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Fort Marion LSD 22 - History

Fort Marion LSD 22 - History



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Fort Marion

The oldest defensive works still standing in the United States, constructed by the Spanish beginning in 1672 to protect St. Augustine, Fla.

(LSD-22: dp. 4,490; 1. 467'9"; b. 72'2"; dr. 18';
s. 15 k.; cpl. 326; a. 1 5"; cl. Ashland)

Fort Marion (LSD-22) was launched 22 May 1946 by Gulf Shipbuilding Corp., Chickasaw, Ala., sponsored by Mrs. Louise S. Dodson, and commissioned 29 January 1946, Commander H. A. Adams in command.

Fort Marion arrived at San Diego her home port, 26 May 1946, and through the next 3 years repaired landing craft, carried cargo and landing craft between San Diego and San Francisco, and took part in amphibious training exercises on the California coast. Between 4 April and 21 July 1949 she made her first tour of duty in the Far East, calling in Alaska outward bound.

Upon the outbreak of the Korean war, Fort Marior sailed for action 12 July 1950, and arrived at Pusan with Marines and their equipment 2 August. For the next month, she ferried troops from Kobe to Yokosuka for further routing onward to Korea. On 12 September, at Pusan, Fort Marion embarked men of the 1st Marines, whom she landed in the assault on Wolmi Do 3 days later. The seizure of this strategically placed island made possible the audacious landings at Inchon later that same day. Fort Marion lay off Inchon for the next month, receiving casualties and caring for small craft.

From 25 October 1950 until 23 November Fort Marion lay at Wonsan for similar duty, as well as aiding in the withdrawal early in December. From 29 December through March 1951, she carried troops from Japan to Korea, then embarked American and British Marines for a daring commando raid on the east coast of Korea. She put the commandos ashore 6 April, reembarking them that same afternoon after they had destroyed a section of a vital coastal railway. Fort Marion, sailed from Yokosuka for home 26 April 1951.

During her second Korean war deployment, from 16 April 1951 to 14 January 1953, Fort Marion operated with a mine squadron in Wonsan Harbor, acting as mother ship for the small ships as they carried out their dangerous operations. She also operated with an amphibious construction battalion, and joined in a mock invasion on the coast north of Wonsan.

Extensively overhauled in 1953, Fort Marion was equipped with a mezzanine deck and fitted to carry helicopters. She arrived at Sasebo 7 December to resume duty as a minesweeper tender, and during this tour of duty joined in amphibious exercises off Okinawa and Japan. Back in San Diego 19 August 1954, she sailed later that year to the Hawaiian Islands for exercises, and in May 1955 took part in Operation "Wigwam", the experimental detonation of an under~rater atomic explosion.

In 1956-57, 1958, and 1959, Fort Marion made additional deployments to the western Pacific, taking part in mine and amphibious warfare operations, and in the summer of 1958, joining in emergency operations to meet the threat posed by renewed Communist shelling of the Nationalist-held offshore islands. In September, serving with the Taiwan Patrol Force, she brought supplies to Quemoy under Communist fire. Fort Marion spent much of 1960 in an extensive modernization overhaul which added many useful years to her expected span of service, and on 22 November called for Far Eastern duty once more.

Fort Marion received five battle stars for Korean war service.


USS Fort Marion (LSD-22)

Fort Marion was launched on 22 May 1945 by Gulf Shipbuilding Corp., Chickasaw, Alabama, sponsored by Mrs. Louise S. Dodson and commissioned on 29 January 1946, Commander H. A. Adams in command.

Fort Marion arrived at San Diego her home port, 26 May 1946, and through the next three years repaired landing craft, carried cargo and landing craft between San Diego and San Francisco, and took part in amphibious training exercises on the California coast. Between 4 April and 21 July 1949, she made her first tour of duty in the Far East, calling in Alaska outward bound.

Korean War

Upon the outbreak of the Korean War, Fort Marion sailed for action 12 July 1950, and arrived at Pusan with Marines and their equipment 2 August. For the next month, she ferried troops from Kobe to Yokosuka for further routing onward to Korea. On 12 September, at Pusan, Fort Marion embarked men of the 3rd Battalion, 5th Marines and three LSUs, carrying ten tanks, for the invasion of Inchon. Fort Marion was the flagship of Captain Norman W. Sears' Advance Attack Group, which comprised Fort Marion and the fast transports Horace A. Bass, Diachenko, and Wantuck. [ 2 ]

Shortly after midnight on the 15th, destroyers and cruisers of the Gunfire Support Group entered Flying Fish Channel and headed north, accompanied by the Advance Attack Group. Fort Marion ' s Marines and tanks landed on Green Beach on Wolmi-do starting at 06:33. [ 2 ] The seizure of this strategically-placed island made possible the landings at 17:30 that afternoon by the rest of the 5th Marines and the 1st Marines. Fort Marion lay off Inchon for the next month, receiving casualties and caring for small craft.

From 25 October 1950 until 23 November Fort Marion lay at Wonsan for similar duty, as well as aiding in the withdrawal early in December. From 29 December through March 1951, she carried troops from Japan to Korea.

In April, a special task organization, Task Force 74, was set up under Admiral Roscoe H. Hillenkoetter, with the mission of interdicting North Korea's east coast rail line by a commando raid. Fort Marion, with 250 men of the British Royal Marines' 41 Commando battalion, and Begor (APD-127) with a UDT detachment, set sail for Sorye Dong, eight miles south of Sŏngjin, with a supporting force composed of Saint Paul (CA-73), two destroyers, and six minesweepers. The landing itself was the responsibility of Captain Philip W. Mothersill, commanding officer of Fort Marion and Commander Amphibious Group Adm. Hillenkoetter controlled only the supporting ships. Despite fog and an unsuitable landing zone, the commandos blew up about 100 yards of railroad, and were then successfully reembarked, although they found that airstrikes by Task Force 77 had already made the railway inoperable. [ 3 ] Fort Marion sailed from Yokosuka for home 26 April 1951.

During her second Korean War deployment, from 16 April 1952 to 14 January 1953, Fort Marion operated with a mine squadron in Wonsan Harbor, acting as mother ship for the small ships as they carried out their dangerous operations. She also operated with an amphibious construction battalion, and joined in a mock invasion on the coast north of Wonsan.

1953 – 1960

Extensively overhauled in 1953, Fort Marion was equipped with a mezzanine deck and fitted to carry helicopters. She arrived at Sasebo 7 December to resume duty as a minesweeper tender, and during this tour of duty joined in amphibious exercises off Okinawa and Japan. Back in San Diego 19 August 1954, she sailed later that year to the Hawaiian Islands for exercises, and in May 1955 took part in Operation Wigwam, the experimental detonation of an underwater atomic explosion.

In 1956–57, 1958, and 1959, Fort Marion made additional deployments to the western Pacific, taking part in mine and amphibious warfare operations, and in the summer of 1958, joining in emergency operations to meet the threat posed by renewed Communist shelling of the Nationalist-held offshore islands. In September, serving with the Taiwan Patrol Force, she brought supplies to Quemoy under Communist fire. Fort Marion spent much of 1960 in an extensive modernization overhaul which added many useful years to her expected span of service, and on 22 November sailed for Far Eastern duty once more.

Fort Marion served in several Vietnam War campaigns between 1965 and 1969.

Fort Marion was decommissioned on 13 February 1970, and stricken from the Naval Register on 31 October 1974. The ship was sold to the Republic of China on 15 April 1977.

Awards

Fort Marion received five battle stars for Korean War service and five campaign stars for Vietnam War service.


USS Fort Marion (LSD-22) [ edit | edit source ]

Fort Marion was launched on 22 May 1945 by Gulf Shipbuilding Corp., Chickasaw, Alabama, sponsored by Mrs. Louise S. Dodson and commissioned on 29 January 1946, Commander H. A. Adams in command.

Fort Marion arrived at San Diego her home port, 26 May 1946, and through the next three years repaired landing craft, carried cargo and landing craft between San Diego and San Francisco, and took part in amphibious training exercises on the California coast. Between 4 April and 21 July 1949, she made her first tour of duty in the Far East, calling in Alaska outward bound.

Korean War [ edit | edit source ]

Upon the outbreak of the Korean War, Fort Marion sailed for action 12 July 1950, and arrived at Pusan with Marines and their equipment 2 August. For the next month, she ferried troops from Kobe to Yokosuka for further routing onward to Korea. On 12 September, at Pusan, Fort Marion embarked men of the 3rd Battalion, 5th Marines and three LSUs, carrying ten tanks, for the invasion of Inchon. Fort Marion was the flagship of Captain Norman W. Sears' Advance Attack Group, which comprised Fort Marion and the fast transports Horace A. Bass, Diachenko, and Wantuck. ΐ] Shortly after midnight on the 15th, destroyers and cruisers of the Gunfire Support Group entered Flying Fish Channel and headed north, accompanied by the Advance Attack Group. Fort Marion ' s Marines and tanks landed on Green Beach on Wolmi-do starting at 06:33. ΐ] The seizure of this strategically placed island made possible the landings at 17:30 that afternoon by the rest of the 5th Marines and the 1st Marines. Fort Marion lay off Inchon for the next month, receiving casualties and caring for small craft. From 25 October 1950 until 23 November Fort Marion lay at Wonsan for similar duty, as well as aiding in the withdrawal early in December. From 29 December through March 1951, she carried troops from Japan to Korea.

LVTs embarking British commandos leave Fort Marion for the beach at Sorye Dong, on 7 April 1951.

In April, a special task organization, Task Force 74, was set up under Admiral Roscoe H. Hillenkoetter, with the mission of interdicting North Korea's east coast rail line by a commando raid. Fort Marion, with 250 men of the British Royal Marines' 41 Commando battalion, and Begor (APD-127) with a UDT detachment, set sail for Sorye Dong, eight miles south of Sŏngjin, with a supporting force composed of Saint Paul (CA-73), two destroyers, and six minesweepers. The landing itself was the responsibility of Captain Philip W. Mothersill, commanding officer of Fort Marion and Commander Amphibious Group Adm. Hillenkoetter controlled only the supporting ships. Despite fog and an unsuitable landing zone, the commandos blew up about 100 yards of railroad, and were then successfully reembarked, although they found that airstrikes by Task Force 77 had already made the railway inoperable. Α] Fort Marion sailed from Yokosuka for home 26 April 1951. During her second Korean War deployment, from 16 April 1952 to 14 January 1953, Fort Marion operated with a mine squadron in Wonsan Harbor, acting as mother ship for the small ships as they carried out their dangerous operations. She also operated with an amphibious construction battalion, and joined in a mock invasion on the coast north of Wonsan.

1953 – 1960 [ edit | edit source ]

Extensively overhauled in 1953, Fort Marion was equipped with a mezzanine deck and fitted to carry helicopters. She arrived at Sasebo 7 December to resume duty as a minesweeper tender, and during this tour of duty joined in amphibious exercises off Okinawa and Japan. Back in San Diego 19 August 1954, she sailed later that year to the Hawaiian Islands for exercises, and in May 1955 took part in Operation Wigwam, the experimental detonation of an underwater atomic explosion.

