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Göbekli Tepe Timeline

Göbekli Tepe Timeline

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Unrecorded Mystery: These Cities Predate Ancient Egyptian Pyramids by Thousands of Years

An image of the ancient Citadel of Aleppo.

The exact date of when the first Pyramid on Earth appeared is up for debate. Some say that the Egyptian pyramids are the oldest on Earth. Djoser’s Step Pyramid kick-starting a pyramidomania that would eventually produce some of the most impressive pyramids on Earth. Others say that, based on archeological excavations in Brazil, the oldest pyramids appeared in South America more than 300 years before Djoser’s Step Pyramid. But history is tricky, and there are some pretty old structures on Earth.

For example, the oldest multi-ton stone construction dates back to when history books tell us there were no developed societies on Earth. Nonetheless, archaeological excavations in present-day Turkey at Göbekli Tepe’s site reveal this is not the case. More than 12,000 years ago–during the last Ice Age–a group of unknown people gathered at a site–now largely buried beneath the surface–and erected a series of impressive stone structures.

Archeological surveys of the site have revealed more than 200 stone pillars, averaging in weight around 10 tons, measuring at least 6 meters in height. So far, more than 15 intricate stone circles have been identified through excavations and geological surveys. The stones used in Göbekli Tepe’s construction range in weight from 10, 20 to 50 tons. How ancient people living in that part of the world, 12,000 years ago, managed to quarry, transport, and raise into position such massive stones remains a profound mystery.

An aerial photograph of the stone circles at Göbekli Tepe.

The Earliest Surviving Human-Made Place of Worship at Sanliurfa in Southeastern Turkey

Panoramic view of the southern excavation field, Göbekli Tepe (Turkey).

Göbekli Tepe (Turkish for "Potbelly Hill"), a hilltop sanctuary erected on the highest point of an elongated mountain ridge some 15 km northeast of the town of Şanlıurfa (formerly Urfa / Edessa) in southeastern Turkey, is the earliest surviving human-made place of worship, and the earliest surviving religious site in general. It was discovered in 1964 excavations began in 1994.

The site was erected by hunter-gatherers in the 10th millennium BCE, before the advent of the transition from nomadic to permanent year-round settlement. Together with Nevalı Çori, a site dating from the ninth or tenth millenium BCE, but which was inundated by the dammed waters of the Euphrates, Göbekli Tepe has revolutionized understanding of the Eurasian Neolithic.

"Göbekli Tepe is regarded as an archaeological discovery of the greatest importance since it profoundly changes our understanding of a crucial stage in the development of human societies. It seems that the erection of monumental complexes was within the capacities of hunter-gatherers and not only of sedentary farming communities as had been previously assumed. In other words, as excavator Klaus Schmidt puts it: 'First came the temple, then the city.' This revolutionary hypothesis will have to be supported or modified by future research" (Wikipedia article on Göbekli Tepe, accessed 05-18-2011).

Geometry guided construction of earliest known temple, built 6,000 years before Stonehenge

Geometric pattern underlying the architectural planning of a complex at Göbekli Tepe. A diagram superimposed over the schematic plan. Credit: Gil Haklay/AFTAU.

The sprawling 11,500-year-old stone Göbekli Tepe complex in southeastern Anatolia, Turkey, is the earliest known temple in human history and one of the most important discoveries of Neolithic research.

Researchers at Tel Aviv University and the Israel Antiquities Authority have now used architectural analysis to discover that geometry informed the layout of Göbekli Tepe's impressive round stone structures and enormous assembly of limestone pillars, which they say were initially planned as a single structure.

Three of the Göbekli Tepe's monumental round structures, the largest of which are 20 meters in diameter, were initially planned as a single project, according to researchers Gil Haklay of the Israel Antiquities Authority, a Ph.D. candidate at Tel Aviv University, and Prof. Avi Gopher of TAU's Department of Archaeology and Ancient Near Eastern Civilizations. They used a computer algorithm to trace aspects of the architectural design processes involved in the construction of these enclosures in this early Neolithic site.

Their findings were published in Cambridge Archaeological Journal in May.

"Göbekli Tepe is an archaeological wonder," Prof. Gopher explains. "Built by Neolithic communities 11,500 to 11,000 years ago, it features enormous, round stone structures and monumental stone pillars up to 5.5 meters high. Since there is no evidence of farming or animal domestication at the time, the site is believed to have been built by hunter-gatherers. However, its architectural complexity is highly unusual for them."

Discovered by German archaeologist Dr. Klaus Schmidt in 1994, Göbekli Tepe has since been the subject of hot archaeological debate. But while these, and other early Neolithic remains, have been intensively studied, the issue of architectural planning during these periods and its cultural ramifications have not.

Göbekli Tepe, Enclosure C. Credit: Gil Haklay/AFTAU.

Most researchers have made the case that the Göbekli Tepe enclosures at the main excavation area were constructed over time. However, Haklay and Prof. Gopher say that three of the structures were designed as a single project and according to a coherent geometric pattern.

"The layout of the complex is characterized by spatial and symbolic hierarchies that reflect changes in the spiritual world and in the social structure," Haklay explains. "In our research, we used an analytic tool—an algorithm based on standard deviation mapping—to identify an underlying geometric pattern that regulated the design."

"This research introduces important information regarding the early development of architectural planning in the Levant and in the world," Prof. Gopher adds. "It opens the door to new interpretations of this site in general, and of the nature of its megalithic anthropomorphic pillars specifically."

Certain planning capabilities and practices, such as the use of geometry and the formulation of floor plans, were traditionally assumed to have emerged much later than the period during which the Göbekli Tepe was constructed—after hunter-gatherers transformed into food-producing farmers some 10,500 years ago. Notably, one of the characteristics of early farmers is their use of rectangular architecture.

"This case of early architectural planning may serve as an example of the dynamics of cultural changes during the early parts of the Neolithic period," Haklay says. "Our findings suggest that major architectural transformations during this period, such as the transition to rectangular architecture, were knowledge-based, top-down processes carried out by specialists.

"The most important and basic methods of architectural planning were devised in the Levant in the Late Epipaleolithic period as part of the Natufian culture and through the early Neolithic period. Our new research indicates that the methods of architectural planning, abstract design rules and organizational patterns were already being used during this formative period in human history."

Next, the researchers intend to investigate the architectural remains of other Neolithic sites throughout the Levant.

Wow, now I’m jealous of you! I’ve seen photos of Goebekli Tepe and read articles about it … but to actually be there. Does it still have magic? Or is it like stonehenge already, but a mere tourist attraction? I yearn to be on the road, out and about in the world, remote and magic places … first have to finish my BA though, and Arabic doesn’t exactly lend itself easily to being learned. Keep the wonderful photos and anecdotes coming!

