, Zurich, Berne and Lausanne in Switzerland. Students, as well as the refugees, were also supported by Serbian Relief Fund based in London, by La Nation Serbe en France based in Paris, the Serbian Relief Committee of America, based in New York, etc. In 1918, Serbian institutions supported some 5,500 pupils and students, and the Montenegrin King Nikolas supported 183 students. [81]

Montenegro in 1914 - History

Ancient and Medieval: Macedonia, Thracia, Illyria, Moesia et Dacia [Ancient Balkans] (722K) Map from "A Classical Atlas to Illustrate Ancient Geography" by Alexander G. Findlay, Harper and Brothers Publishers, New York, 1849. Europe - Crusades Era [includes Balkans] (253K) From "The Public Schools Historical Atlas" edited by C. Colbeck, published by Longmans, Green, and Co., 1905. Boundaries of Serbia [from 1196-present] (54K) Map from "Kosovo: History of a Balkan Hot Spot", U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, Office of DCI Interagency Balkan Task Force, June 1998.

Sixteenth Century: Europe about 1560 [includes Balkans] (941K) Map from "Historical Atlas" by William R. Shepherd, 1923.

Seventeenth Century: Dismemberment of the Ottoman Empire [1683-1923] (649K) Map from "Historical Atlas" by William R. Shepherd, 1923.

Nineteenth Century: Europe 1815 [includes Balkans] (294K) From "The Public Schools Historical Atlas" edited by C. Colbeck, published by Longmans, Green, and Co., 1905. Balkans 1856 (972K) Portion of "Karte von Europa mit Nord-Afrika" Georg Mayr, 1856. Changes in Turkey in Europe 1856 to 1878 (201K) From "Literary and Historical Atlas of Europe", by J.G. Bartholomew, 1912. Balkans 1859 (888K) Portion of "General-Karte von Europa" by J. Scheda, 1859. Historical Borders: Vojvodina [1867-1992] (126K) Map from "Former Yugoslavia: A Map Folio", U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, 1992. Eastern Europe 1878 (468K) Map from "An Historical Atlas" by Robert H. Labberton, E. Elaxton and Co., 1884. Bulgaria after the Conference of Constantinople 1876-1877 (124K) Map from "Report of the International Commission To Inquire into the Causes and Conduct of the Balkan Wars" 1914. Balkan States 1899 (304K) Map from "Stanford's Compendium of Geography and Travel: Europe" Volume 1, 1899.

