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(Moen: dp. 2,100; 1. 223'; b. 43'4"; dr. 11'6"; s. 13 k.; cpl. 100 (approx.); a. 2 XV-in. D. sb.; cl. Canonicous)
The Manhattan was built by Perine, Secor & Oo., New York, N.Y., at the yard of Joseph Coldwell, Jersey City. N.J., Launched 14 October 1883, and commissioned at the New York Navy Yard 6 June 1864, Comdr. J. W. A. Nicholson in command.
Immediately following commissioning, the single-turreted monitor sailed for the Gulf of Mexico in late July joining Rear Admiral Farragut's s squadron, then readying for what was to be the Battle of Mobile Bay. On 5 August, with three other monitors, Tecunseh, Winnebago, and Chickasaq, she formed a screen to the starboard of the squadron's wooden ships to protect them from the guns of Fort Morgan which they would pass at close range while entering the bay. In the course of the battle, she engaged the Confederate ram Tennessee and received her surrender. Thereafter, her mighty XV-inch guns added to the bombardment of Fort Morgan' the last Confederate stronghold in Mobile Bay, which surrendered 23 August after a valiant defense.
In November Manhattan sailed to New Orleans and later to the mouth of the Red River, remaining there until May 1865. Thence she returned to New Orleans where, in August, she was laid up in ordinary. On 15 June 1869, while still inactive, she was renamed Neptune, only to resume her original name 10 August.
In 1870 Manhattan was taken to Key West, laid up for a short time, and then taken to Philadelphia, where she was fitted out 1872-73. Recommissioned 19 November 1873, she returned to Key West for fleet maneuvers and then proceeded on to Pensacola. On 25 April 1876 she departed the west coast of Florida and sailed to Port Royal, S.C. She cruised off the Carolinas until June 1877 when she sailed to Norfolk, Va. The following year she was towed up the James River and anchored at Brandon. Moved to City Point in 1881 and then to Richmond in 1888, she was finally taken to Philadelphia and laid up at League Island where she remained until after the turn of the century. Struck from the Navy list 14 December 1901, she was sold 24 March 1902
History of Møn
Møn has been inhabited since ancient times. The first traces of human settlement date back about 14,500 years, yet it is the burial mounds from the Bronze Age that remain as the most visible remnant of the ancient cultures that used to inhabit the island. There are about 800 such mounds on Møn, and although many of these have been ploughed over, they can still be spotted in the landscape. The Vikings also left their mark for example, it is believed that the names of many of Møn’s villages originate from the Viking Age, including Røddinge and Keldby.
Møn flourished in the Middle Ages due to its herring fisheries, which made the island’s inhabitants exceedingly wealthy. It was during this period of prosperity that Stege Church and the six other medieval churches on Møn and Bogø were established. After the herring fisheries went into decline, life on Møn was increasingly based on agriculture, which gradually became industrialised.
In 1943 Møn was connected by bridge to Sjælland, which resulted in an increase in the quality of life and working opportunities for the people of Møn, and an increase in tourism. Today, Møn is a popular tourist destination, and tourism is a major source of income for the area.
Activist New York online!
Continue the Activist New York experience online with additional original content, materials for teachers, and images of activism in the city today taken by New Yorkers like you. Contribute your own images to our activism gallery by using the hashtag #ActivistNY on your Instagram and Twitter.
New York artist Keith Haring created designs used in anti-AIDS campaigns, including the posthumously printed image at the top of this 1991 GMHC dance-a-thon flyer. He also founded the Keith Haring Foundation in 1989 to assist AIDS-related and children’s charities. Haring died of AIDS-related illness in 1990.
Image Info: Gay Men's Health Crisis, 1991, Museum of the City of New York, Mark Ouderkirk Collection, X2011.12.133.
As the nation’s hub of manufacturing, mass marketing, and advertising, New York became a center for woman suffrage-related memorabilia. Activists distributed a wide array of lapel buttons, armbands, pennants, badges, and song sheets to raise money and publicize their cause.
Image Info: 1910s, Museum of the City of New York, Gift of Mrs. Edward C. Moen, 49.215.12.