Thank you for the comment and your interest in my blog! I experienced Göbekli Tepe as a quiet (and fairly magical) place compared to other sites we’ve been to, and not at all like Stonehenge. As yet it’s not on the mainstream international tourist circuit, the visitors we met were either locals or hardcore archaeology enthusiasts.
Am ashamed to admit that, given the amount of time we are spending here, I don’t speak Arabic, nor much Turkish for that matter, but so far we have managed. All best wishes for your BA and I hope you get on the road soon.

Göbekli Tepe: Ancient Origins of the Zodiac Signs?

The ancient origin of the zodiac signs is one of the world’s great mysteries. It seems like every time we pull on a new thread of knowledge about this subject, our old theories start to unravel, and new theories emerge. While a new theory may become the predominant paradigm for a while, it is often finally replaced after another exciting discovery. With the history of zodiac signs, we’re dealing with truly ancient history, so it’s tough to track down, but the challenge is what makes it fun. Every new discovery makes it more exciting.

History as Taught in School Versus the Real World

Textbooks for school kids usually represent historical events on a static timeline. Children are taught certain facts on this timeline as immutable and they have to recite them back exactly as taught if they want an “A” from the teacher. The real world is a lot messier! It’s blurred. It’s fuzzy around the edges. Historical knowledge is never static, it flows and twists. The “beginning” is often replaced by a new beginning. And… there’s a lot of mystery in history. If you’re a truth seeker, knowing this will serve you better than any static history lesson you learned when you were in school. Always be ready to do away with the dogma!

Suppose you ask your friend who’s really into astrology, “Who invented the zodiac signs?” She might answer back, “The Greeks of course… they invented all that stuff.” Your friend may even tell you that the word “zodiac” is a Greek word meaning “circle of animals.” You may even knock your hand on your forehead at that point and say, “Oh, of course… I should have known that out!”

But was your amateur astrology friend, actually right? This is what she may have read in multiple sources, but no, not really. Let’s say you and your friend decide to visit a professional astrologer together. In the course of the conversation, you may say, “My friend just taught me that the Greeks invented the zodiac signs… how cool.” She might gently correct the record at this point and inform you both that the Greeks actually learned it from the Egyptians (and likely the Phoenicians) who learned it from the Babylonians.

You may then be excited to share your newfound knowledge with the brainiacs in your book club. You find a way to slip these facts about ancient history into the conversation. A history professor in the group points out that the textbooks don’t go back far enough, and it was actually the Sumerians who first developed the zodiac signs. Then an archeologist in the group says, “Well, actually we think now it goes back further than that… much further!”

The history professor has an astonished look on her face. She leans forward and she says, “Tell me more!”

Yes, dear professor, please tell us more.

What Is Göbekli Tepe and Why Is It So Special?

Göbekli Tepe is easily one of the most amazing archaeological discoveries ever made! It was discovered or rather rediscovered, in southern Turkey near the border of Syria in 1994. It was actually first seen decades before but it was deemed “just” a gravesite from the medieval times and not a high archeological priority, so it was not explored deeper down under the top layers. However, Göbekli Tepe turns out to be far more than this and significant to our entire understanding of how civilization actually started.

Göbekli Tepe turns out to be the grandest of grand temples in terms of size, complexity, and apparent usage. It has at least two hundred massive T-shaped pillars arranged in twenty or more circles or ovals. These pillars weighed up to ten tons and stood as tall as twenty feet. They were precisely fitted into the ground rock. They featured exquisitely intricate carvings and engravings! Spoiler alert: upon a careful study by academic teams, these carvings and engravings seem to very accurately depict constellations, planets, and other features that would have been seen visible in the night sky at that time at that exact location. And… the carvings and engravings show evidence of an understanding of zodiac signs and astrology.

But it gets even better… this amazing temple was NOT built in medieval times! It was built far earlier!

The site radiocarbon dates to around ten thousand years B.C. This dating, along with other evidence, proves this grand temple was built by hunters and gatherers, not farmers, and not people who lived in cities centered around agriculture! Analysis of the bones of the animals eaten in ceremonials feasts and buried in pits, as well as the tools used to clean and cook the meat, clearly proves that they were wild animals that lived in the surrounding area. There were hunted by the hunter and gatherers and then brought to the site. The archeologist who rediscovered the site and recognized its importance called the assemblage of bones a “stone age zoo.”

The discovery of Göbekli Tepe has made historians and archeologists completely reevaluate what they’ve long thought to be true. They thought the practice of agriculture brought people together into cohesive units (early cities) and THEN temples, places of worship, were built. In fact, no academic had ever even imagined, at least professionally, that such a complex temple could have been built by hunter and gatherers. Academics had always assumed it would take the formation of civilization, i.e. agricultural cities, to build something like this. Some are now entertaining the notion that hunter and gatherers actually lived part of the year in small villages or cities.

Göbekli Tepe appears to have been a meeting place where many people gathered on astrologically significant days like the summer and winter solstices and spring and fall equinoxes. There seemed to be a combination of serious activities and some celebration. Göbekli Tepe is now a UNESCO World Heritage Site as well it should be.

Zodiac Sign Conclusions

Did the Göbekli Tepe invent the zodiac signs? Maybe. It certainly appears that the pillars at Göbekli Tepe were likely used to track celestial objects in the sky. There are detailed carvings of a lion, a scorpion, and a bull, corresponding to the Zodiac signs of Leo, Scorpio, and Taurus. There are other clues on the engravings that point to these carvings serving as zodiac signs. Other carvings may represent the zodiac signs too, including the 13th zodiac sign.

Göbekli Tepe Timeline - History

Göbekli Tepe

21 km away from the city center of Şanlıurfa, the discovery of Göbekli Tepe overthrown everything we had known about the history of civilization. Believed to have been built in BC 10,000, Göbekli Tepe is one of the oldest monumental temples of the world.

Located at the west side of the mountain chains of Germüş, Göbekli Tepe was firstly discovered in 1960's, yet its significance has been only recognized thanks to the still-continuing excavations that started in 1995. Göbekli Tepe proves that our hunting and collecting ancestors had much more complex beliefs, organizational forms and technologies than we had thought.

It was later found out that Göbekli Tepe was not covered due to natural conditions but by humans themselves. It is not a settlement area or necropolis. Because there is yet no evidence that humankind was settled or buried there.