Early Twentieth Century: Belgrad [Belgrade] 1905 (371K) Map From "Austria-Hungary Including Dalmatia and Bosnia. Handbook For Travellers" by Karl Baedeker, 1905. Sarajevo 1905 (325K) Map From "Austria-Hungary Including Dalmatia and Bosnia. Handbook For Travellers" by Karl Baedeker, 1905. Contested Regions according to the map annexed to the Treaty of Alliance [1912] (262K) Map from "Report of the International Commission To Inquire into the Causes and Conduct of the Balkan Wars" 1914. "The Serbian-Bulgarian treaty of 13 March 1912 made provision for the partition of Macedonia along the following lines: 'all the territory north of the Sar range' was to go to Serbia 'all the region east of the Rhodope range and the Struma valley' was to go to Bulgaria. Bulgaria hoped the intervening country should form an 'autonomous Macedonia', but, if this should prove impossible, a new line was to be drawn leaving Kumanovo, Skoplje and Debar to Serbia, and giving Kratovo, Veles, Bitolj (Monastir) and Ohrid to Bulgaria. Serbia undertook to make no claim south of the line Bulgaria reserved the right to claim territory to the north, in which case Russia was to act as arbitrator. The area of overlapping claims was known as the 'Contested Zone'. "--quote from: Great Britain. Naval Intelligence Division, Geographical Handbook Series: Jugoslavia, Volume II, 1944, p. 114. Balkan Aspirations [showing boundaries of 1912] (153K) Map from "Report of the International Commission To Inquire into the Causes and Conduct of the Balkan Wars" 1914. "There was hardly any part of the territory of Turkey in Europe which was not claimed by at least two competitors."--Report of the International Commission To Inquire into the Causes and Conduct of the Balkan Wars, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 1914, p.38. Regions Occupees par les Belligerants fin Avril 1913 (365K) Map from "Report of the International Commission To Inquire into the Causes and Conduct of the Balkan Wars" 1914. [This map shows areas occupied by Balkan armies at the end of April 1913: (Serbian, Montenegrin, Bulgarian, Greek)]. "War began with the declaration of Montenegro on 8 October [1912], and, within a few months, to the amazement of Europe, the Turkish forces had collapsed."--quote from: Great Britain. Naval Intelligence Division, Geographical Handbook Series: Jugoslavia, Volume II, 1944, p. 114. Territorial Modifications in the Balkans - Conference of London [May 1913] and Treaty of Bukarest [August 1913] (281K) Map from "Report of the International Commission To Inquire into the Causes and Conduct of the Balkan Wars" 1914. "The Treaty of London (30 May 1913) ceded to the Balkan allies all territories 'west of a line drawn from Enos on the Aegean Sea to Midia on the Black Sea, with the exception of Albania. It was not only a defeat of the military forces of the Turkish empire, but a defeat of the Austrian dream of Drang nach Osten. . Austria-Hungary and Italy, rather than see Albania partitioned between Slav states on the north and Greece on the south, had succeeded in blocking Serbian access to the Adriatic by proposing the creation of an autonomous Albania." --quote from: Great Britain. Naval Intelligence Division, Geographical Handbook Series: Jugoslavia, Volume II, 1944, p. 114. Historical Borders: Kosovo [1913-1992] (218K) Map from Former Yugoslavia: A Map Folio, U.S. Central Intelligence Agency 1992. Carte Ethnographique de la Macedoine: Point de vue bulgare (998K) [Ethnographic map of Macedonia from the point of view of the Bulgarians]. Map from "Report of the International Commission To Inquire into the Causes and Conduct of the Balkan Wars" 1914. Carte Ethnographique de la Macedoine: Point de vue serbe (992K) [Ethnographic map of Macedonia from the point of view of the Serbs]. Map from "Report of the International Commission To Inquire into the Causes and Conduct of the Balkan Wars" 1914. Dialects of Macedonia From the Servian Point of View (248K) Map from "Report of the International Commission To Inquire into the Causes and Conduct of the Balkan Wars" 1914. Balkan States: Turkey, Roumania, Bulgaria, Serbia, Montenegro, Albania and Greece 1917 (860K) From "The New Encyclopedic Atlas And Gazetteer Of The World", edited and revised by Francis J. Reynolds, P.F. Collier and Son Publishers, New York, 1917.

Late Twentieth Century: Sarajevo: The JNA Attacks, 2 May 1992 (164K) Map G from Balkan Battlegrounds: A Military History of the Yugoslav Conflict, 1990-1995. Central Intelligence Agency, Office of Russian and European Analysis. Washington, D.C. 2001. Sarajevo: The Bosnian Army Attempts to Capture Four Key Hilltops, 8 June 1992 (163K) Map H from Balkan Battlegrounds: A Military History of the Yugoslav Conflict, 1990-1995. Central Intelligence Agency, Office of Russian and European Analysis. Washington, D.C. 2001. Sarajevo and Vicinity, Early January 1994 (215K) Map K from Balkan Battlegrounds: A Military History of the Yugoslav Conflict, 1990-1995. Central Intelligence Agency, Office of Russian and European Analysis. Washington, D.C. 2001. Bosnian Army Offensive Operations in Sarajevo Region, June 1995 (238K) Map N from Balkan Battlegrounds: A Military History of the Yugoslav Conflict, 1990-1995. Central Intelligence Agency, Office of Russian and European Analysis. Washington, D.C. 2001. Additional Maps of Bosnia Historical Maps of the Balkans on Other Web Sites


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Stalemate Years (1915-1917)

By the end of 1914, it was clear that the Western Front was locked in a stalemate. Campaigns throughout February and March of 1915 resulted in massive casualties with little ground gained or lost. Other Allied offensives led to similar results. Germany began using chlorine gas on April 22, and expanded its rail system to circumvent England's naval blockade.