In 1956–57, 1958, and 1959, Fort Marion made additional deployments to the western Pacific, taking part in mine and amphibious warfare operations, and in the summer of 1958, joining in emergency operations to meet the threat posed by renewed Communist shelling of the Nationalist-held offshore islands. In September, serving with the Taiwan Patrol Force, she brought supplies to Quemoy under Communist fire. Fort Marion spent much of 1960 in an extensive modernization overhaul which added many useful years to her expected span of service, and on 22 November sailed for Far Eastern duty once more.

Fort Marion served in several Vietnam War campaigns between 1965 and 1969.

Fort Marion was decommissioned on 13 February 1970, and stricken from the Naval Register on 31 October 1974. The ship was sold to the Republic of China on 15 April 1977.

Awards [ edit | edit source ]

Fort Marion received five battle stars for Korean War service and five campaign stars for Vietnam War service.


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Product Description

USS Fort Marion LSD 22

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Fort Marion LSD 22 - History

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Fort Marion LSD 22 - History

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October 1, 2004 Cmdr. Curtis J. Gilbert relieved Cmdr. John L. Bryant as commanding officer of USS Oak Hill, during a change-of-command ceremony on board the ship.

January 19, 2005 USS Oak Hill departed Naval Amphibious Base Little Creek in support of a humanitarian assistance exercise in Haiti, entitled New Horizons, as part of the USS Saipan (LHA 2) Expeditionary Strike Group Returned home on March 9.

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February 9, The dock landing ship pulled into Souda Bay, Crete, for a routine port call.

March 26, Cmdr. Ray A. Staff relieved Cmdr. Curtis J. Gilbert as CO of the USS Oak Hill during a change-of-command ceremony on board the ship at Manama, Bahrain.

March 30, USS Oak Hill provided assistance to a vessel in distress approximately 60 nautical miles off the coast of Somalia, while conducting Maritime Security Operations (MSO), as part of the Dutch-led Coalition Task Force (CTF) 150.

May 31, USS Oak Hill returned to homeport after a four-month underawy period in the U.S. 5th and 6th Fleet AoR. During her transit home through the Mediterranean Sea, she conducted engineering certification before enjoying a port visit to Cittivecchia, Italy.

August 19, The dock landing ship is currently in the Atlantic Ocean, conducting an Expeditionary Strike Group Integration (ESGINT) with the USS Bataan (LHD 5), USS Shreveport (LPD 12), embarked elements of Amphibious Squadron (PHIBRON) Two and 26th Marine Expeditionary Unit (MEU), in preparation for an upcoming deployment.

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January 4, 2007 USS Oak Hill departed NAB Little Creek for a scheduled deployment, with the USS Bataan ESG-2, in support of the global war on terrorism.

February 5, The Oak Hill began a two-week exercise Image Nautilus 2007 by successfully offloading the Marines and equipment in Djibouti, on the northeast coast of Africa. The Marines will participate in community service project and live-fire exercises. In addition, Oak Hill's boarding team is conducting training with boarding officers from the Djiboutian Coast Guard.

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June 9, The dock landing ship pulled into Castries, St. Lucia, for a goodwill port visit.

July 1, USS Oak Hill departed Puerto Belgrano, Argentina, after a scheduled port call.

July 4, The Oak Hill recently arrived in Montevideo, Uruguay, to celebrate the U.S. Independence Day.

July 12, The Oak Hill pulled into Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to participate in a two-week training exercise in Brazil.

August 21, USS Oak Hill returned to Joint Expeditionary Base Little Creek-Fort Story after a nearly three-month underway period.

September 3, 2010 Cmdr. David E. Bauer relieved Cmdr. Daniel Blackburn as CO of the Oak Hill.

April 21, 2011 The dock landing ship returned to homeport after an 11-day underway period for routine training.

May 31, The U.S. Navy successfully tested the ability to dock and secure the Riverine Command Boat (RCB) and Riverine Patrol Boat (RPB), from Riverine Squadrons (RIVRON) 2 and 3, aboard the anchored USS Oak Hill, during a well deck certification held at the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay.

June 20, The Oak Hill arrived in Boothbay Harbor, Maine, for a two-day port visit to participate in the 49th Windjammer Days Festival.

June 23, LSD 51 anchored off the coast of Gloucester, Mass., for a four-day port visit to participate in the 89th annual St. Peter&rsquos Fiesta.

June 29, USS Oak Hill arrived pierside at the North Jetty of the Boston Marine Industrial Park to celebrate Boston Harborfest and the July 4th festivities.

August 3, The dock landing ship departed Little Creek for a two-day Friends and Family Cruise.

August 18, USS Oak Hill is currently conducting certification evolutions off the East Coast in preparation for a three-month deployment.

August 25, The Oak Hill departed Little Creak as the first ship to sortie away from the approaching Category 2 Hurricane Irene. 27 ships are moving out to sea, beginning at 8:00 a.m., and will rendezvous with 11 other ships that are already at sea, at the location east of Bermuda. Another 28 are being moved to other places such as repair shipyards that are safer than the piers at Norfolk to avoid the storm, that will hit Hampton Roads area Saturday evening.

September 7, Petty Officer 3rd Class Mark I. Hernandez died this morning from self-inflicted gunshot wound, aboard the Oak Hill, while pierside at Naval Station Norfolk.

October 3, USS Oak Hill departed Joint Expeditionary Base Little Creek-Fort Story for a scheduled deployment to the Caribbean Sea and southern Atlantic Ocean in support of Amphibious-Southern Partnership Station (A-SPS).

November 3, The Oak Hill pulled into Colon, Panama, for a brief port call to pick up fuel and supplies.

November 16, LSD 51 arrived in Cartagena, Colombia, for a three-day port visit to deliver 30 tons of humanitarian aid.

November 20, USS Oak Hill pulled into Puerto Castilla, Honduras, to participate in a joint weapons training exercises with Honduran troops over the next two weeks as part of a Subject Matter Expert Exchanges (SMEEs).

December 2, USS Oak Hill intercepted the motor vessel Mr. Geo in international waters off the Caribbean coast of Honduras. The Coast Guard boarding team recovered the shipment of cocaine, weighing more than 4,400 pounds worth an estimated street value of $245 million.

December 13, The dock landing ship arrived in Guantanamo Bay for a routine port call to conduct agricultural counter-measure washdowns of all embarked equipment. LSD 51 recently departed Puerto Santo Tomas de Castilla, Guatemala, its final port visit as part of A-SPS.

December 21, USS Oak Hill returned to homeport after an 80-day deployment to Central America.

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March 2, Cmdr. Kevin A. Lane relieved Cmdr. David E. Bauer as CO of the LSD 51 during a change-of-command ceremony on board the ship at Pier 16 on Joint Expeditionary Base Little Creek-Fort Story.

April 15, USS Oak Hill on-loaded 172 pallets of mortars at Naval Station Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, for a transfer to Naval Weapons Station Earle, New Jersey Returned home on April 25.

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May 21, USS Oak Hill moored at Berth 5, Manhattan's Pier 92 in New York City for a six-day port visit to participate in annual Fleet Week celebration.

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April 16, The Oak Hill moored at Alcantara Cruise Terminal in Lisbon, Portugal, for a four-day port visit Inport Morehead City, N.C., for offload from April 29- May 1.?

May 3, USS Oak Hill moored at Pier 16N on Joint Expeditionary Base Little Creek-Fort Story following a seven-month deployment.

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October 25, USS Oak Hill recently concluded humanitarian relief efforts off the coast of Puerto Rico.

October 29, LSD 51 moored at Quay Wall East on Joint Expeditionary Base Little Creek-Fort Story Underway for Combined Composite Training Unit Exercise (COMPTUEX) on Nov. 13.

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January 12, 2018 Cmdr. Philip E. Knight relieved Cmdr. Nakia M. Cooper as CO of the USS Oak Hill during a change-of-command ceremony on board the ship.

January 24, The Oak Hill moored at Naval Weapons Station Yorktown, Va., for a three-day ammo onload Moored at Berth 5, Pier 9 in Naval Station Norfolk on Jan. 28 Moored at Quay Wall Dogleg Berth after a brief underway off the coast of Virginia on Feb. 3.

February 9, USS Oak Hill departed homeport for a scheduled deployment, as part of the USS Iwo Jima (LHD 7) ARG.

February 10, The Oak Hill moored at Berth 9, General Cargo Terminal in Port of Morehead City, N.C., for a one-day port call to conduct onload Transited the Strait of Gibraltar on Feb. 28.

March 7, The Oak Hill transited the Dardanelles Strait northbound, en route to Black Sea, to participate in a multinational amphibious landing exercise Spring Storm 18, off the coast of Cape Midia, Romania.

March 17, USS Oak Hill moored at Berth 10, Passenger Terminal in Port of Batumi, Georgia, for a three-day visit Transited the Bosporus Strait southbound on March 22 Transited the Suez Canal on March 27 Transited the Bab el-Mandeb Strait southbound on April 1.

April 2, The dock landing ship commenced a two-week amphibious training exercise Alligator Dagger 18-1, while underway off the coast of Arta Beach, Djibouti Arrived in the northern Red Sea on April 14 Transited the Strait of Tiran northbound on April 17.

April 18, USS Oak Hill moored at Aqaba Naval Base, Jordan, for a six-day port call in support of the annual multinational exercise Eager Lion 2018 Moored at Aqaba Naval Base again for backload from April 29- May 1.

May 5, The Oak Hill moored at Jeddah Islamic Port, Saudi Arabia, for a two-day visit Transited the Suez Canal northbound on May 16.

May 22, USS Oak Hill transited the Strait of Gibraltar westbound Moored at Pier 4 on Naval Station Rota, Spain, to refuel from May 23-24 Transited the English Channel eastbound from May 26-27 Transited the Great Belt Strait southbound on May 29.

May 31, USS Oak Hill moored, on Thursday evening, at Hidrotechnika Berth 118 in Port of Klaipeda, Lithuania, for a three-day visit before participating in at-sea phase of a multinational annual exercise Baltic Operations (BALTOPS).

June 15, LSD 51 moored at southern Tirpitz-Mole, Tirpitzhafen Naval Base in Kiel, Germany, for a five-day port visit.

June 22, USS Oak Hill moored at Polish Quay in Port of Gdynia, Poland, for a scheduled visit to commemorate the 100th birthday of the Polish Navy Suffered an engineering casualty after a brief underway for Parade of Ships on June 24 Departed Gdynia on July 9 Transited the Great Belt Strait northbound on July 10 Transited the Dover Strait southbound on July 12.

July 15, The Oak Hill arrived off the coast of Rota, Spain, to offload vehicles for agricultural counter-measure washdowns Moored at Pier 4, Pier 1 on Naval Station Rota from July 16-20 Moored at Berth 9, General Cargo Terminal in Port of Morehead City, N.C., from Aug. 4-5.

August 7, USS Oak Hill moored at Quay Wall East on Joint Expeditionary Base Little Creek-Fort Story following a six-month deployment in the U.S. 5th and 6th Fleet AoR.

September 10, The Oak Hill emergency sortied from Little Creek due to approaching Hurricane Florence Arrived in the vicinity of Freeport, Bahamas, on Sept. 13 Conducted a replenishment-at-sea with the USNS Joshua Humphreys (T-AO 188), off the coast of Virginia, on Sept. 16 Moored at Pier 16N on Sept. 18.