First the belief came

As stated by Klaus Schmidt, the head of the excavations, Göbekli Tepe terminated various theories regarding the history of civilization. Before Göbekli Tepe, it was believed that hunter and collector ancestors settled by having cultures of seeds and agricultural revolution took place, thus the need for organization arose and societies of class showed up. Therefore, the reverend directing this community towards a goal, the soldier protecting the community, and the labour and peasants working and producing by conducting agriculture and livestock breeding were needed.

However, when Göbekli Tepe was built in BC 10,000, the world was still in the Palaeolithic era the people were hunters-collectors, the most modern technological tool used was Neolithic and the only pet domesticated was dogs. Selecting seeds, cultivation, and agricultural activities had newly started around this time.

Göbekli Tepe demonstrated that people had beliefs before settling and having a class organization. Göbekli Tepe is a temple and a point of assembly built in the name of a belief. In other words, there came belief before everything.

Over Göbekli Tepe, there lies 20 ellipsis shaped columns, 2 in the middle and 12 columns around it weighing between 4 and 7 tons. There are animal shapes such as those of fox, lion / leopard, wild boar, onagers, aurochs, spider, snake, crane, duck / ruddy shelduck, bald ibis are embossed and designs similar to those of fishnet on the columns. Moreover, there are also H and S symbols and hand & arm designs united over a belly.

Since there were no metal tools at that era, all of these tools were made by sculpturing harder Neolithic stones. These columns were brought to Göbekli Tepe after being cut in a 500 meters away quarry. The hunters and collectors at that time had to be seriously organized in order to accomplish that.

With its history dating back to BC 9600's, Göbekli Tepe is 6100 years older than Ggantija Temple in Malta, 6600 older than Stonehenge in the UK, and 7100 years older than Egyptian Pyramids.

Changing the history of civilization, the oldest monumental structure of the world, Göbekli Tepe calls for your name to explore the mysterious history of humans and your own.

Destruction and Reuse

All the enclosures at Level III were filled in prior to the constructions on Level II. It is unclear why this was done, but there seems to be a conscious ‘decommissioning’ of the structures at Level III because some pillars were damaged or moved in an organised and controlled manner, while some pillars seem to have been removed entirely. Small artefacts remained, and statues were left in situ but toppled. Some of the tops of the pillars in Enclosure C are completely broken off.

The tops of the intact central pillars have carved, cup-like depressions. It appears that when the Level III structures were buried, just the tops remained above ground and these cup-like depressions were carved once burial was complete.

Once again, the purpose of this is speculative, but receptacles for votive offerings or candles are a reasonable suggestion. With the construction and use on Level II, people were clearly using the site and would have been aware of the buried enclosures, the tops of which were protruding just above the surface, evidence of the convocation of standing stones just below. It is also reasonable to conclude that, although buried, the ancient enclosures still played a role of sorts in the ritual life of the people who continued to build and gather here.

One cannot be absolutely precise but it would seem that Level III, original construction around 9,500 BCE, was buried in phases after hundreds of years of use. The content of the material used to fill the enclosures in is a huge source of hard data. The composition of the in-fill material is simply refuse produced by hunting, food preparation, and consumption mixed in with in-fill material which included the residue of construction, stone working, thousands of flint tools, and the remnants of tool manufacture. The spoil tells us some important things about these people. The tools themselves, in the absence of the archaeologist’s basic dating tool, pottery, can be used to produce a broad cultural and chronological context in which data from other sites can used to produce rough dates.

Level II is a different environment both conceptually and artistically. It is evident that the society and the culture are undergoing an important series of changes while important cultural markers remain. The enclosure spaces are far smaller and much more modest while decorations are simpler and are executed with less skill. They are also far more numerous and are constructed, almost in a jumble of competing floor plans, on top of Level III and sometimes cutting into Level III. They are certainly considerably less ambitiously monumental than before. This is possibly a society that has exhausted itself both economically and spiritually with Level III. It may be evidence of a transitional period before the abandonment of Göbekli Tepe and the evolution of more settled societies, such as the one at Çatalhöyük in the Konya Plain which is dated from about 7,500 BCE.

One of the temples found at Göbekli Tepe underneath the newly constructed covering. (approx. 10,000 BCE). / AHE, Creative Commons

However, speculation aside, the most elaborate of these now more modest rectangular enclosures is the so-called ‘Lion Building,’ identified by the carving on one of its principle stones. While probably still a purely cult or religious site with no evidence of domesticity, the enclosures are small and in many respects resemble the domestic buildings in other places such as Nevali Çori. It could be that economic and cultural changes are reflected in construction patterns here.

Over the 2013/14 CE season, archaeologists were uncovering another enclosure, Enclosure ‘H,’ about 250 m away from the original Level III excavations and on the other side of the hill towards the northwest. This is referred to as the ‘North West Depression’ and, at first glance, looks almost to mirror the original existing excavation. Also built on Level III, this enclosure possesses good-sized central stele set in an oval-shaped structure. As with Enclosure C, representations of wild boar seem pre-eminent. The enclosure, like all the others, was buried after its useful life. However, somebody, as with Enclosure C, took the time and effort to excavate a pit, locate the central standing stones…and destroy one (the other one still awaits investigation).

Why? Clearly what connects Enclosures C and H, and possibly enclosures yet to be discovered, are design (oval and with an accessing staircase), level (age), and artwork, but above all, these two enclosures are connected by identical acts of desecration carried out long after the enclosures were buried!

This totem statue was found at the Göbekli Tepe site near Sanliurfa, Turkey. The Göbekli Tepe site is the oldest man-made place of worship yet discovered, dating back to 10,000 BCE. Found in the cradle of civilization, Göbekli Tepe has reshaped archaeologists’ understanding of religion and culture in the Neolithic and prehistoric ages. / AHE, Creative Commons

These acts of desecration would suggest a number of possible scenarios none of which necessarily exclude the others. Clearly the act of burying enclosures on Level III and the evolution of the structural design changes seen on Level II indicate a conclusion of a lifecycle for these structures, and a change of political and economic, although not cultural or religious, fundamentals. The question of deliberate, targeted, and heavy destruction in enclosures but continued site use suggests a continuity of belief for a considerable period of time but with major changes in the power dynamics of the society represented at and by this extraordinary site.

Ancient Aliens

If ancient aliens visited Earth, can evidence of their existence be found in the mysterious structures that still stand throughout the world? Inexplicably, megalithic structures found on different continents are strikingly similar, and the cutting and moving of the massive stones used to build these magnificent feats would be a struggle for modern day machinery, let alone ancient man. Ancient astronaut theorists suggest that the standing stones in Carnac, France were used as an ancient GPS system for ancient flying machines. The recently discovered Gobekli Tepe in Turkey, which has been dated back 12,000 years, has finely chiseled pillars that experts describe as a Noah’s Ark in stone. Is it possible that extraterrestrials assisted primitive man in constructing these unexplained structures? If so, what was the purpose of these grand projects?