A Russian retreat in late April continued until October 1915, halting along a line between the Baltic Sea and the Romanian border. A Russian offensive against Turkey, launched in November 1914, had been defeated by January 1915. Turkey was expelled from neutral Persia in March. In Mesopotamia, England would continue its fruitless advance toward Baghdad. The Turkish threat diminished considerably after a 1917 revolt by Syria and Palestine. Austria's repeated attempts to invade Serbia culminated in an attack in October 1915, aided by Bulgaria. An Allied attempt to send help through Salonika merely resulted in increasing troop commitments in an area that offered little in the way of advancing the war effort.

After signing the Treaty of London April 26, 1915, Italy agreed to join the Allied cause. On May 23, they declared war on Austria-Hungary. An initial advance was followed by trench warfare, and the six Battles of the Isonzo resulted with many casualties and little advancement.

In 1916, Germany began a heavy bombardment of France, but advancement was stopped by the Somme Offensive in July-September. In summer 1916, England and Germany squared off in the Battle of Jutland, the largest naval battle in history. Along the Eastern Front, Russia launched offensives against Germany in March 1916 and came to Italy's aid in June. Brusilov's offensive would be their final military stand in World War II. An April 1917 mutiny of French soldiers greatly reduced France's military strength, while anarchy and chaos following the Russian Revolution led to a demoralization that seemed disastrous for the Allies.

After severing diplomatic ties with Germany on February 3, 1917, continued submarine attacks finally pushed the United States to declare war on April 6. Haiti, Honduras, Brazil, Guatamala, Nicaragua and Costa Rica, China and occupied Greece would do the same. These additional troops, armaments and financial resources would turn the tide of the war and eventually lead to the Allies' victory.

Success on the Italian front led Austria and Germany to launch an offensive against Italy, leading to a unified Allied military command following the Supreme War Council at Versailles. Meanwhile, England forced the Turks to retreat through Mesopotamia and occupied Jerusalem by December 9, 1917.

Under pressure from the Allies, the German submarine campaign was diminished and eventually defeated. England developed the world's first military air service, the Royal Air Force, in 1916 as a response to repeated attacks by German dirigible airships known as Zeppelins.

Emperor Francis Joseph of Austria died on November 21, 1916. Negotiation attempts by the new emperor and foreign minister began in the spring of 1917, but ultimately came to nothing. President Woodrow Wilson of the United States launched a campaign for peace with a series of pronouncements in 1918. This significantly affected the morale of the German people.

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"Former Yugoslavia." U.N. Chronicle, 1 March 1999.

Gall, Carlotta. "Bosnians Vote with a Hope: To Break Ethnic Parties' Rule." New York Times, 12 November 2000.

Gojkovic, Drinka. The Road to War in Serbia: Trauma and Catharsis, 2000.

Greenberg, Susan. "The Great Yugoslav Failure." New Statesman, 9 August 1999.

Hawkesworth, Celia. Voices in the Shadows: Women and Verbal Art in Serbia and Bosnia, 2000.

Lampe, John R. Yugoslavia as History: Twice There Was a Country, 2000.

McGeary, Johanna. "The End of Milosevic." Time, 16 October 2000.

Milivojevic, JoAnn. Serbia, 1999.

"More Trouble in the Balkans." The Economist, 15 July 1999.

Muravchik, Joshua. "The Road to Kosovo." Commentary, June 1999.

Nelan, Bruce, et al. "Into the Fire." Time, 5 April 1999.

Ramet, Sabrina P. Gender Politics in the Western Balkans, 1999.

Ranesar, Romesh. "Man of the Hour." Time, 16 October 2000.

Sopova, Jasmina. "Talking to Serbian Filmmaker Goran Paskaljevic." UNESCO Courier, February 2000.

"Still Pretty Nasty." The Economist, 23 September 2000.

U.S. Department of State. Erasing History: Ethnic Cleansing in Kosovo, 1999.

Wachtel, Andrew. Making a Nation, Breaking a Nation: Literature and Cultural Politics in Yugoslavia, 1998.

Watch the video: Nicholas I, King of Montenegro. Wounded from Turkish bombardment of Scutari in F..HD Stock Footage (July 2022).


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