United Bronx Parents was founded by Evelina López Antonetty in 1965 as an education reform organization focused on mobilizing Puerto Rican parents and children. By the 1980s, the group also provided a range of services and programs to the South Bronx community.
Image Info: United Bronx Parents, 1967, Courtesy the United Bronx Parent Records, the Archives of the Puerto Rican Diaspora, Center for Puerto Rican Studies, Hunter College, CUNY.
The shirtwaist, a mass-produced blouse marketed in a variety of styles and prices, became enormously popular in the late 19th century. Made in New York factories, the shirtwaist symbolized the “New Woman,” freed from restrictive traditional garments and ready to participate in a widening array of public activities, including wage labor and union activism.
Image Info: Gray and white striped cotton with linen collar, ca. 1895, Fisk Clark & Flagg, E.A. Morrison & Son, 898 Broadway, New York, Museum of the City of New York, Gift of Mrs. John Hubbard, 41.190.22.
While a “Jim Crow” system of legal segregation is often thought of as unique to the American South, federal and local policies that shaped housing, employment, and schools made discrimination pervasive in New York and other northern locales.
Image Info: Bruce Davidson, 1962, © Bruce Davidson/Magnum Photos.
Twenty-three Jewish refugees from Brazil and two European Jewish merchants arrived in New Amsterdam in 1654. Colony Director-General Peter Stuyvesant wanted to turn them away, complaining of “their deceitful business towards the Christians.” The Company ordered Stuyvesant to let them remain and enjoy the same rights they would have in the Dutch Republic, and Asser Levy became the first Jewish person to own property in the colony.
Image Info: September 5, 1677, Museum of the City of New York, Gift of Mrs. Newbold Morris, 34.86.1.
In a city that embraces change as its primary tradition, the shifting population base of New York remains its most dramatic story. At the end of the 20th century, representatives of some 200 national groups were counted among its people. While people of European ancestry still make up one-third of the population, Hispanics account for nearly one-third, and African Americans about one-fourth. The fastest-growing component of the population is Asian, soaring from a tiny proportion in 1970 to more than one-tenth in the late 1990s. Dominicans were the most numerous immigrants during the last decade of the 20th century, but they were closely followed by Russians and Chinese, people yearning to “make it.” The Statue of Liberty, more than a century after its dedication in the harbour (1886), continues to be the most powerful symbol of New York, as it welcomes newcomers into the city’s “golden door.”
People from each ethnic group have climbed the ladder of acculturation, achieved their goals to a greater or lesser extent, and then, in turn, found fault with the masses that followed them to the promised city. As early as 1643, Father (later Saint) Isaac Jogues catalogued 18 languages that were being used on the streets of New Amsterdam, and that cosmopolitan atmosphere was retained when Dutch control ended and Britain assumed power. Jews, Roman Catholics, and numerous ethnic groups lived in Manhattan before the end of the 17th century, but political control remained in the hands of the established merchant elite. When the American Revolution began, more prominent Dutch families—the Van Cortlandts, De Peysters, and Schuylers—supported the cause than did their English counterparts. One unanticipated result of the fighting was that many slaves, perhaps one-fifth of the city population in 1776, won freedom. One of the first “history” books of New York was a satiric look at the merchant elite and the city’s Dutch past written in 1809 by Diedrich Knickerbocker (Washington Irving). Spoken Dutch was heard on city streets until the late 19th century, when such families as the Roosevelts and the Vanderbilts were important members of Manhattan’s elite.
The dedication of the first St. Patrick’s Cathedral between Mott and Mulberry streets in 1815 signaled the rising prominence of the Irish. By 1844, 15 parishes served more than 80,000 Irish Roman Catholics, and it was clear even before the Great Famine immigration of 1845–49 that New York was becoming predominantly Irish. More than 24,000 Germans also lived in Manhattan, a number that vastly increased following the failed revolutions of the 1840s. Irish workers had to contend with signs warning “No Irish need apply,” and their poor circumstances soon created one of New York’s most notorious slums, the Five Points District. Germans, who were largely Protestant or Jewish, were more middle-class and perhaps had a slightly easier acclimation they created the Kleindeutschland (“Little Germany”) neighbourhood east of the Bowery. So great was the pressure of immigration that Castle Garden, near the Battery, was converted into a reception centre, a role it fulfilled from 1855 to 1890. By the time of the American Civil War, Irish, Germans, and several other ethnic groups made the city’s population more than half foreign-born.