Göbekli Tepe: the Rise of Agriculture, the Fall of the Nomad

The human was born a traveling animal. For over 100,000 years we walked across the great Savannas, made way through the jungles, camped in Arctic tundra, and hunted and foraged in the forests of this planet. Then, a little over 10,000 years ago — a blip in our species’ timeline — we started laying down our satchels, building our shelters with a sense of permanence, and began cultivating the grains and animals in our surroundings. This great event, perhaps the largest shift in human cultural evolution, happened around a great temple now called Göbekli Tepe in southeastern Turkey.

In search of humanity’s lost nomadic past

It may seem ironic for a trave ler to be drawn to the site of humanity’s first incidences of sedentarization, but I saw in this story something leading to the roots of my own restlessness, my own undeniable wanderlust.

The Gobekli Tepe archaeology site

I have been interested in the deeply ingrained nomadic urges that still seem to lay dormant inside the building blocks of the human genome since my early days of travel. What made me want to travel? What was this urge that made me grow restless in a place after a couple of months? Why did I want to follow the geese and run with the seasons? What was the anatomy of this incessant drive to migrate over the earth? After nearly twelve years of traveling I am still not any closer to answering these questions, but I feel that the transitioning point from when humans were primarily migratory hunter-gatherers to when they became sedentary farmers is a big lead towards unraveling this riddle of the ages.

I went in search of my species’ lost nomadic roots to the very area of the world where they were first laid to rest: the Fertile Crescent. There was an intermediary span of geography that stretched from the Mediterranean Sea almost all the way to the Persian Gulf, from the highlands of Anatolia to the Syrian desert that was once so flush with wildlife, various ecosystems, and rich soils that it became the cradle of human civilization — the place where wanderers became city builders. It was here that Homo sapiens first developed the cultural and technological mechanisms that allowed them to build great temples and later to farm, become sedentary village dwellers, and, eventually, to construct great cities.

It was in this region that the conflict between Cain and Abel arose. The story goes that Cain the farmer became jealous that his nomadic brother, Abel the shepherd, was receiving preferential treatment from God, so he killed him off. This is often seen as a periscope of an older Sumarian story which represents the rise of sedentarization over nomadism. Certainly, this shift in human living strategies — the claiming of permanent land rights over migration — did not come without conflict. So I went to the land where Abel once roamed and Cain once toiled in the earth to try to piece together the story of human restlessness for myself.

To the world’s first temple

“First came the temple, then the city,” spoke Dr. Klaus Schimidt, the German archaeologist who leads the research at Göbekli Tepe, the world’s earliest known temple. My search for humanity’s hunter-gather past found me riding in a little grey car to the base of the hill upon which this great archaeology site sits, 15km outside of Sanliurfa, Turkey.

Göbekli Tepe is truly one of the most groundbreaking archaeology sites currently being investigated on the planet, and the findings that have been uncovered over the past 17 years are literally rewriting the book on how civilization first arose, as well as providing a window through which the initial sedentarization phases of humanity can be viewed.

“It is the idea that the sanctuary may be earlier than the settlements, or at least at the same time,” Schmidt continued as we turned onto a highway outside of Sanliurfa, “but we don’t have the cities, the cities are developing much later than the temple. In the Near Eastern archaeology often you can read about how the cities had first developed and then within the cities the first temples [were made], but that is not true: the temple and the city are very separate. The temples are very, very early, they started in the Paleolithic era with the painted caves, for example. Now at Göbekli Tepe we have the proof that these man made structures were used for rituals and used for religion. So the temple is much earlier than the city.”

“So the temple was the adhesive, the focus point, which brought people together?” I asked Professor Schmidt.

“Yes, focus point,” he replied, “A platform for the people to meet and to communicate and to share knowledge and stories and to talk. They were very important social places.”

Klaus continued to provide a picture of how Paleolithic hunter-gatherers would converge upon Göbekli Tepe for festivities as we turned off the highway and made way along a narrow dirt and gravel road towards a protruding hill in the distance. Klaus soon halted the forward progress of the vehicle so that I could fully take in the scene before me. “You can recognize the limestone plateau, and on top of the limestone plateau there is this mound of earth, a hill. Everything is artificial, it is not nature. It is a settlement mound.”

I looked out at the place whose name means “Pot-belly Hill,” and the little dirt road that snaked up its side. It looked like a giant buxom flopped out upon the Anatolian plain. Just as the effect took, Klaus revved up the engine once again and we slowly crawled up to the apex of the giant boob. My excitement level rose: I was there,at ground zero for human sedentarizaion, at the place where nomadic hunter-gatherers grew to become civilized farmers.

Göbekli Tepe is the temporal door that crosses the divide between the free roaming days of Abel and the agricultural toil of Cain. This was the stage upon which the wandering hunting and gathering act of humanity first began its great close. The times surrounding Göbekli Tepe are still vaguely remembered in the collective folklore of humanity’s deep past. In ancient Sumarian tradition there are stories about a mythical mountain dwelling in the north called Du-Ku, where grain was first sowed, animals domesticated, and weaving was invented: the rise of farming and the fall of human migration. There is a good chance that the colossal events which surrounded this place were passed down through the ages to be remembered as folklore, with each subsequent culture manipulating the stories to fit their own paradigm of history. I grasped each story as handholds and climbed back through time to the beginning of civilization, to the place where it may have all began: Göbekli Tepe.

I asked Klaus about the rumors that the site he is excavating very well could be the actual place the Garden of Eden story was rooted. He huffed quickly, and replied that he was misquoted by an unscrupulous journalist. “It is a picture [Göbekli Tepe being the Garden of Eden], it was used as a picture and later there was a misuse of this picture. The climatic conditions here were like paradise for hunters and gatherers. They were living in a situation like paradise, but there is no connection to the Garden of Eden. Adam and Eve had been thrown out of this garden, but it is not describing a natural condition. There is no connection between Eden in the Old Testament and Göbekli Tepe.”

Neolithic Life at Göbekli Tepe

The first incarnati on of Göbekli Tepe broke ground roughly 12,000 years ago, and for the next three thousand years people used it for great ceremonies and feasts. “It is a little bit surprising because we expected for this period that the people had been living in very simple social conditions, but now it is looking very different,” Schmidt explained how a high level of social organization must have been needed to build such a massive site. Schmidt estimates that it must have taken work teams of hundreds of people to construct Göbekli Tepe throughout each of its various stages, and the organization needed to feed, house, and assign tasks to this large of a work crew hints that early Neolithic society was vastly more complex than archaeologists previously assumed.