October 1, USS Oak Hill moored at Pier 16S on Joint Expeditionary Base Little Creek-Fort Story after a week-long underway off the coast of Virginia Underway again on Oct. 2.

October 2, The Oak Hill anchored in Chesapeake Bay on Tuesday evening, approximately 4 n.m. southeast of Annapolis, Md., for an overnight stop.

October 3, USS Oak Hill moored at Pier 4/5 West, North Locust Point Marine Terminal in Port of Baltimore, Md., for a six-day visit to participate in the Fleet Week celebration.

October 11, LSD 51 anchored at Lynnhaven Anchorage "A" for a brief stop before moored at Quay Wall East Underway again on Nov. 5.

November 9, USS Oak Hill moored at Homeport Pier in Stapleton, Staten Island, N.Y., for a four-day visit to New York City to participate in Veterans Day celebration.

November 14, The dock landing ship anchored at Lynnhaven Anchorage "A" for a brief stop before moored at Quay Wall East.

January 18, 2019 USS Oak Hill moored at Quay Wall East after a three-day underway in the Virginia Capes Op. Area Underway again from Jan. 25-28 and Feb. 11.

February 20, The Oak Hill moored at Wharf C2 on Naval Station Mayport, Fla., for a one-day port call Underway in the Jacksonville Op. Area from Feb. 21-26 Anchored at Lynnhaven Anchorage "A" for a brief stop on Feb. 28 Conducted operations off the coast of Camp Lejeune, N.C., from March 2-5.

March 11, The Oak Hill moored at Naval Weapons Station Yorktown for a three-day ammo offload Moored at Quay Wall Dogleg Berth on March 14.

May 10, Cmdr. Rodolfo Jacobo relieved Cmdr. Philip E. Knight as the 16th CO of Oak Hill during a change-of-command ceremony on board the ship.

May 28, USS Oak Hill departed Joint Expeditionary Base Little Creek-Fort Story for routine training in the Virginia Capes Op. Area Moored at Berth 3, Pier 10 in Naval Station Norfolk for a training availability (TRAV) on May 31.

July 8, USS Oak Hill departed Norfolk for Amphibious Squadron (PHIBRON) 8/Marine Expeditionary Unit Integration Training (PMINT), with the 26th MEU, as part of the USS Bataan (LHD 5) ARG Anchored at Lynnhaven Anchorage "A" for a brief stop.

July 10, The Oak Hill moored at Berth 9, General Cargo Terminal in Port of Morehead City, N.C., for a one-day port call to conduct onload Moored at Quay Wall East on July 19 Underway for a Surface Warfare Advanced Tactical Training (SWATT) exercise, off the coast of Virginia, from July 26- Aug. 5 Underway for ARG/MEUEX on Aug. 21.

August 23, The Oak Hill moored at Berth 9 in Port of Morehead City for a one-day onload Conducted offload in Onslow Bay from Sept. 14-15 Brief stop at Lynnhaven Anchorage "A" before moored at Quay Wall East on Sept. 16 Underway for a Composite Training Unit Exercise (COMPTUEX) on Oct. 9.

October 9, The dock landing ship anchored at Lynnhaven Anchorage "A" for a brief stop Moored at Berth 9 in Port of Morehead City from Oct. 10-11 Inport Morehead City again for offload from Nov. 5-6 Moored at Naval Weapons Station Yorktown, Va., for ammo onload from Nov. 7-9 Returned home on Nov. 9 Underway for a Friends and Family Day Cruise on Dec. 11.

December 14, USS Oak Hill departed Little Creek for a scheduled Middle East deployment Moored at Berth 9 in Port of Morehead City for onload from Dec. 15-16.

January 3, 2020 The Oak Hill transited the Strait of Gibraltar, along with the USS Bataan and USNS William Mclean (T-AKE 12), on late Friday evening Transited the Suez Canal southbound on Jan. 11 Transited the Bab el-Mandeb Strait southbound on Jan. 26.

January 29, LSD 51 conducted a replenishment-at-sea with the USNS Wally Schirra (T-AKE 8), while underway in the Gulf of Aden Moored at General Cargo Terminal in Port of Duqm, Oman, from Feb. 3-4 Transited the Strait of Hormuz northbound on Feb. 12.

February 13, USS Oak Hill moored at Berth 58, Quay 9 in Port of Jebel Ali, United Arab Emirates, for a three-day liberty visit to Dubai Conducted a replenishment-at-sea with the USNS William McLean on Feb. 25 Transited the Strait of Hormuz southbound on Feb. 27 Transited the Bab el-Mandeb Strait northbound on March 14 Transited southbound on March 28 Transited the Strait of Hormuz northbound on April 3.

April 20, The Oak Hill conducted amphibious landing on Karan Island, Saudi Arabia, as part of the sustainment training exercise Conducted a replenishment-at-sea with the USNS Robert E. Peary (T-AKE 5) on April 25 Transited the Strait of Hormuz southbound on May 31 Transited the Bab el-Mandeb Strait northbound on June 9 Transited the Suez Canal on June 15 Transited the Bosporus Strait northbound on June 18.

From June 19-20, the Oak Hill participated in a bilateral underway engagement with the USS Porter (DDG 78), ROS Regina Maria (F222), BGS Reshitelni (F13) and TCG Kinaliada (F514), in the Black Sea Participated in exercise with the Georgian Coast Guard ships on June 22 Transited the Bosporus Strait southbound on June 25 Transited the Strait of Gibraltar westbound on June 29.

July 13, The Oak Hill moored at Berth 9, General Cargo Terminal in Port of Morehead City, N.C., for a one-day port call to conduct offload.

July 15, USS Oak Hill moored at Quay Wall East on Joint Expeditionary Base Little Creek-Fort Story following a seven-month deployment.

September 17, Cmdr. Kathryn S. Wijnaldum relieved Cmdr. Rodolfo Jacobo as CO of the Oak Hill during a change-of-command ceremony aboard the ship.

September 23, The Oak Hill anchored at Lynnhaven Anchorage "A" for a brief stop before underway off the coast of Virginia Returned home on Sept. 25 Underway again on Oct. 5 Moored at Quay Wall Dogleg Berth on Oct. 16.

November 3, USS Oak Hill moored at Naval Weapons Station Yorktown for a four-day ammo offload Returned home, after a five-day underway off the coast of Virginia, on Nov. 12.

November 19, USS Oak Hill moored at Berth 2, Pier 6 on Naval Station Norfolk after a two-day underway in the Virginia Capes Op. Area Underway again on Nov. 23 Moored at Pier 17N in Joint Expeditionary Base Little Creek-Fort Story on Nov. 24 Underway again from Dec. 3-7.

December 11, MHI Ship Repair and Services was awarded a $57,1 million contract for the USS Oak Hill's Selected Restricted Availability (SRA). This contract includes options which, if exercised, would bring the cumulative value to $71,8 million and the is expected to be completed by July 2022.

December 12, The Oak Hill moored at Pier 17N on Joint Expeditionary Base Little Creek-Fort Story after a four-day underway in the Jacksonville and Cherry Point Op. Areas.

February 1, 2021 USS Oak Hill moved "dead-stick" to Berth 2, Midtown Pier on Marine Hydraulics Industries (MHI) Ship Repair & Services shipyard in Norfolk.


Contents

United States service Edit

Fort Mandan was launched on 2 June 1945 by Boston Navy Yard, Boston, Massachusetts, sponsored by Mrs. Powell M. Rhea and commissioned on 31 October 1945, Lieutenant Commander W. A. Caughy, USNR, in command.

Fort Mandan was assigned first to the Atlantic Reserve Fleet following her shakedown training in Chesapeake Bay, but later was assigned to duty with the Service Force, 2nd Fleet.

She spent the next year in routine operations off the Atlantic coast. In April and May 1947 she participated in 8th Fleet exercises, and cruised with the United States Naval Academy and NROTC midshipmen to northern European ports during June and July. On 16 January 1948 she was placed out of commission in the Atlantic Reserve Fleet.

The outbreak of the Korean War occasioned her reactivation and on 25 October 1950, Fort Mandan was recommissioned, with Captain Philip D. Quirk, USN, commanding. In December she joined the Amphibious Force, Atlantic Fleet.

During 1951 she engaged in Atlantic Fleet exercises through 17 May, conducted drills in the Caribbean through 29 August, and following a brief cruise in Caribbean waters underwent preparations for the "Convex" operation which occurred from 28 February to 31 March 1952. Fort Mandan participated in the first NATO maneuvers, Operation Mainbrace, in August and September 1952, and cruised with the 6th Fleet in the Mediterranean from October to January 1953. Returning to the United States, she exercised in the Norfolk area until September when she weighed anchor to take part in Operation "Sunec" with calls at Greenland, Labrador, and Newfoundland.

During 1954 she was overhauled at Norfolk Navy Yard, took refresher training at Narragansett Bay and another "Sunec" cruise on which she visited Baffin Island, Labrador, and Newfoundland. Two training cruises in the Caribbean in 1955 were succeeded by a third "Sunec" deployment on which she crossed the Arctic Circle for the second time.

In 1956 Fort Mandan conducted amphibious training exercises at Vieques, Puerto Rico, and underwent overhaul at Baltimore before steaming again for the far north where she cruised in September and October. Amphibious exercises again occupied her during November 1956 and much of 1957 when she joined in "Caribex" in the Panama Canal Zone and "Narmid" 1 and 2. From September through November 1957 she was attached to MSTS for Arctic Service, successfully transporting Army men and equipment from Greenland to Newfoundland and Virginia in a winter closing-out operation.

Caribbean exercises kept her active during the first half of 1958. In the summer months she received an overhaul at Norfolk to prepare her for more exercises in the Caribbean and a cruise to Halifax and Argentia in November.

In February 1959 she joined the 6th Fleet for maneuvers in the Mediterranean where she remained until August. On 3 July, while visiting the French port of Sète, Fort Mandan sailors assisted local firefighters in extinguishing a fire on the Italian gasoline tanker Ombrina. [1] In the fall Fort Mandan operated from Little Creek, Virginia, in conducting drills and exercises along the Virginia Capes area and in 1960 she again carried troops and equipment for amphibious landings in the Caribbean.

Bill Cosby served in Fort Mandan in 1960 as a Hospital corpsman (HM3). In 1962 the ship made her film debut in The Longest Day, filmed as five LCM-6s with troops and equipment moved out of her welldeck. [2]

Fort Mandan received a Fleet Rehabilitation and Modernization (FRAM II) overhaul in 1962. [1]

On 23 January 1971, Fort Mandan was decommissioned at Norfolk, Virginia, and transferred to Greece under the Security Assistance Program. She was stricken from the Naval Vessel Register and sold to Greece on 8 February 1980.

Greek service Edit

Arriving in Greece on 30 March 1971, the ship served in the Hellenic Navy as Nafkratousa (L153), replacing another Casa Grande ship—the former HMS Eastway—which had operated as Nafkratousa (L153) from 1953 until Fort Mandan ' s acquisition.