The arrival of “new” immigrants from eastern and southern Europe after 1880 again changed Manhattan. The Irish and Germans, who by then held a vast proportion of political and economic power, deeply resented the Italians, Greeks, Russians, Hungarians, and Poles crowding into their city. Ellis Island, a new immigrant reception station, was built in 1892 to deal with the unprecedented numbers of newcomers, and by 1900 the Lower East Side recorded one of the greatest population densities in world history. Ellis Island processed about 12,000 people per day, and in 1907 some 1.2 million entered the United States through the port. The austere New York Times wrote that “cleanliness is an unknown quality to these people. They cannot be lifted to a higher plane because they do not want to be.” Tuberculosis became the “ Jewish” disease, and New York’s police commissioner played the demagogue in 1909 when he asserted that half of all city crime was committed by Russian Jews. Nevertheless, Jews were to transform labour and education in the city, while Italians would become the largest ethnic group. Yet so varied was the city that every large group remained only a minority, and toleration of “the other” became a New York virtue.
'Manhattan of the desert': civil war puts Yemen's ancient skyscrapers at risk
O n the edge of the vast Empty Quarter desert that dominates the Arabian peninsula, white and brown towers rise together out of the valley floor like tall sandcastles. Once they welcomed weary caravans traversing the Silk Roads: now they stand as testimony to the ingenuity of a lost civilisation.
This is the ancient walled city of Shibam, nicknamed the “Manhattan of the desert” by the British explorer Freya Stark in the 1930s, in modern-day Yemen, a country also home to an untold number of other archeological treasures. The kingdom of Saba, ruled by the legendary Queen of Sheba, and many other dynasties of the ancient world rose and fell here, their fortunes linked to Yemen’s position at the crossroads of early frankincense and spice trades between Africa and Asia.
Today, as a result of Yemen’s complex civil war – now in its fifth year – many of the country’s wonders have been damaged or are under threat. While the destruction pales in comparison to the human cost of the conflict, the country’s rich cultural heritage has also been ravaged.
The Yemen conflict explained
The roots of the Yemen civil war lie in the Arab spring. In 2011 pro-democracy protesters took to the streets in a bid to force the president, Ali Abdullah Saleh, to end his 33-year rule. He responded with economic concessions but refused to resign.
After protesters died at the hands of the military in the capital Sana’a, there followed an internationally brokered deal to transfer power to the vice-president, Abd Rabbu Mansour Hadi.
However, Hadi’s government was considered weak and corrupt, and his attempts at constitutional and budget reforms were rejected by Houthi rebels from the north. They captured the capital, forcing Hadi to flee eventually to Riyadh.
In March 2015 a Saudi-led coalition intervened on behalf of Hadi’s internationally recognised government against the Houthi rebels. The war is widely regarded as having turned a poor country into a humanitarian catastrophe.
Over the years the situation on the ground has become ever-more complex. In September 2019, the Saudi Arabian oil-fields of Abqaiq and Khurais were attacked by air. The Houthis claimed the credit, but Saudi Arabia and the US accused Iran of being behind the attacks. The conflict has been seen as part of the regional power struggle between Sunni-ruled Saudi Arabia and Shia-ruled Iran.
Local militants from al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula and from a group affiliated to Islamic State have both used the opportunity to seize territory in Yemen. In August 2019 the Southern Transitional Council, which has up until that point been seen as a UAE-backed ally, attempted to separate itself from Yemen, sparking conflict with the Saudi-led forces. The UAE has now claimed to have withdrawn from the conflict.
Saudi Arabia had expected that its overwhelming air power, backed by the regional coalition and with intelligence and logistical support from the UK, US and France, could defeat the Houthi insurgency in a matter of months. Instead it has triggered the world's worst humanitarian disaster, with 80% of the population - more than 24 million people - requiring assistance or protection and more than 90,000 dead. The charity Save the Children estimated that 85,000 children with severe acute malnutrition might have died between 2015 and 2018.