As I walked around the site I could hear the crunching sound of flaked flint coming from beneath my feet. On the ground were thousands of pieces of flint discarded thousands of years ago in the manufacture of stone tools, along with some of the tools themselves. Trained as an archaeologist, I began instinctively focusing my eyes on the array of artifacts that were passing beneath my feet, identifying blades, choppers, utilized flakes, among other primitive stone implements.

“Millions, millions,” Klaus spoke when I mentioned the profusion of artifacts that laid all over the mound. “Of all the archaeologists visiting this site everyone says ‘I never saw such a mound of flint.’“ In the USA, finding such a cache of artifacts alone could have made an archaeologist’s career, but here at Göbekli Tepe there was bigger competition for the researcher’s attention, and the little stone tools that momentarily held my intrigue all of a sudden fell towards insignificance when I saw the site’s main attractions.

Down in a ten foot excavation pit, giant T-shaped monoliths arranged in circle formations broke through the ages and into the present. Twelve great T-shaped monoliths stood in a circle around two even larger T-shaped monoliths. Each giant pillar was carved from a single piece of stone, stood up to ten feet high, and weighed between seven and ten tons (2). The excavation teams have now uncovered four such rings of megaliths, spanning between 30 and 100 feet in diameter. Geomagetic surveys show that there are at least 16 other such rings still buried beneath Göbekli Tepe, which itself is around 1,000 feet from end to end and rises over 50 from the plateau. Around these rings were once walls, and there may have even been some ceilings. These rings of stone giants obviously mark the site of major events in prehistory.

What was most striking about these giant monoliths is that they are intricately carved with predatory animals and birds — lions, foxes, vultures, ducks, and mystical beasts. What is even more interesting is that in addition to the animals reliefs which don the pillars, the very pillars themselves have human forms. “You see in the front,” Klaus pointed towards a particularly tall pillar, “there are fingers. So we know that this T-shape is an anthropomorphic shape. They are all anthropomorphic beings made of stone. It is strange that there are no eyes, no nose, no mouth.”

I looked at the giants and could see the human forms clearly: hands stretched out at the sides of most of the pillars, representing a vital element of the ceremonial site. “Now one can understand the layout,” Klaus continued, “They [the giants] are meeting here in a circle, and two very important ones are in the center of the meeting. Like people sitting in a tent or around a fire.”

Animal carvings on monoliths at Gobekli Tepe

Göbekli Tepe was beginning to take on a new light before me. This was not an archaeological site made for utilitarian purposes, but one that was made for mystical, spiritual, and religious practices and celebrations. This site represents not only lost ways of living, but also lost ways of seeing and approaching the world. The carved reliefs of predatory animals along with the giant anthropomorphic pillars show that the hunting and gathering bands that once walked through this part of the world had highly complex social and spiritual systems, a finely worked worldview that extended beyond the basic hunt for survival and into the realm of the spiritual.

“Göbekli Tepe is the oldest site, but it is clearly not a settlement site. It is a site for sanctuary,” Klaus clarified to make sure that I did not harbor notions that people were actually living here. “They [hunter-gatherers] would come back to the site, meet at the site, then go back to their settlements,” he continued. For 3,000 years people would converge upon Göbekli Tepe and feast, party, make tools, carve predators, birds, and mythological beast into giant megaliths, and worship. These were people who had not yet invented pottery nor did they use any form of metallurgy. Rather, they would laboriously shape their huge stone pillars and make their intricate carvings using the simplest of stone tools, remnants of which I was stepping upon as I walked on the mound.

Ultimately, Schmidt believes that there are burials to be found beneath Göbekli Tepe. He hypothesizes that it was a holy site for ancestor worship or for ceremonies surrounding a death cult. “Monumentality in prehistoric and historic times is always associated with graves,” he stated. The vultures that are depicted in the megaliths are indications of the site’s role as a place associated with the dead, and, perhaps, excarnation — where the deceased are offered to birds of prey to be eaten in a form of sky burial. Klaus makes assumptions that the dead of the hunter gatherer communities would be taken up the mound to the temple at Göbekli Tepe to be laid to rest. Although only flecks of human bone have been found to date, Schmidt predicts that there are complete burials beneath the limestone floors, at the feet of the stone giants.

“What was the environment like then, was it the same as today?” I asked Klaus while looking out into a grey sky as my feet sank a little into ground.

“The climate was like today, but the landscape was looking very different,” he responded. “Now there are too many sheep and goat and people.” Klaus then told me that this area — the northern reaches of the Fertile Crescent — was an intermediary span of geography in between seas and deserts, plateaus, plains, and mountains. By traveling relatively short distances you could find yourself in very different landscapes that had very different flora and fauna. “There were forests here in the plains, and savanna like landscapes in the plateaus,” the archaeologist continued. “The animal bones at Göbekli Tepe show wild cattle, wild pig, deer, as well as gazelles and wild ass who like savanna.” The remains of animals from various climatic settings found their ways to Göbekli Tepe where they became meals for Neolithic huntergatherers. “For hunter gatherers, it was a very perfect surrounding. Good for hunting,” Klaus continue.

In this place that had a perfect ecosystem for their lifestyle, Neolithic hunter-gatherers began experimenting with other living strategies. Perhaps out of a need to continue fueling societies that were ever growing more complex and the massive public works projects that gave life to Göbekli Tepe, the hunter-gatherers began reeling in the reigns of control they held at their fingertips, and they eventually began cultivating grain and beast. Göbekli Tepe shows that the early Neolithic peoples were vastly more organized and their societies more structured that anybody could have predicted, and my free wandering nomad visions were quickly giving way to a reality.

The Advent of Agriculture

Gobekli Tepe under excavation

“Here in the north, it’s the heart of the Fertile Crescent,” Klaus spoke as he pointed out across the hills of the Karacadag range off in the distance from the summit of Göbekli Tepe. “The origins of domesticated wheat can be traced to exactly here in this region.”

I looked out across the great plains and hills that dotted the landscape. “Here,” I repeated softly to myself, “it all ended here.” I thought of my now extinct nomadic brethren, real life Prometheus who knew not where their innovations would lead 10,000 years after their creation. Nevalý Çori, 64km northwest of Göbekli Tepe, is currently known as the first place in the world where wheat was cultivated on a large scale. Nestled in the Karacadag Mountains, Neolithic people began manipulating strands of wild wheat as their lifestyle began to change.