The former Fort Mandan was decommissioned by the Hellenic Navy on 29 February 2000, [2] and sold for scrap in November 2001, to be dismantled at Aliağa, Turkey.


Thank You First Responders!

There is no question COVID-19 has turned the world on its head and has presented challenges the likes we have rarely seen. In addition to protecting and serving communities across the state, first responders have been called upon to enforce the array of emergency measures taken by the Governor, to provide peace of mind to a scared public, and to search for the balance between our duty and our health. Iowans are certainly blessed to have a dedicated group of first responders who are collectively stepping up during these challenging times. The Iowa Department of Public Safety is honored to stand shoulder to shoulder with you as we serve as beacons of calm and assurance in our communities.

Your hard work and professionalism does not go unnoticed. Governor Reynolds sees the sacrifices you are making daily, and wanted to make sure that those who serve, and their families, know her heartfelt appreciation. Please share this 'Governor Reynolds’ Thank-You Video' above with your staff and colleagues to help recognize their commitment and selfless efforts during these unsettling times.

We are truly in this together, and a grateful State of Iowa thanks you all.

Stephan K. Bayens, Commissioner

June 18, 2021,

TRAER, Iowa - On June 18th, at approximately 4:35 a.m., the Tama County Sheriff’s Office received a 911 call from an occupant of the Ryan Cooper residence located at 1846 K Avenue Traer, Iowa. Upon arrival, law enforcement found Ryan…

June 14, 2021

KNOXVILLE, Iowa - This is not a press release from the Iowa Department of Public Safety. It is being distributed on behalf of the Knoxville Police Department, and is being provided as a result of the Division of Criminal Investigation's…

June 11, 2021

CEDAR RAPIDS, Iowa - This is not a press release from the Iowa Department of Public Safety. It is being distributed in partnership with the United States Attorney's Office for the Northern District of Iowa.

Media Contacts:

Alex Dinkla, Sergeant, Iowa State Patrol
515-443-6644 [email protected]

Andrea Henry, Director, Iowa DOT Strategic Communications
515-203-1734 [email protected]

June 8, 2021

June 4, 2021

DES MOINES, Iowa - Iowa traffic safety officials report a recent spike in fatalities in 2021, and we’re on a trend to potentially exceed previous totals on the heels of a year when COVID-19 wrote a new chapter of dangerous driving behaviors…

May 28, 2021

MONTEZUMA, Iowa – The search for 10-year-old Xavior Harrelson continues. Law enforcement appreciates the public’s desire to help locate Xavior. However, the investigative and search efforts on Saturday, May 29, will be conducted by law…

May 28, 2021

DES MOINES, Iowa - In partnership with the Poweshiek County Sheriff's Office, the Division of Criminal Investigation's Iowa Missing Person Clearinghouse is seeking the public's assistance in locating missing and endangered…

May 14, 2021

CEDAR RAPIDS, Iowa - This is not a press release from the Iowa Department of Public Safety. It is a Linn County Attorney's report, and is being provided as a result of the Division of Criminal Investigation's participation in this case.…

May 14, 2021

DES MOINES, Iowa - Memorial Day and the traditional beginning of summer are quickly approaching. Summer will bring more gatherings, festivals, graduations and vacations all requiring travel. Many states, including Iowa, have seen a rise in…

May 10, 2021

FORT DODGE, Iowa - On May 9th, 2021, at about 2:44 pm, a Trooper with the Iowa State Patrol stopped a gold 2012 Chevy Impala in Carroll, Iowa for a tinted window violation. After making contact with the driver, the Trooper requested a K-9.…

DES MOINES, Iowa - It is with great honor that Governor Kim Reynolds and Lt. Governor Adam Gregg, along with other State of Iowa leadership, law enforcement partners and families recognized and paid their respects to fallen peace…

DAVENPORT, Iowa - This is not a press release from the Iowa Department of Public Safety. It is a Scott County Attorney's report, and is being provided as a result of the Division of Criminal Investigation's participation in this case.


The creation of an LSD black market. Prior to 1962, LSD was a little known drug, available only on a small scale, and used by relatively few people. Substantially all of the LSD and psilocybin available in the United States and Canada was produced by Sandoz Laboratories and legally distributed by them to psychiatrists, psychologists, and others who certified their qualifications to use it. Each LSD container was labeled, as required by FDA regulations: "Caution: New drug –– limited by Federal law to investigational use." Throughout the 1950s and early 1960s, the supply of LSD for informal use had been uncertain. Sometimes Sandoz LSD was available sometimes it was not. When it wasn't, users turned to psilocybin, mescaline, peyote, and other LSD-like substances.

In 1962, a new tranquilizing drug, thalidomide, was also distributed for testing under the FDA's IND (investigational new drug) regulations to 1,267 American physicians, and reached hundreds of pregnant women. In other countries it was distributed on a far larger scale. A worldwide epidemic of deformed babies followed. During the next few years, the FDA tightened up its IND regulations, many states outlawed LSD, and Congress passed a new law further restricting the use of investigational drugs –– including LSD. Sandoz responded by sharply limiting LSD distribution.

The new laws, the new FDA regulations, and the Sandoz restrictions were followed by a marked increase in the availability of LSD. The drug is only moderately difficult to synthesize in a modest chemistry laboratory. The formula can be secured from the United States Patent Office for fifty cents, and the precursor chemicals are not hard to acquire. The quantities producible are very great million-dose batches of clandestine LSD were in fact produced. * (A million 250-microgram doses weigh about nine ounces.) The clandestine supply soon exceeded the domestic demand, and the American blackmarket thereupon became a large-scale exporter of clandestinely manufactured LSD to Canada and Europe.

* In fiscal 1967, government agents seized clandestine laboratories said to have a production capacity of more than 25,000,000 doses of LSD and LSD-like drugs per year. In fiscal 1968, the production capacity of the clandestine laboratories seized was reported to be more than 40,000,000 doses per year. 1 Consumption, of course, fell far short of this production capacity. No estimate is available of the production capacity of the clandestine LSD labs that escaped seizure.

In 1970, the Advisory Committee on Drug Dependence of the United Kingdom Home Office reported: "Probably the bulk of [British LSD] is smuggled in from the USA. We are told that users preferred the American [black-market] LSD and regarded the English product as inferior." The LSD smuggled into Britain from the United States was originally "impregnated into innocent objects such as sugar cubes, sweets and blotting paper. More recently it has been coming in in tablet or capsule form under such exotic names as 'cherry top,' 'purple haze,' and 'blue cheer.' " 2 Canada's Le Dain Commission similarly reported in 1970 that Canadian black-market LSD was coming "mainly from clandestine factories in the United States." 3 Since LSD is odorless, tasteless, and colorless, weighs only a trifle and occupies a negligible volume, few shipments are intercepted.

Thus, by shutting off the relative trickle of Sandoz LSD into informal channels, Congress and the Food and Drug Administration had unwittingly opened the sluices to a veritable LSD flood. By 1970 it was estimated that between 1,000,000 and 2,000,000 Americans had taken an LSD trip. 4

In 1964, Drs. Arnold M. Ludwig and Jerome Levine, then at the United States Public Health Service Hospital in Lexington, Kentucky, investigated the beginnings of the LSD black market by talking with drug users from all over the country. They reported their findings in the Journal of the American medical Association in 1965:

The drug, as obtained through illicit, channels, is usually deposited on sugar cubes. It has also been obtained in liquid form in small ampules, in crystalline form (in capsules or by the spoonful), or as a small white pill. The drug was also distributed on animal crackers when certain enforcement agencies declared sugar cubes to be contraband.

In the Boston, Mass. area the drug was purchased for $1 per sugar cube, whereas in New York, N.Y. and Miami, Fla., a cube might cost from $2 to $7. In Harlem, gelatin capsules containing powdered LSD were bought for $2 to $10 depending on the size of the capsule. One quarter of a teaspoon of [diluted] LSD (equivalent to seven to ten capsules) sold for $35.

The drug is usually referred to as LSD but has also been called "25" (apparently from LSD-25). In the Boston area the designation "crackers" (from animal crackers) was used, and when people considered obtaining the drug they often stated, "Let's get some coffee," because the drug was frequently acquired in coffee houses. 5

The first clandestinely synthesized LSD, according to knowledgeable sources, was of excellent purity and quality. Excellent black-market LSD is also available today. But in addition, the market since 1963 has been flooded with adulterated LSD, contaminated LSD, improperly synthesized LSD containing a variety of related substances whose effects are little known, and LSD of unknown dosage. It is impossible to determine how many of the adverse reactions noted after 1962 were traceable to these factors.

LSD publicity. Glue-sniffing, it will be recalled (Chapter 44), was popularized by antiglue warnings emanating from medical and law enforcement authorities and widely publicized in the mass media. LSD was similarly publicized by anti-LSD warnings but, in addition, praise of LSD by its proponents was also widely publicized. It is impossible to determine which contributed more to the growth of the demand for blackmarket LSD between 1962 and 1969: the warnings or the praise. The combination of warnings and praise triggered a publicity barrage that grew far out of rational proportion. The net effect was to make LSD familiar to everyone in the land, and to arouse nationwide curiosity. From curiosity to experimentation is only one short step.

There were many propagandists for LSD before 1962, but no one paid much attention to them, and they had little effect. This was still true when Timothy Leary, an instructor at Harvard University's Center for Research in Human Personality, first started work with LSD. Leary had been much impressed by the effects of some Mexican psilocybin mushrooms that he had tried in the summer of 1960. "It was the classic visionary voyage and I came back a changed man," he wrote in 1967. "You are never the same after you've had that one flash glimpse down the cellular time tunnel. You are never the same after you've had the veil drawn." 6

At Harvard that fall, Dr. Leary and an associate, Dr. Richard Alpert, secured a supply of psilocybin from Sandoz for use in an experiment with prisoners at the Massachusetts Correctional Institution in Concord. The first results seemed promising: prisoners released from the institution following a psilocybin trip seemed less likely to be rearrested and returned for parole violation than other parolees. Critics of the experiment noted, however, that it might have been association with the two charismatic young instructors, Drs. Leary and Alpert, rather than the drug that produced the favorable results. In addition, Leary continued to take trips himself, to confer with other psychedelic enthusiasts such as Aldous Huxley and Allen Ginsberg, and to gather around him a clique of Harvard young people dedicated to the LSD-like drugs. He remained little-known outside his small Cambridge circle.

In 1962, however, Leary's activities attracted the attention of the FDA and Massachusetts law-enforcement officials, who made inquiries. Harvard and the Harvard Crimson responded by warning students against taking LSD. The warnings were picked up by the mass media –– and were among the first nationally circulated publicity for LSD. As the FDA and state officials continued their investigation, a scandal broke. Leary, the focus of the scandal, became a national figure overnight. He used his new eminence to propagandize for LSD on a national scale.

Leary and Alpert left Harvard under fire in the spring of 1963 –– to the accompaniment of more nationwide publicity. Leary was thereafter harassed by both local and federal law-enforcement authorities, imprisoned for violation of the Marijuana Tax Act, released when the United States Supreme Court found portions of that Act unconstitutional 7 arrested again, reindicted, retried, and reimprisoned for the same marijuana offense. He escaped to Europe, avoided United States attempts to extradite him, and at this writing is living in Switzerland. Each stage in his strange odyssey, and each crackdown by law-enforcement authorities, added to his status as a martyr and culture hero –– and served to publicize LSD even more widely.