Medical facilities have been devastated by years of war. The country has had to deal with not just the coronavirus pandemic, but also the largest cholera outbreak ever recorded, with over 2 million cases on record. The UN office for the coordination of humanitarian affairs has warned that more than 16 million people in Yemen would go hungry this year, with already half a million living in famine-like conditions.
Photograph: Mohamed Al-Sayaghi/X03689
At least 712 mosques and 206 archeological sites have been affected since the war broke out in 2015, according to the Legal Centre for Rights and Development in Sana’a. The true figures are believed to be much higher: deliberate targeting by Saudi airstrikes, Houthi rebels, Islamic State and al-Qaida, and a booming smuggling trade have all contributed to the loss of thousands of relics.
The entrance of one of Shibam’s mudbrick high-rise buildings.
Shibam, a 1,700-year-old settlement in the valley of Hadramawt, has largely escaped direct violence, but is still suffering from years of neglect, despite being a Unesco world heritage site.
Named for King Shibam Bin Harith Ibn Saba, it is one of the oldest – and still one of the best – examples of vertical construction in the world. In the 16th century, Shibam’s inhabitants found they had run out of space to expand. To compensate, they began to build carefully on a rectangular street grid, and instead of spreading out, they built up, giving the world its first skyscrapers. The tallest of Shibam’s mudbrick and cedarwood towers contains eight storeys and stands 30 metres high.
A man walks past a damaged high-rise building in Shibam. In order to maintain the buildings from rain and erosion the walls need to be routinely maintained by applying fresh layers of mud.
High above the desert valley floor, Shibam is close to water sources but relatively safe from flooding. The shadows cast by the tall buildings provide lots of shade to the hot streets below and the fortified outer wall and high vantage point from the towers made it hard for rival tribes to attack.
The city’s 3,000 residents still largely follow the traditional living pattern, with in some cases up to 40 family members in the same tower. Animals and tools are kept on the ground floor and food is stored on the second. Elderly people live on the third and the fourth is used for entertaining. Higher levels are occupied by more nimble families, with childless newlyweds on the roof.
The shadows cast by Shibam’s high-rises provide shade for the hot streets below. Photograph: Alamy
Internal doors link up to 10 houses on a street block, although bridges from roof to roof that saved elderly legs from climbing up and down staircases have not survived.
Today the streets are too narrow for cars, but Shibam is largely self-sustaining: its farmers and shopkeepers cater to the small population and many men are employed baking the straw and mud bricks used in construction. As in many Yemeni cities, goats and chickens roam the streets.
“Lots of young people have left,” said Ali Abdullah, 28, who was looking after his family’s goats along with his 10-year-old brother, Majid. “Shibam is beautiful but there is no reliable money to make here unless they start preserving the buildings again.”
Men making mud-bricks on the outskirts of Shibam.
While their owners do what they can to rebuild crumbling walls and protect their homes from termites with limewash, Shibam’s 444 buildings are vulnerable to wind, rain and heat erosion: the outer layers of clay need constant maintenance to stop the walls cracking and eventually collapsing.
Since Yemen’s Arab Spring revolt in 2011, funding to help preserve the city has dried up, as has the once steady flow of tourists, said Salim Rubiyah, the head of the local association responsible for looking after the public buildings inside Shibam’s walls.
Two towers have collapsed in the last few years, and at least 15 more are in urgent need of repair, according to the General Organisation for the Preservation of Historic Cities in Yemen.
Salim Rubiyah, 61, head of the local association responsible for looking after the public buildings inside Shibam’s walls.
“Shibam is very special,” said Rubiyah. “I don’t know why everyone doesn’t build like this. I worry that this will be the last generation who are able to make a life here and appreciate the city’s beauty.”
Elsewhere in Yemen, the story repeats itself. A ruin reputed to be the location of the Queen of Sheba’s throne, potentially the only vestige from her 10th-century BCE kingdom, lies in the desert near the Yemeni town of Marib. As the purported political, religious and economic centre of her legendary civilisation, the site is considered of huge significance. Prof Abdullah Abu al-Ghaith of Sana’a University has described it as the eighth wonder of the world.