The area around Göbekli Tepe eventually became the heart of the Neolithic Revolution, the place where humans first shifted from hunting and gathering to farming. “The origins of domesticated wheat,” Schmidt spoke, “can be traced exactly here to this region. All the cultivated wheat has some fingerprints which match the fingerprint that the wild forms of wheat have in this region. Now it is
getting quite clear that the same people who were building Göbekli Tepe were the same people who were domesticating the wheat,” Klaus continued. “There is lots of equipment for grinding here, so they processed the wild cereals here, it is clear.”

“Why do you think people started domesticating crops?” I asked Klaus.

“Why? It’s a big question,” he replied as we walked around to another area of the excavation. “Why? Why? I don’t know why, but now we have the idea that maybe Göbekli Tepe had some part in this event, that it played an important role. It is still a hypothesis, but [with so many] people gathering at Göbekli Tepe they now had other needs for their food supply, and maybe they are managing and manipulating the natural strands of grasses for cereals and animals like cattle and pig, sheep and goat, and starting this domestication to have more influence on their food supply. . . There had been big feasting at the site during the construction, so the hunter gatherers were coming here for a big feast, a big party, and this party provided the manpower to do all this work, but, of course, for this feasting you need a lot of food . . .”

Grain grinding slab at Gobekli Tepe

“So the people who built Göbekli Tepe came here and partied while building?” I wanted to confirm.

“Domestication had originally been in connection with feasting,” Klaus clarified. “So the feasting and the need for a good food supply were influencing the domestication. So now we need very good food, we need the cereals, we need a lot of the cereals and so on.”

Certainly, Göbekli Tepe and the cultivation of wheat in the region were contemporaneous and the evidence suggests that they were parts of the same cycle: one impacting the other, and, perhaps, vice versa. Klaus went on to describe how he hypothesizes that the transition from hunting and gathering to agriculture was a “full scale revolution,” where large bands of people worked together to protect their newly cultivated wheat from intruding animals, such as gazelles and wild donkeys. Eventually, Göbekli Tepe was not just being used by hunter-gatherers, but by farmers, and Klaus feels that the site had a large role in the transition.

Agriculture Possibly Arose for Beer, Not Food

Vat that was possibly used for beer production

Klaus then paused for a moment, looking out from our perch on Göbekli Tepe far of into the distance. I stood beside him sharing the view. Klaus then shared with me a new hypothesis for the impetus behind the advent of agriculture:

“You can use it [grain] for food, and you can also use it for beer,” he explained. “There are now ideas that the beginning of cereal domestication was not so much in connection with bread and with food, but with beer making, for brewing. It is easy to do it, it is not like our beer, all you need is water and if let to stand in some container it will start to produce alcohol. So maybe it was beer making at the beginning.”

I had to laugh. Neolithic hunter-gatherers climbing up to the temple to party, build giant monoliths, knap ornate flint tools, feasting on a variety of meats, all while getting rip roaring drunk seemed a little too perfect.

“Now it is fitting better with the picture of the party,” Klaus joined me in laughter, “for the big party at the mound you need some drinks.”

The Effects of Agriculture, The Fall of Göbekli Tepe

“Do you feel as if agriculture is an inherently destructive act?” I asked the German archaeologist.

“The people around 8,000 years ago, I think maybe they liked agriculture very much because they had a good food supply,” Klaus replied and then paused for a moment. “But if you look at today you see all the destruction of the earth, it started with the invention of agriculture.”

After the Neolithic Revolution, when the people surrounding Göbekli Tepe became full time farmers, the new pillars at Göbekli Tepe began to shrink in size, and then, eventually, the site fizzled away into obscurity. “In this period of the 9th millennium everything is reduced,” Klaus confirmed. “In 8,000 BC, everything is abandoned. The people had become farmers. I suppose there is a clear connection between the end of Göbekli Tepe and the people who became
farmers. The complete society had been changed and the belief system had been changed, and a site for hunter-gathers was no longer very important for the people who abandoned it, but it was not a destruction, it was just an end.”

The 10,000 Year Explosion

In the interplay of human evolution, 10,000 years is but a bat of the eye, but in the past 10,000 years the cultural and biological patterns of Homo Sapiens greatly increased their rates of change and adaption (1). In the past 10,000 years the human genome began mutating at a 10 to 100 times faster rate than in all times that preceded this era1. There was no such thing as blue eyes ten millennia ago, neither were there white people, lactose tolerance, resistance to many communicable diseases, nor even many of these diseases themselves. As far as archaeology is concerned, 10,000 years ago contains almost everything: there were no civilizations before then, neither were there even cities, and the pyramids of Giza and Stonehenge were not even thought of until six thousand years later. A lot happened in the past 10,000 years, not just in human culture but also biology, and much of this was sparked directly by the advent of agriculture, which, not surprisingly, was first practiced on a large scale roughly 10,000 years ago.

Sedentarization and agriculture did not initially prove to humanity’s biological benefit either, as the archaeological record shows a stark change in human stature during its initial phases. The early farmers — probably depleted of iron and not yet able to digest milk — became shorter and their brains slightly atrophied. Average height for men dropped from 5’ 10” to 5’ 6” and women likewise lost a couple inches. Humans from farming societies did not regain their Neolithic heights until the twentieth century (3). It was as if many of the beneficial evolutionary adaptations that humans acquired through tens of thousands of years of migration, hunting and gathering were being lost as they moved towards the living strategies and diets of farming. The human cultural paradigm had shifted quickly, and biology had to play
catch up.

Many of the traits that lead to humans to being able to tramp all over the earth and dominate the food chain became less pertinent in the climate of the walled in settler, and many of these attributes began being weeded out of the gene pool as a demand for new traits grew to suit the change in living strategy. Aggression began to wane and long term planning skills began to rise, muscle tone decreased and disease resistance grew, physical endurance decreased a couple notches as humans became physically as well as culturally civilized (4). The creation of a genetic sequence known as LCT soon allowed a select group of humans between the Baltic and Caspian seas to digest milk, and people thus found a new source of portable nutrition (1). To contradict a depletion in vitamin D, it is thought that lighter skin tones were selected to better enable the synthesis of this vitamin in the skin (5). Many new diseases were introduced and spread through humans living in closer quarters and permanent dwellings, and thus new resistance to these diseases were passed through the human genetic code of the farming cultures. New findings by scientists such as Gregory Cochran and Henry Harpending show that agriculture and sedentarization rapidly sped up the rate upon which the human genome successfully mutated as humanity biologically adapted to meet the demands of their new living and dietary strategies.