Medical authorities also contributed to the inflation of publicity with exaggerated and unsubstantiated reports of LSD effects, such as that it rotted the mind and destroyed motivation. The chairman of the New Jersey Narcotic Drug Study Commission in 1966 called LSD "the greatest threat facing the country today. more dangerous than the Vietnam war." 8

Confusing marijuana with LSD. The use of LSD was further encouraged and advertised by the antimarijuana publicity of the 1960s. Marijuana and LSD were constantly (and mistakenly) bracketed together in government and medical statements. Official pronouncements repeatedly labeled marijuana, like LSD, a "hallucinogen," leading people to conclude that the effects were similar. The fact that many of the warnings against marijuana were patently false (see Part VIII) helped destroy the credibility of LSD warnings from the same sources.

In addition, the shortage of marijuana around September 1969, when Mexican border crossings were closely screened for drugs in "Operation Intercept," caused many marijuana users who had no particular interest in LSD to turn to that drug in place of marijuana (see Page 442). This occurred in Canada as well as the United States Canada's Le Dain Commission commented in 1970: "We have been told repeatedly that LSD use increased rapidly during periods when cannabis [marijuana] was in short supply. Drug users and non-users alike have suggested that the effectiveness of Operation Intercept in the United States in reducing the supply of marijuana available in Canada was a major cause of the increase in the demand for 'acid.' " 9

The period following Operation Intercept also brought stories of LSD use among "square" young people who hardly could have been attracted to the drug a few years earlier –– such as military personnel manning American missile defenses. United Press International reported one such instance in October 1969:

10 ARMY MISSILE MEN HELD IN MIAMI ON DRUG CHARGES

MIAMI, Oct. 3 (UPI) –– At least 10 Army missile men manning Nike-Hercules batteries near Miami have been arrested on drug abuse charges in a joint crackdown by Army and civilian authorities.

Details came to light today when two enlisted men appeared in court on charges of possession or sale of LSD, a hallucinatory drug.

An Army spokesman at the 47th Artillery Brigade said the arrests took place over a four-month period with the Army's Criminal Intelligence Division working closely with civilian authorities. There were reports that other arrests were expected.

The information officer said elaborate security measures would prevent a "turned-on" GI from triggering a missile.

"No one man can work alone near the weapons which are capable of carrying nuclear warheads," the spokesman said. "And it takes roughly 15 men working in unison to accomplish a launch." 10

LSD legislation. The barrage of publicity that popularized LSD was intensified by a wave of prohibitive legislation. New York's 1965 penalties for the "possession, sale, exchange, or giving away" of LSD or LSD-like drugs without a special license provided for a maximum of two years' imprisonment. Sponsors of a bill to increase the penalties cited two newspaper stories as illustrations of the LSD menace: one reported that a five-year-old Brooklyn girl had swallowed an LSD-impregnated sugar cube left in the refrigerator by her young uncle. 11 Her stomach was pumped –– a useless measure which, several physicians noted, was probably more traumatic than the drug effect –– but she recovered. The other newspaper story reported that a thirty-two-year-old ex-mental patient charged with the brutal murder of his mother-in-law claimed to have been "flying" on LSD, and to remember nothing about the homicide. 12 Law-enforcement officers promptly labeled this case an "LSD murder." (At the man's trial, psychiatrists testified that he suffered from chronic paranoid schizophrenia. He was found not guilty by reason of insanity the issue of insanity due to LSD was not raised.) 13 These two incidents –– the accidental poisoning and the homicide –– were interpreted as reasons to increase LSD criminal penalties in 1966 to a maximum of twenty, years imprisonment. The Speaker of the New York State Assembly, A. J. Travia, announced that the LSD problem was so urgent, be would defer hearings on the law increasing penalties until after the law was passed. 14

The same year, Donald Grunsky introduced a bill in the California State Senate prohibiting the possession as well as the manufacture, sale, or importation of LSD and DMT. The same New York "LSD murder" case was referred to, and lurid color photographs of a psychotic reaction to LSD were circulated by the state attorney general's office. 15 Four witnesses testified against the bill in the California House of Representatives: a Jesuit priest, a psychologist, and two physicians. "They agreed that controls on LSD manufacture and distribution were needed," an observer later noted, "but argued that outlawing use and possession would result in the prosecution of young persons whose intentions were not antisocial that its use was often nothing more than youthful adventure and that some of the most creative students were among those experimenting with the drug. They further argued that fear of arrest would discourage users from seeking psychiatric aid should they need it." 16 I Convinced by these arguments, the House committee voted –– not to report out the bill. This action was promptly labeled "irresponsible" by some state senators the state attorney general added that LSD and LSD-like drugs "present the most crucial drug problem which the U.S. has faced." Governor Pat Brown, gubernatorial candidate Ronald Reagan, and other candidates for office announced that they favored the bill and a Los Angeles Times editorial expressed amazement that the House committee was unaware of the LSD menace. The committee stood firm for a time, but as political pressure mounted, it compromised and ultimately yielded. The Grunsky bill became law in 1966.

Three years later, Maryland's legislature, considering anti-LSD legislation, beard an hour of testimony by Dr. Charles Savage, director of medical research at Spring Grove State Hospital and professor of psychiatry at Johns Hopkins, whose experience with LSD in psychotherapy covered nineteen years. Dr. Savage stressed, as had other witnesses, that the nonmedical use of LSD constituted a serious problem, but he pointed out numerous reasons for concluding that making possession a criminal offense would exacerbate the problem. LSD distribution in Maryland, he testified, was still on a small-scale, amateur basis with low prices. When the California legislature outlawed LSD, the immediate effect was a trebling of the cost (from $3 to $10 per trip) this price increase had attracted additional LSD distributors. The same would no doubt happen in Maryland. "When you make it illegal, you make it more lucrative for sellers," Dr. Savage said. Nor would the law significantly interfere with LSD distribution. "It's. easily concealed. The law would be very difficult to enforce. Prohibition did not stop drinking and the marijuana laws have not stopped kids from smoking marijuana." Finally, Dr. Savage testified that the people likely to be imprisoned under such a law "are largely normal adolescents that are attracted to LSD. essentially good kids, the future leaders of our society. If they are picked up and charged, they become criminals. The passage of more and more legislation creates more and more criminals. [The LSD user] gets the idea that the law is just one more silly game he has to play and he loses respect for it. 17

Nevertheless, the law was passed.

The passage of federal and state anti-LSD laws was followed (a) by an increase in the availability of LSD, and (b) by an increase in the demand. The increased availability can be explained in part by the higher prices which law enforcement engendered, and which attracted more distributors. The increased demand can similarly be explained in part by the LSD publicity that legislative action engendered. As in the case of the opiates, the barbiturates, the amphetamines, glue, and other drugs, the warnings functioned as lures.

Curtailment of LSD research. From 1962 on, Sandoz distributed LSD with caution to qualified investigators. In 1965, as anti-LSD sentiment rose to new peaks and as laws against LSD were pending both in Congress and in the state legislatures, Sandoz decided to stop distributing the drug altogether. It recalled the supplies outstanding and turned them over to the National Institute of Mental Health, which doled out small quantities to a few researchers –– many of whom were experimenting only on animals. Dr. Harold A. Abramson, director of research in a large New York State mental hospital, cited the result at a 1965 LSD conference:

It's virtually prohibited now for a private physician to use LSD unless his patient buys it on the black market and comes in with the drug. That is, unfortunately, the situation in the United States today. I must say that I have had patients who tell me, "If you won't give me LSD, I'll get it and then come in." Naturally, I disapprove of this. I must say that some of these people had had LSD under suitable medical auspices. They are very intelligent, capable people, and it has helped them so much to find themselves. It has given them a sense of being somebody." 18

Dr. Abramson summed up: "Everybody seems to be able to get LSD and similar drugs except physicians." 19

In Britain, when the Sandoz LSD supply was cut off, the medical profession took effective measures to secure an alternative supply LSD of pharmaceutical quality was legally secured from Czechoslovakia, 20 and it is still in legal use, as the Malleson survey noted, by 37 British therapists. When the Advisory Committee on Drug Dependence of the United Kingdom Home Office investigated this use in 1970, it concluded that LSD psychotherapy should continue: "There is no proof that LSD is an effective agent in psychiatry. Equally there is no proof that it is an exceptionally hazardous or prohibitively dangerous treatment, in clinical use, in the hands of responsible experts and subject to appropriate safeguards. We see no reason to recommend arrangements which would prohibit the continued careful clinical and experimental use of LSD by approved and responsible practitioners." 21

The Advisory Committee further concluded: "The supply of LSD for use in clinical practice should not be withheld from any doctor, whether in National Health Service or private practice, who can establish a claim to its legitimate use, and can show he has the proper facilities available for the care of a patient who is undergoing treatment, and for the storage of the drug." 22

The LSD chromosome scare, 1967. 1967. A wide variety of agents –– including X rays, virus infections, fever, caffeine, and in some studies aspirin have been shown to damage white-blood-cell chromosomes either in animals, in humans, or in test tubes. In March 1967, Dr. Marion Cohen of the State University of New York at Buffalo reported that LSD damaged white-blood-cell chromosomes in test tubes. 23 Unlike earlier chromosome studies of other agents, the LSD finding made front-page headlines from coast to coast. Reporters (and physicians as well) speculated in print and on television and radio that LSD, like thalidomide, might cause a vast epidemic of tragically malformed babies. *

* A relatively restrained and qualified warning entitled "LSD: Danger to Unborn Babies," which appeared in McCall's magazine for September 1967, was written by the senior author (E. M. B.) of this Consumers Union Report.

Subsequent chromosome studies produced mixed results some seemed to exonerate LSD, while others seemed to confirm Dr. Cohen's findings. Only the confirmatory studies received wide attention in the mass media. The stories based on these studies usually failed to mention that damage to white-blood-cell chromosomes is far from a reliable index of genetic damage.

In response to the fear of deformed babies, many young people temporarily stopped taking the drug. Others continued on the theory presented in the mass media that the 'damage had already been done –– that a single dose of LSD is all that is needed to damage chromosomes. Some pregnant young women secured abortions, legal or illegal some couples refrained from having babies they wanted and some LSD users switched from LSD to mescaline, psilocybin, or other LSD-like drugs. (Since drugs sold under these names were often in fact LSD, little was accomplished by the switch.)

The facts soon overtook the warnings. All over the country, obviously healthy babies were born. to LSD users. A thorough California study of 120 "LSD babies" (to be reviewed in detail in Chapter 52) showed birth defects no more common than in babies of non-LSD users. Thus the credibility of official and medical pronouncements was once again severely shaken –– and LSD use increased again.