The archaeologist, Klaus Schmidt

The people who built and worshiped at Göbekli Tepe were initially nomadic hunters who knew neither grain nor how to sow it, but they began to change the world around them, and eventually set the stage for the infectious spread of civilization over the planet. In a period spanning roughly a thousand years, the mechanisms where put in place through which the plains and plateaus that surround Göbekli Tepe were transformed from forest to field. I went to Göbekli Tepe, stood on the mound and looked out across an expanse that was once a lush forest full of game, herbs, shrubs, and sustenance for hunter-gatherers. That same expanse is now looks beat, having been set upon for thousands of years by goat, sheep, and plow. A lone tree sits on top of Göbekli Tepe, seemingly reminding us of a lost era in human history, a lost sense of innocence before man moved on to control the ebbs and flows of nature, of a time before my species laid down their satchels and spears and picked up hoes and plows.

The modern human is not completely the same animal as was our migratory hunter-gatherer ancestors, and I soon realized that my search for my species’ lost nomadic roots just lead me into a study of people who had a physical and mental makeup that was slightly different than my own. I am the product of 10,000 years of super charged genetic adaption which was suppose to equip me to be a part of a sedentary, agricultural, civilized society. My biology is that of Cain the farmer not Abel the nomad, but I know that the restlessness of the nomad still lives inside of the modern human, as the wolf still lives inside of every dog.

Göbekli Tepe is a name familiar to anyone interested in the ancient history and mysteries. Billed as the oldest stone temple in the world, it is composed of a series of megalithic structures containing rings of beautifully carved T-shaped pillars. It sits on a mountain ridge in southeast Anatolia, Kurdistan 13 kilometers from the ancient city of Ruha (today Urfa), close to the traditional site of the Garden of Eden. For the past ten thousand years, its secrets have remained hidden beneath an artificial, belly-shaped mound of earth some 300 m by 200 meters in size. Agriculture and animal husbandry were barely known when Göbekli Tepe was built, and roaming the fertile landscape of southwest Asia were, we are told, primitive hunter-gatherers, whose sole existence revolved around survival on a day-to-day basis. In this video we will try to answer the various questions that have been left unanswered since its discovery. Who created Gobekli Tepe, and why? More importantly, why did its builders bury their creation at the end of its useful life? In attempt to answer these questions, we are inspired by the book entitled, Göbekli Tepe: Genesis of the Gods.

Göbekli Tepe is a name familiar to anyone interested in the ancient history and mysteries. Billed as the oldest stone temple in the world, it is composed of a series of megalithic structures containing rings of beautifully carved T-shaped pillars.

It sits on a mountain ridge in southeast Anatolia, Kurdistan, just 13 kilometers from the antiques city of Ruha (today Urfa), close to the traditional site of the Garden of Eden.

For the past ten years, its secrets have remained hidden beneath an artificial, belly-shaped mound of each some 300 m by 200 meters in size.

Agriculture and animal husbandry were barely known when Göbekli Tepe was built, and roaming the fertile landscape of southwest Asia were primitive hunter-gatherers, whose sole existence revolved around survival on a day-to-day basis.

We will try to answer various questions that have been left unswered since its discovery. Who created Göbekli Tepe, and why? More importantly, why did its builders bury their creation at the end of its Useful Life?

In attempt to answer these questions, we are inspired by the book entitled, Göbekli Tepe: Genesis of the Gods.

In this book there are compelling evidence that the myths of the Watchers of the book of Enoch and the Anunnaki of Mesopotamian myth and legend are memories of the Göbekli Tepe builders and their impact on the rise of civilization.

It is also believe that Göbekli Tepe was constructed by a hunter-gatherer population still in fear following a devastating cataclysm that nearly destroyed the world.

A comet impact that science today recognizes as having taken place around 12 900 years ago, with terrifying aftershocks that lasted several hundered years afterward.

Yet it seems unlikely that those who came up with a plan to counter the innate fear of another cataclysm were the indigenous population.

This appears to have been orchestrated by members of an incominmg culture, composed of groups of shamans, warriors, hunters and stone tool specialists of immense power and charisma.

Their territories, across which they traded diffrent forms of flint, as well as hematite, used as red ochre, streached from the Carpathians in the west to the Russian steppes and plain in the easts.

More incredibly, anatomical evidence points to them being of striking appearance - tall, with extremely long heads, high cheekbones, long faces, large jaws, and strong brow ridges, which some have seen as evidence they were Neanderthal human hybrids.

The answer lies in the rise of the Swiderians whose mining operations in Poland"s Swietokrzyskie (Holy Cross) Mountains are among the earliest evidence of organized mining activities anywhere in the world.

These advanced society, who thrived in both Central and Eastern Europe around the time of the comet impact event of 10 900 BC was responsible for the foundation of various important post-Swiderians cultures of the Mesoliyhic age as far north as Norway, Finland and Sweden, as far south as the Caoucasus Mountains and as far east as the Upper Volga river of Central Russia.

The Swiderians' higly advanced culture, which included a sophisticated stone tool technology, was derived from their distant ancestors, the Eastern Gravettian peoples that thrived between 30 000 and 19 000 BC in what is today the Czech Republic and further east on the Russian Plain.

In around 10 500 BC It's believe that Swiderians groups moved south from the East European Plain into eastern Anatolia.

Here they gained control of the regional trade in the black volcanic glass known as obsidian at places like Bingol Mountain in the Kurdistan Highlands and Nemrut Mountain an extict volcano to the shores of the Lake Wan Anatolia's largest inland sea.

This brought them into contact with the communities who would later be responsible for the construction of Göbeli Tepe around 9500-9000 BC.

Everything suggests the Swiderians possessed a sophisticated cosmoloy gained in the part from their cousins the Solutreans of Central and Western Europe, who were themselves related to the Eastern Gravettian peoples.

They believed in a cosmic tree supporting the sky world entered via the Great Rift-the fork or split in the Milky Way caused by the presence of stellar dust and debris - corresponding to the position in the northern heavens occupied by the stars of Cygnus, the celestial swan (a. k. a. the Northern Cross).

The Swiderians believed also that birds were symbols of the astral flight, and that this was the manner in which the shaman could reach the sky world.

In Europe the bird most commonly associated with these beliefs and practices was the swan, while in Southwest Asia it was the vulture, a primary symbol of death and transformation in the early Neolithic age.

Both birds are identified with the Cygnus constellation.