Much the same sequence of events was experienced in Britain. A United Kingdom Home Office report stated in 1970:

The possibility of genetic damage from LSD has received a great deal of publicity both here and in the United States, but the presentation has been one-sided. Those findings that suggest danger have had extensive coverage whilst those that did not suggest a hazard have not been noticed. We have little doubt that this has had a major effect in dissuading young people from experimenting with the drug. Witnesses made it clear to us, however, that among young people, particularly among the more sophisticated of those who might be tempted to experiment, any evidence of potential damage is coming to be discounted. It seems probable, therefore, that this risk is ceasing to be a major deterrent. 24

Footnotes
Chapter 50

1. Data supplied by Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs, U.S. Department of justice.

2. The Amphetamines and Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD), Report by the Advisory Committee on Drug Dependence, Home Office, Department of Health and Social Security (London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1970), p. 38.

3. Le Dain Commission Interim Report, p. 141.

4. William H. McGlothlin and David 0. Arnold, "LSD Revisited –– A Ten-Year Follow-up of Medical LSD Use," Archives of General Psychiatry, 24 January 1971) 35.

5. Arnold M. Ludwig and Jerome Levine, "Patterns of Hallucinogenic Drug Abuse," JAMA, 191 (January, 11, 1965): 93.

6. Timothy Leary, High Priest (New York: World, 1968), p. 34.

7. New York Times, May 20, 1969.

8. C. NV. Sandman, Jr., quoted by William H. McGlothlin, "Toward a Rational View of Hallucinogenic Drugs," MR-83, Institute of Government and Public Affairs (University of California, 1966), p. 4.

9. Le Dain Commission Interim Report, p. 139.

10. United Press International, in New York Times, October 4, 1969.

11. New York Times, April 7, 1966.

12. New York Times, April 12, 1966.

13. James T. Barter and Martin Reite, "Crime and LSD The Insanity Plea," American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 26, no. 4 (October, 1969): 532.

14. Reported by William H. McGlothlin, "Toward a Rational View of Hallucinogenic Drugs," paper distributed at National Association of Student Personnel Administrators Drug Education Conference, Washington, D.C., November 7-8, 1966 unpublished.

17. Washington Post, February 12, 1969.

18. Harold A. Abramson, ed., in The Use of LSD in Psychotherapy and Alcoholism (New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1967), p. 328.

20. Home Office Report (1970), p. 41.

23. M. M. Cohen, M. Marinello, and N. Bach, "Chromosomal Damage in Human Leukocytes Induced by Lysergic Acid Diethylamide," Science, 155 (1967): 1417-1419 and M. M. Cohen, K. Hirschhorn, and W. A. Frosch, "In Vivo and In Vitro Chromosomal Damage Induced by LSD-25," New England Journal of Medicine, 277 (1967): 1043-1049.


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About Capt. Jacob Prickett, I

Jacob Prickett BIRTH򑜢 Wilmington, New Castle County, Delaware, USA DEATHऔ Apr 1797 (aged 74�) Marion County, West Virginia, USA BURIAL Prickett Cemetery Marion County, West Virginia,

A Patriot of the American Revolution for VIRGINIA with the rank of Captain. DAR Ancestor # A093133

Founder of Prickett's Fort in West Virginia. Taken from the Prickett's Fort website - History regarding Jacob Prickett and his family:

1745: Marries Dorothy Springer in Eversham, NJ

1748: moves to Frederick County, Virginia

1752: explores the area with Christopher Gist, a surveyor with the Ohio Company.

1753: just before the French-Indian War, jacob is recruited by 22 year old Lt. Col. George Washington to go to the Forks of the Ohio.

1766: moves family (with 11 children) to Georges Creek, Fayette County, PA

1772: moves up the Monongahela River to (present day) Prickett's Creek.

1773-1774: Jacob Prickett and others in the community build Prickett's Fort on his land.

1774: In September - Isaiah, his son, and a Mrs. Susan Ox are attacked 2 miles from Prickett's Fort. Isaiah is killed and scalped. Mrs. Ox was never heard from again.

JACOB "JAKE" PRICKETT b. 1722 Wilmington, Delaware d. 14 Apr 1797 in Prickett's Fort Cem.,W. Va. Prickett's Fort in Monongalia, WV m: DOROTHY SPRINGER on 11 May 1745 Mount Holly,Burlington Co. N.J. Dorothy was born 4 june 1726 Evesham, Burlington Co., New Jersey and died 21 jan 1785 Prickett's Fort, WV

JACOB's father filed a $500. marriage bond for his marriage to DOROTHY.

Jacob stood 5'10, and weighed 180 pounds. He had "stiff" black hair, and "snapping" black eyes. He was fierce in the defense of others, but was soft hearted and gentle with children.

The following is taken from the booklet "Pricketts Fort" by William J. Wilcox:

In 1759, Jacob was operating an Indian Trading Post at the mouth of Pricketts Creek. There is substantial evidence of several major Indian Villages, or campsites within a few miles of Jacob's Trading Post.

The most that can be determined about the Indians that he traded with are that they most likely were of Algonquin, Iroquois, or Appalachain stock.

That is to say, they could have been Delaware, Shawnee etc. or Mohawk, Senecas etc. During the Revolutionary war, the Wyandots (aka Hurons) came to the area and were extremely aggressive.

Nathaniel Springer deposed that he, Jacob Prickett, David Morgan, John Snodgrass and Pharoah Ryley, assembled on C'Capon River to await word from Lawrence Washington, Esq., (brother to George). What they were waiting for was to be informed of the terms for an expedition to Cheat River to scout lands for Lawrence Washington and Co. They set out on either the 28th or 29th of April in 1747. Nathaniel said that his uncle Evan Morgan kept a camp and did trading at the forks of the Cheat River. (Now called the Monongahela) He also said that the group explored Tygart River and Buckhannon, as well as the Monongahela. Nathaniel goes on to say that he and his group returned to their homes on the Opeckon, Fredrick County, in August 1747, there they gave to L. Washington, Esq., maps and other papers drafted by them during the expedition.

It is said that Jacob and other members of the original expedition lived near what is now Rivesville in the 1740's. In 1763, King George III, decreed that all lands west of the Allegheny mountains were Indian Lands, and not for settlement. This was decreed because of the Delaware and Iroquois complaints to the encroachment of their lands.

This is why Jacob makes no claim of settlement until 1772. In that year, Samuel Hanaway, a Surveyor, "Surveyed for Jacob Prickett 324 acres of land in Monongalia County, on Prickett's Creek, including his settlement made in the year 1772." In 1777, an act of the General Assembly made settlement legal in the Monongahela valley. They also granted 400 acres of land to each family who had settled on the "western waters" prior to 24 June 1778.

In 1774, Prickett's Fort was built. Tradition states that there was some eighty families living at the Prickett Settlement in fear of the Indians. There was at this time a larger settlement at Morgan's Town and at Clarksburg. The Monongahela valley was thickly covered with huge oaks and chestnut trees. It was a Herculean task to clear enough land for a crude cabin and garden. Wagons were not used because of the forest, so settlers carried what little they could on pack animals and on themselves.

Around 1780, Jacob built a mill near the fort. Payment for grinding grain was in grain payment for sawing lumber was in lumber. Gathering ginseng paid between 30 and 35 cents a pound. Women and children gathered the dried roots for export to China. Money was scarce and when had, it could be of almost any origin. Spanish, British and French coins jangled together. Two hard days labor could get you a deer hide with the hair left on or the promise of two days hard work at your bidding. Later in the 1700's, rye was exported as whiskey in large quantities.

There were sixteen cabins, a range of four on each wall. Large storage bins divided the cabins from each other. The outside walls, with sidewalls sloping inward, were ten feet high. At first the cabins had earthen floors later, some were fitted with puncheons. The pickets for the stockade were hewn seventeen feet and set in the ground five feet, which gave a stockade wall of twelve feet. The bastions were larger than the cabins, and were set one at each of the four angles of the stockade. Their outer parts projected two feet beyond the stockade walls. These overhanging sections had slatted floors, so enemies making a lodgment against the stockade might be fired upon, straight downward. The bastions were eight feet higher than the walls,were twelve feet square, and made of large hickory logs, with ample gun-spaces, or loopholes in and in between.

Within the stockade at the forward center of the grounds were two large buildings, each forty feet long and twenty feet wide and eight feet high. There were two gates, the main gate in the center of the northern wall, facing the river, and by the big spring, and the stock gate, in the center of the west wall of the stockade, near the little spring. The stables and stock-pens were all at the far southern end of the stockade. Both gates were made of logs and thick slabs, and hinged so that they would fold inward.

DAVID MORGAN used to tell a story about "JAKE PRICKETT and the bean-shot Brave." The story was told to his nephew's "Chunk" and James, sons of Col. Zackwell Morgan. Chunk had a hunting camp on a dreen of Little Paw Paw Creek. Chunk had just married, and he and his brother built a cabin for the newlyweds to set up housekeeping in. Uncle Dave & Henry Batten came by, and were there to share the first fire and first meal, that was made in that cabin.

In the evening a "soiree" was held. David got to telling funny but true stories of his and JACOB PRICKETT'S adventures.

One story told that night was about the time that he and Jacob captured an Indian Brave. (The story, as printed, does not relate the whole particulars, as related by David Morgan.) The two men were out of lead, so Jacob loaded his musket with beans. Jacob shot the brave in the rump, and as the brave "was dancing around and yelping Prickett hit him with his fist and knocked him out, and they tied him and turned him in at Fort Rogers and later was exchanged for the Ramsey boy, who had been with the Indians for a year." It was a good story and everybody laughed hearing Uncle Dave tell about that Indian with beans in his bottom."

From the book "THE ROSS FAMILY BRANCH OF THE PRICKETT FAMILY" by Nora Ross (1989), found in the Marion County Library, West Virginia, we learn:

"JACOB PRICKETT served as a spy for the Virginia Militia before he came of age, and later, was Captain of the Monongalia County, Virginia troops in the Revolutionary war. After his marriage to DOROTHY, Captain JACOB (JAKE) again offered his services to the state of Virginia Militia, serving under General George Washington in Braddock's 1758 campaign against the Indians of the Monongahela River region. In 1759, JACOB moved his family to Monongalia County, (West) Virginia, where he had a trading post and built what is assumed to be the first mill in that area. By 1774, he, along with his brothers, Josiah and Isaiah, built Pricketts Fort. "

Josiah Prickett b. 1746 m: Charity Taylor (3 Aug 1808 she m: Wm.Jolliffe) John Prickett b. 1748 m: Elizabeth Hays Isaac Prickett b. 1 March 1752 m: Mary Campbell

He was paid 54.10.-. in Nov. 1777 For being a Spy in "Monongohala" Co., WVA (pp.505 VIRGINIA MILITARY RECORDS)

TWINS: DRUSILLA PRICKETT b.1 Mar 1752 m: CAPT. MORGAN MORGAN d. 2 April 1817 Isaiah Prickett b. 1757 d. 2 Oct 1774 Murdered & scalped by Indians.

JACOB "JAKE" PRICKETT b. 1722 Wilmington, Delaware d. 14 Apr 1797 in Prickett's Fort Cem.,W. Va. Prickett's Fort in Monongalia, WV m: DOROTHY SPRINGER on 11 May 1745 Mount Holly,Burlington Co. N.J. Dorothy was born 4 june 1726 Evesham, Burlington Co., New Jersey and died 21 jan 1785 Prickett's Fort, WV

ISSUE: DRUSILLA PRICKETT b. 1 Mar 1752 m: CAPT. MORGAN MORGAN d. 2 April 1817

JACOB's father filed a $500. marriage bond for his marriage to DOROTHY.

Jacob stood 5'10, and weighed 180 pounds. He had "stiff" black hair, and "snapping" black eyes. He was fierce in the defense of others, but was soft hearted and gentle with children.

The following is taken from the booklet "Pricketts Fort" by William J. Wilcox:

In 1759, Jacob was operating an Indian Trading Post at the mouth of Pricketts Creek. There is substantial evidence of several major Indian Villages, or campsites within a few miles of Jacob's Trading Post.

The most that can be determined about the Indians that he traded with are that they most likely were of Algonquin, Iroquois, or Appalachain stock.

That is to say, they could have been Delaware, Shawnee etc. or Mohawk, Senecas etc. During the Revolutionary war, the Wyandots (aka Hurons) came to the area and were extremely aggressive.

Nathaniel Springer deposed that he, Jacob Prickett, David Morgan, John Snodgrass and Pharoah Ryley, assembled on C'Capon River to await word from Lawrence Washington, Esq., (brother to George). What they were waiting for was to be informed of the terms for an expedition to Cheat River to scout lands for Lawrence Washington and Co. They set out on either the 28th or 29th of April in 1747. Nathaniel said that his uncle Evan Morgan kept a camp and did trading at the forks of the Cheat River. (Now called the Monongahela) He also said that the group explored Tygart River and Buckhannon, as well as the Monongahela. Nathaniel goes on to say that he and his group returned to their homes on the Opeckon, Fredrick County, in August 1747, there they gave to L. Washington, Esq., maps and other papers drafted by them during the expedition.

It is said that Jacob and other members of the original expedition lived near what is now Rivesville in the 1740's. In 1763, King George III, decreed that all lands west of the Allegheny mountains were Indian Lands, and not for settlement. This was decreed because of the Delaware and Iroquois complaints to the encroachment of their lands. This is why Jacob makes no claim of settlement until 1772. In that year, Samuel Hanaway, a Surveyor, "Surveyed for Jacob Prickett 324 acres of land in Monongalia County, on Prickett's Creek, including his settlement made in the year 1772." In 1777, an act of the General Assembly made settlement legal in the Monongahela valley. They also granted 400 acres of land to each family who had settled on the "western waters" prior to 24 June 1778.

In 1774, Prickett's Fort was built. Tradition states that there was some eighty families living at the Prickett Settlement in fear of the Indians. There was at this time a larger settlement at Morgan's Town and at Clarksburg. The Monongahela valley was thickly covered with huge oaks and chestnut trees. It was a Herculean task to clear enough land for a crude cabin and garden. Wagons were not used because of the forest, so settlers carried what little they could on pack animals and on themselves.

Around 1780, Jacob built a mill near the fort. Payment for grinding grain was in grain payment for sawing lumber was in lumber. Gathering ginseng paid between 30 and 35 cents a pound. Women and children gathered the dried roots for export to China. Money was scarce and when had, it could be of almost any origin. Spanish, British and French coins jangled together. Two hard days labor could get you a deer hide with the hair left on or the promise of two days hard work at your bidding. Later in the 1700's, rye was exported as whiskey in large quantities.

The description of Prickett's Fort by Dr. Doddridge in 1822, follows:

There were sixteen cabins, a range of four on each wall. Large storage bins divided the cabins from each other. The outside walls, with sidewalls sloping inward, were ten feet high. At first the cabins had earthen floors later, some were fitted with puncheons. The pickets for the stockade were hewn seventeen feet and set in the ground five feet, which gave a stockade wall of twelve feet. The bastions were larger than the cabins, and were set one at each of the four angles of the stockade. Their outer parts projected two feet beyond the stockade walls. These overhanging sections had slatted floors, so enemies making a lodgment against the stockade might be fired upon, straight downward. The bastions were eight feet higher than the walls,were twelve feet square, and made of large hickory logs, with ample gun-spaces, or loopholes in and in between.

Within the stockade at the forward center of the grounds were two large buildings, each forty feet long and twenty feet wide and eight feet high. There were two gates, the main gate in the center of the northern wall, facing the river, and by the big spring, and the stock gate, in the center of the west wall of the stockade, near the little spring. The stables and stock-pens were all at the far southern end of the stockade. Both gates were made of logs and thick slabs, and hinged so that they would fold inward.

DAVID MORGAN used to tell a story about "JAKE PRICKETT and the bean-shot Brave." The story was told to his nephew's "Chunk" and James, sons of Col. Zackwell Morgan. Chunk had a hunting camp on a dreen of Little Paw Paw Creek. Chunk had just married, and he and his brother built a cabin for the newlyweds to set up housekeeping in. Uncle Dave & Henry Batten came by, and were there to share the first fire and first meal, that was made in that cabin.

In the evening a "soiree" was held. David got to telling funny but true stories of his and JACOB PRICKETT'S adventures.

One story told that night was about the time that he and Jacob captured an Indian Brave. (The story, as printed, does not relate the whole particulars, as related by David Morgan.) The two men were out of lead, so Jacob loaded his musket with beans. Jacob shot the brave in the rump, and as the brave "was dancing around and yelping Prickett hit him with his fist and knocked him out, and they tied him and turned him in at Fort Rogers and later was exchanged for the Ramsey boy, who had been with the Indians for a year." It was a good story and everybody laughed hearing Uncle Dave tell about that Indian with beans in his bottom."

From the book "THE ROSS FAMILY BRANCH OF THE PRICKETT FAMILY" by Nora Ross (1989), found in the Marion County Library, West Virginia, we learn:

"JACOB PRICKETT served as a spy for the Virginia Militia before he came of age, and later, was Captain of the Monongalia County, Virginia troops in the Revolutionary war. After his marriage to DOROTHY, Captain JACOB (JAKE) again offered his services to the state of Virginia Militia, serving under General George Washington in Braddock's 1758 campaign against the Indians of the Monongahela River region. In 1759, JACOB moved his family to Monongalia County, (West) Virginia, where he had a trading post and built what is assumed to be the first mill in that area. By 1774, he, along with his brothers, Josiah and Isaiah, built Pricketts Fort. "

Issue: Josiah Prickett b. 1746 m: Charity Taylor (3 Aug 1808 she m: Wm.Jolliffe) John Prickett b. 1748 m: Elizabeth Hays Isaac Prickett b. 1 March 1752 m: Mary Campbell He was paid 54.10.-. in Nov. 1777 For being a Spy in "Monongohala" Co., WVA (pp.505 VIRGINIA MILITARY RECORDS) TWINS DRUSILLA PRICKETT b.1 Mar 1752 m: CAPT. MORGAN MORGAN d. 2 April 1817 Isaiah Prickett b. 1757 d. 2 Oct 1774 Murdered & scalped by Indians.

Jacob Prickett, Jr. b. 1 April 1758 m: Jemimah Pindle Nancy Ann Prickett b. 1762 m: Reuben Bunner (Boner) James Prickett b. 8 Mar 1765 m: Mary Springer Dorothy Prickett m: Sergeant James Dunn Mary Prickett m: Jacob Lucas Martha Prickett m: Peter Parker Thomas Prickett (?) m: Ann Wyatt (A Thomas Prickett marries Evan's dau. Elizabeth Morgan on 9 Oct 1809)

JACOB "JAKE" PRICKETT b. 1722 Wilmington, Delaware d. 14 Apr 1797 in Prickett's Fort Cem.,W. Va. Prickett's Fort in Monongalia, WV m: DOROTHY SPRINGER on 11 May 1745 Mount Holly,Burlington Co. N.J. Dorothy was born 4 june 1726 Evesham, Burlington Co., New Jersey and died 21 jan 1785 Prickett's Fort, WV

ISSUE: DRUSILLA PRICKETT b. 1 Mar 1752 m: CAPT. MORGAN MORGAN d. 2 April 1817

JACOB's father filed a $500. marriage bond for his marriage to DOROTHY.

Jacob stood 5'10, and weighed 180 pounds. He had "stiff" black hair, and "snapping" black eyes. He was fierce in the defense of others, but was soft hearted and gentle with children.

The following is taken from the booklet "Pricketts Fort" by William J. Wilcox:

In 1759, Jacob was operating an Indian Trading Post at the mouth of Pricketts Creek. There is substantial evidence of several major Indian Villages, or campsites within a few miles of Jacob's Trading Post.

The most that can be determined about the Indians that he traded with are that they most likely were of Algonquin, Iroquois, or Appalachain stock.

That is to say, they could have been Delaware, Shawnee etc. or Mohawk, Senecas etc. During the Revolutionary war, the Wyandots (aka Hurons) came to the area and were extremely aggressive.

Nathaniel Springer deposed that he, Jacob Prickett, David Morgan, John Snodgrass and Pharoah Ryley, assembled on C'Capon River to await word from Lawrence Washington, Esq., (brother to George). What they were waiting for was to be informed of the terms for an expedition to Cheat River to scout lands for Lawrence Washington and Co. They set out on either the 28th or 29th of April in 1747. Nathaniel said that his uncle Evan Morgan kept a camp and did trading at the forks of the Cheat River. (Now called the Monongahela) He also said that the group explored Tygart River and Buckhannon, as well as the Monongahela. Nathaniel goes on to say that he and his group returned to their homes on the Opeckon, Fredrick County, in August 1747, there they gave to L. Washington, Esq., maps and other papers drafted by them during the expedition.

It is said that Jacob and other members of the original expedition lived near what is now Rivesville in the 1740's. In 1763, King George III, decreed that all lands west of the Allegheny mountains were Indian Lands, and not for settlement. This was decreed because of the Delaware and Iroquois complaints to the encroachment of their lands. This is why Jacob makes no claim of settlement until 1772. In that year, Samuel Hanaway, a Surveyor, "Surveyed for Jacob Prickett 324 acres of land in Monongalia County, on Prickett's Creek, including his settlement made in the year 1772." In 1777, an act of the General Assembly made settlement legal in the Monongahela valley. They also granted 400 acres of land to each family who had settled on the "western waters" prior to 24 June 1778.

In 1774, Prickett's Fort was built. Tradition states that there was some eighty families living at the Prickett Settlement in fear of the Indians. There was at this time a larger settlement at Morgan's Town and at Clarksburg. The Monongahela valley was thickly covered with huge oaks and chestnut trees. It was a Herculean task to clear enough land for a crude cabin and garden. Wagons were not used because of the forest, so settlers carried what little they could on pack animals and on themselves.

Around 1780, Jacob built a mill near the fort. Payment for grinding grain was in grain payment for sawing lumber was in lumber. Gathering ginseng paid between 30 and 35 cents a pound. Women and children gathered the dried roots for export to China. Money was scarce and when had, it could be of almost any origin. Spanish, British and French coins jangled together. Two hard days labor could get you a deer hide with the hair left on or the promise of two days hard work at your bidding. Later in the 1700's, rye was exported as whiskey in large quantities.