Using this guise the shaman could enter the sky world and counter the actions of the supernatural creature seen as responsible for cataclysms like the comet impact of 10 900 BC, referred to by scientists today as the Younger Dryas Boundary (YDB) event.

This cosmic trickster was seen to take the form of a sky fox or sky wolf, embodied perhaps in the leping foxes carved in relief on the inner faces of key pillars at Göbekli Tepe, and remembered also as the Fenris-wolf responsible for causing Ragnorak, a major cataclysm preserved in Norse mythology.

Also accross Europé, and into Southwest Asia, accounts exist of supernatural foxes and wolfes that have attempted to endanger the sky pillar supporting the starry canopy, an act that if achieved would have brought about the destruction of the world.

Someone realized that only by allaying people&rsquos fears regarding the immense potency of the cosmic trickster could stability be truly restored to the world.

And whenever this supernatural creature returned to the heavens in the guise of a comet-seen as a visible manifestation of the sky fox or sky wolf &ndash it would be the shaman&rsquos role to enter the sky world and counter its baleful influence, as primary motivation that is believe to be behind the construction of the Göbekli Tepe.

Yet there where clearly other reasons for the construction of Göbekli Tepe.

Its stone enclosures served, most likely, as womb chambers, places where the shaman entered into a primal state after passing between the enclosures&rsquo twin central pillars.

These enoormous monoliths, sometimes 5.5 meters in height, and weighing as much as 15 metric tonnes a piece, acted as otherworldly portals to invisible realms.

This could be considered true star gates in every sense of the word.

And their target: the setting down on the local horizon of Deneb. Cygnus&rsquos brightest star, which marked the start of the Mily Ways&rsquos Great Rift, a played by Deneb as early as 16 500 &ndash 14 000 BC

At this time Deneb acted as Pole Star, the star closest to the celestial pole during any particular epoch.

Even after Deneb ceased to be Pole Star around 14 000 BC, due to the effects of precession (the slow wobble of the earth&rsquos exis scros a cycle of approximately 20 000 years), its place was taken by another Cygans star, Delta Cygni, which held the position until around 13 000 BC.

After this time the role of Pole Star went to Vega in the constellation of Lyra, the celestial lyre. When arround 11 000 BC Vega moved out of range of the celestial pole, no bright star replaced it for several thousand years.

This means that when Göbekli Tepe was constructed, about 9500-9000 BC, there was no Pole Star.

It was for this reason that Deneb, and the Milky Ways&rsquos Great Rift, retained their significance as the main point of entry to the sky world, making it the primary destination of the shaman.

Standing walls erected in the north-northwestern section of the walls in two key enclosures at Göbekli Tepe bore large holes that framed the setting of Deneb each night, highlighting the star&rsquos significanse to the Göbekli Tepe builders, and showing the precise direction in which the shaman should access the sky world.

Do they have cosmic knowledge? Everywhere you look at Göbekli Tepe there is confirmation that it builders shared a sense of connection with the cosmos.

From the strange glyphs and ideograms on the varrious stones, which include symbols resembling the letters C and H to the twelvfold division of stones in the various enclousres&rsquo there is powerful evidence that these 11 000-years-old tempel resonate the influence of the celestial heavens.

The H glyphs seem to relate to the shaman&rsquos journey from this world to the otherworld, while the C glyps are almost certainly slim lunar crescents signifying transtion from one lunar cycle to the next.

Even the design of the enclosures appears to have cosmic significance. Invariably the structures are ovoid in shape with a length to breadth ratio of 5.4 numbers that could hint at the Göbekli Tepe builders&rsquo profound awareness or cosmic time cycle not usualy thought to have been understood until the age of Plato.

If Swiderians group were the shamanic elite responsible for Göbekli Tepe, then there is every chance that the cosmic knowledge encoded into its construction came, at least in part, from highly envolved individuals who were by nature Neanderthal-human hybrids of striking pyhsical appearance.

These people were most likely the product of interactions between Neanderthals and Anatomically Modern Humans at the dawn of the Upper Paleolithic age, c. 40 000-30 000 BC.

This is a very exciting realization that tells us that we might well have underestimated the dynamic polency of hybridization in the formative years of human history.

Over a period of around 1500 years twenty or more major enclosures were constructed within the gradualy emerging occupational mound of Göbekli Tepe.

Old enclosures were periodically decommissioned, deconsecrated and covered over, quite literaly &rdquokilled&rdquo. At the end of their usefull lifes.

New structures were built to replace them, but as time went on they became much smaller in construction, until eventually the cell-like buildings were to larger than a familly sized Jacuzzi with pillars no more than five feet.

Somehow the world had changed, and the impetus for creating gigantic stone temples with enourmous twin monoliths at their centers was no longer there. Cygnus constellation.

It was a concept dimly remembered in the name Göbekli Tepe, which means navel-like hill.

Even after Göbekli Tepe was abandoned, its memory, and those of the ruling elite its construction, lingered on among the Halaf and Ubaid peoples who floorished during the latter half of the Neolithic age c. 6000-4100 BC.

Like their predecessors, they gained control of the all-important obsidian trade at places such as Bingöl Mountain and Nemrud Dag, close to Lake Wan.

Their elites who would appear to have belonged to specific family groups, artificially deformed their already elongated heads, not only to denote their status in society, but also quite possibly to mimic the perceived appealeance or great ancestors, seen to have possessed extremely long heads and faces.

It is very possible that these great encestors are perhaps represented by the snake-or reptilian-headed clay figures found in several Ubaid cemeteries.

What in your view do you think was responsible for the building of Göbekli Tepe?


*) The real name of Göbekli Tepe is Girê Navoke (Navel-like hill in Kurdish). Since this hill concidered by inhabitants living arround the hill to be a holy site it's also called Girê Miradan (which means Hill of Whishes). The villagers called the place Khirabreshk too, it means the Black Ruins. But the Turks who trying to turkify Kurdish people and their country Kurdistan, changed the name of this place to Göbekli Tepe in 1930'ies.

[turkish: Çatal Höyük, loan from Kurdish Language]

GIR "tumulus" + ÇETEL "fork" was a very large Neolithic and Chalcolithic proto-city settlement in southern Anatolia, (Obs NOT Turkey)
which existed from approximately 7100 BC to 5700 BC, and flourished around 7000 BC.

They used to enter the first housings with the help of a ladder from the roof so as not to let in wild animals.

They used to enter the first housings with the help of a ladder from the roof so as not to let in wild animals.

They used to enter the first housings with the help of a ladder from the roof so as not to let in wild animals.

Watch the video: Forbidden Archaeology Documentary 2018 Ancient Ruins That Defy Mainstream History (July 2022).


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