The description of Prickett's Fort by Dr. Doddridge in 1822, follows:

There were sixteen cabins, a range of four on each wall. Large storage bins divided the cabins from each other. The outside walls, with sidewalls sloping inward, were ten feet high. At first the cabins had earthen floors later, some were fitted with puncheons. The pickets for the stockade were hewn seventeen feet and set in the ground five feet, which gave a stockade wall of twelve feet. The bastions were larger than the cabins, and were set one at each of the four angles of the stockade. Their outer parts projected two feet beyond the stockade walls. These overhanging sections had slatted floors, so enemies making a lodgment against the stockade might be fired upon, straight downward. The bastions were eight feet higher than the walls,were twelve feet square, and made of large hickory logs, with ample gun-spaces, or loopholes in and in between.

Within the stockade at the forward center of the grounds were two large buildings, each forty feet long and twenty feet wide and eight feet high. There were two gates, the main gate in the center of the northern wall, facing the river, and by the big spring, and the stock gate, in the center of the west wall of the stockade, near the little spring. The stables and stock-pens were all at the far southern end of the stockade. Both gates were made of logs and thick slabs, and hinged so that they would fold inward.

DAVID MORGAN used to tell a story about "JAKE PRICKETT and the bean-shot Brave." The story was told to his nephew's "Chunk" and James, sons of Col. Zackwell Morgan. Chunk had a hunting camp on a dreen of Little Paw Paw Creek. Chunk had just married, and he and his brother built a cabin for the newlyweds to set up housekeeping in. Uncle Dave & Henry Batten came by, and were there to share the first fire and first meal, that was made in that cabin.

In the evening a "soiree" was held. David got to telling funny but true stories of his and JACOB PRICKETT'S adventures.

One story told that night was about the time that he and Jacob captured an Indian Brave. (The story, as printed, does not relate the whole particulars, as related by David Morgan.) The two men were out of lead, so Jacob loaded his musket with beans. Jacob shot the brave in the rump, and as the brave "was dancing around and yelping Prickett hit him with his fist and knocked him out, and they tied him and turned him in at Fort Rogers and later was exchanged for the Ramsey boy, who had been with the Indians for a year." It was a good story and everybody laughed hearing Uncle Dave tell about that Indian with beans in his bottom."

From the book "THE ROSS FAMILY BRANCH OF THE PRICKETT FAMILY" by Nora Ross (1989), found in the Marion County Library, West Virginia, we learn:

"JACOB PRICKETT served as a spy for the Virginia Militia before he came of age, and later, was Captain of the Monongalia County, Virginia troops in the Revolutionary war. After his marriage to DOROTHY, Captain JACOB (JAKE) again offered his services to the state of Virginia Militia, serving under General George Washington in Braddock's 1758 campaign against the Indians of the Monongahela River region. In 1759, JACOB moved his family to Monongalia County, (West) Virginia, where he had a trading post and built what is assumed to be the first mill in that area. By 1774, he, along with his brothers, Josiah and Isaiah, built Pricketts Fort. "

Issue: Josiah Prickett b. 1746 m: Charity Taylor (3 Aug 1808 she m: Wm.Jolliffe) John Prickett b. 1748 m: Elizabeth Hays Isaac Prickett b. 1 March 1752 m: Mary Campbell He was paid 54.10.-. in Nov. 1777 For being a Spy in "Monongohala" Co., WVA (pp.505 VIRGINIA MILITARY RECORDS) TWINS DRUSILLA PRICKETT b.1 Mar 1752 m: CAPT. MORGAN MORGAN d. 2 April 1817 Isaiah Prickett b. 1757 d. 2 Oct 1774 Murdered & scalped by Indians.

Jacob Prickett, Jr. b. 1 April 1758 m: Jemimah Pindle Nancy Ann Prickett b. 1762 m: Reuben Bunner (Boner) James Prickett b. 8 Mar 1765 m: Mary Springer Dorothy Prickett m: Sergeant James Dunn Mary Prickett m: Jacob Lucas Martha Prickett m: Peter Parker Thomas Prickett (?) m: Ann Wyatt (A Thomas Prickett marries Evan's dau. Elizabeth Morgan on 9 Oct 1809)

  • Daughters of American Revolution Ancestor #: A093133
  • Service: VIRGINIA Rank(s): CAPTAIN, PATRIOTIC SERVICE
  • Birth: CIRCA 1720 BURLINGTON CO NEW JERSEY
  • Death: POST 1782 MONONGALIA CO VIRGINIA
  • Service Source: GWATHMEY, HIST REG OF VA IN THE REV, P 639 ABERCROMBIE & SLATTEN, VA REV PUB CLAIMS, VOL 2, P 682
  • Service Description: MONONGALIA CO MILITIA, PAID FOR SUPPLIES

JACOB "JAKE" PRICKETT b. 1722 Wilmington, Delaware d. 14 Apr 1797 in Prickett's Fort Cem.,W. Va. Prickett's Fort in Monongalia, WV m: DOROTHY SPRINGER on 11 May 1745 Mount Holly,Burlington Co. N.J. Dorothy was born 4 june 1726 Evesham, Burlington Co., New Jersey and died 21 jan 1785 Prickett's Fort, WV

JACOB's father filed a $500. marriage bond for his marriage to DOROTHY.

Jacob stood 5'10, and weighed 180 pounds. He had "stiff" black hair, and "snapping" black eyes. He was fierce in the defense of others, but was soft hearted and gentle with children.

The following is taken from the booklet "Pricketts Fort" by William J. Wilcox:

In 1759, Jacob was operating an Indian Trading Post at the mouth of Pricketts Creek. There is substantial evidence of several major Indian Villages, or campsites within a few miles of Jacob's Trading Post.

The most that can be determined about the Indians that he traded with are that they most likely were of Algonquin, Iroquois, or Appalachain stock.

That is to say, they could have been Delaware, Shawnee etc. or Mohawk, Senecas etc. During the Revolutionary war, the Wyandots (aka Hurons) came to the area and were extremely aggressive.

Nathaniel Springer deposed that he, Jacob Prickett, David Morgan, John Snodgrass and Pharoah Ryley, assembled on C'Capon River to await word from Lawrence Washington, Esq., (brother to George). What they were waiting for was to be informed of the terms for an expedition to Cheat River to scout lands for Lawrence Washington and Co. They set out on either the 28th or 29th of April in 1747. Nathaniel said that his uncle Evan Morgan kept a camp and did trading at the forks of the Cheat River. (Now called the Monongahela) He also said that the group explored Tygart River and Buckhannon, as well as the Monongahela. Nathaniel goes on to say that he and his group returned to their homes on the Opeckon, Fredrick County, in August 1747, there they gave to L. Washington, Esq., maps and other papers drafted by them during the expedition.

It is said that Jacob and other members of the original expedition lived near what is now Rivesville in the 1740's. In 1763, King George III, decreed that all lands west of the Allegheny mountains were Indian Lands, and not for settlement. This was decreed because of the Delaware and Iroquois complaints to the encroachment of their lands. This is why Jacob makes no claim of settlement until 1772. In that year, Samuel Hanaway, a Surveyor, "Surveyed for Jacob Prickett 324 acres of land in Monongalia County, on Prickett's Creek, including his settlement made in the year 1772." In 1777, an act of the General Assembly made settlement legal in the Monongahela valley. They also granted 400 acres of land to each family who had settled on the "western waters" prior to 24 June 1778.

In 1774, Prickett's Fort was built. Tradition states that there was some eighty families living at the Prickett Settlement in fear of the Indians. There was at this time a larger settlement at Morgan's Town and at Clarksburg. The Monongahela valley was thickly covered with huge oaks and chestnut trees. It was a Herculean task to clear enough land for a crude cabin and garden. Wagons were not used because of the forest, so settlers carried what little they could on pack animals and on themselves.

Around 1780, Jacob built a mill near the fort. Payment for grinding grain was in grain payment for sawing lumber was in lumber. Gathering ginseng paid between 30 and 35 cents a pound. Women and children gathered the dried roots for export to China. Money was scarce and when had, it could be of almost any origin. Spanish, British and French coins jangled together. Two hard days labor could get you a deer hide with the hair left on or the promise of two days hard work at your bidding. Later in the 1700's, rye was exported as whiskey in large quantities.

There were sixteen cabins, a range of four on each wall. Large storage bins divided the cabins from each other. The outside walls, with sidewalls sloping inward, were ten feet high. At first the cabins had earthen floors later, some were fitted with puncheons. The pickets for the stockade were hewn seventeen feet and set in the ground five feet, which gave a stockade wall of twelve feet. The bastions were larger than the cabins, and were set one at each of the four angles of the stockade. Their outer parts projected two feet beyond the stockade walls. These overhanging sections had slatted floors, so enemies making a lodgment against the stockade might be fired upon, straight downward. The bastions were eight feet higher than the walls,were twelve feet square, and made of large hickory logs, with ample gun-spaces, or loopholes in and in between.

Within the stockade at the forward center of the grounds were two large buildings, each forty feet long and twenty feet wide and eight feet high. There were two gates, the main gate in the center of the northern wall, facing the river, and by the big spring, and the stock gate, in the center of the west wall of the stockade, near the little spring. The stables and stock-pens were all at the far southern end of the stockade. Both gates were made of logs and thick slabs, and hinged so that they would fold inward.

DAVID MORGAN used to tell a story about "JAKE PRICKETT and the bean-shot Brave." The story was told to his nephew's "Chunk" and James, sons of Col. Zackwell Morgan. Chunk had a hunting camp on a dreen of Little Paw Paw Creek. Chunk had just married, and he and his brother built a cabin for the newlyweds to set up housekeeping in. Uncle Dave & Henry Batten came by, and were there to share the first fire and first meal, that was made in that cabin.

In the evening a "soiree" was held. David got to telling funny but true stories of his and JACOB PRICKETT'S adventures.

One story told that night was about the time that he and Jacob captured an Indian Brave. (The story, as printed, does not relate the whole particulars, as related by David Morgan.) The two men were out of lead, so Jacob loaded his musket with beans. Jacob shot the brave in the rump, and as the brave "was dancing around and yelping Prickett hit him with his fist and knocked him out, and they tied him and turned him in at Fort Rogers and later was exchanged for the Ramsey boy, who had been with the Indians for a year." It was a good story and everybody laughed hearing Uncle Dave tell about that Indian with beans in his bottom."

From the book "THE ROSS FAMILY BRANCH OF THE PRICKETT FAMILY" by Nora Ross (1989), found in the Marion County Library, West Virginia, we learn:

"JACOB PRICKETT served as a spy for the Virginia Militia before he came of age, and later, was Captain of the Monongalia County, Virginia troops in the Revolutionary war. After his marriage to DOROTHY, Captain JACOB (JAKE) again offered his services to the state of Virginia Militia, serving under General George Washington in Braddock's 1758 campaign against the Indians of the Monongahela River region. In 1759, JACOB moved his family to Monongalia County, (West) Virginia, where he had a trading post and built what is assumed to be the first mill in that area. By 1774, he, along with his brothers, Josiah and Isaiah, built Pricketts Fort. "

Jacob Prickett BIRTH򑜢 Wilmington, New Castle County, Delaware, USA DEATHऔ Apr 1797 (aged 74�) Marion County, West Virginia, USA BURIAL Prickett Cemetery Marion County, West Virginia


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