Excavation teams and foreign visitors have stayed away since an 2007 al-Qaida attack on a temple in the area killed at least 10 people, including eight Spanish tourists. Today, the sites are covered in litter and graffiti, ancient carvings are exposed to sandstorms and the perimeter is only protected by flimsy fences.
A family sits in the ruins of the Barran Temple – reputed to be the location of the Queen of Sheba’s throne – near Marib in September 2019.
In Sana’a, one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world, ancient sites have been razed by Saudi-led coalition bombing. Several blocks of Sana’a’s old city are now just rubble and dishevelled palm trees, where tall red mud-brick buildings decorated with ornate white gypsum window frames used to stand.
Despite Unesco having provided the coalition with a no-strike list of historical sites when the campaign began in 2015, sites such as the Castle of Taiz have been targeted, as well as the Dhamar Museum.
1911 until 1990: family-owned Edit
The company started as a ferric hardware factory in 1911 under the name Berkenhoff & Paschedag, located in Hemer, Germany it was taken over by Friedrich Grohe in 1936, who focused on sanitary faucets only. Before that, Friedrich used to work for his father's company Hansgrohe, founded in 1901. The first order from outside of Germany came in 1938. In 1948, the company was renamed to Friedrich Grohe Armaturenfabrik.  In 1956, Grohe purchased Carl Nestler Armaturenfabrik with its factory in Lahr/Schwarzwald.  In the same year, the company launched the Skalatherm, an automatic mixing valve with integrated thermostat.  In 1961, the company set up its first subsidiary abroad, in France. A year later in 1962, Grohe acquired exclusive rights to produce the Moen Mixing Faucet, which mixes hot and cold water with a single lever. In 1965, the company expanded into Austria and founded its third subsidiary abroad in Italy in 1967. 
In 1968, Friedrich Grohe sold a 51% stake, there were some additions to the Lahr production site and a new logistics department was opened at Hemer-Edelburg. 
In 1983, the company's products were exclusively distributed in the Middle East, the East Mediterranean as well as North and West Africa by Grome Marketing. Later in 1993, Grohe acquired 50% of Grome, resulting in a joint venture between Mesma Holdings Ltd. and Grohe AG. 
1990s and 2000s: involvement of investors Edit
In 1991, the company bought two other producers of faucets: Herzberger Armaturen GmbH from the Brandenburg region and Armaturenfabrik H. D. Eichelberg & Co. GmbH at Iserlohn in Westphalia. Grohe was also restructured as a public limited company. By taking over the DAL Group in 1994, the company acquired a production site in Porta Westfalica, Westphalia at the same time, the company also acquired Tempress Ltd. of Mississauga in Ontario (Canada). At the Hemer site, new technology and factory control facilities were opened. 1996 saw the company expand to Portugal and Thailand. A new design centre followed at the Hemer site in 1997.
In 1998, a group of investors working with BC Partners bought all available Grohe shares and delisted the company in the following year, making the Grohe Holding GmbH company, owned by BC partners, into the majority owner of Grohe AG in 1999. BC partners sold the company to a consortium of investors from the Texas Pacific Group and CSFB Private Equity (a subsidiary of the Swiss Credit Suisse banking group) five years later in 2004.
In 2005, Franz Müntefering, chairman of the then ruling Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), sparked a debate on capitalism by designating foreign private equity firms as "locusts".  He made TPG-owned Grohe his main example. The "locust" metaphor remained popular in German politics and media for years. On the other hand, a report commissioned by the German government's finance ministry cited Grohe as an example for a successful turnaround, less than three years after Müntefering's statement. 
The company’s sales and profit figures had been stagnating for years, leading to a programme of savings as of 2007. Around 950 production jobs were announced to be cut at sites in Germany and the Herzberg factory was closed the sites in Thailand and Portugal were expanded considerably and around 500 new jobs created. Through 2008, investments totaling 200 million euros were made, of which around two thirds were invested in Germany in the areas of production technology and logistics. 
2010-present: recent history Edit
Grohe is currently Europe’s biggest manufacturer of sanitary fittings and has eight percent of the worldwide market.  The German market makes up roughly 15 percent of overall sales. Currently, Grohe AG is owned almost 100% by Grohe Holding GmbH (there are still some minority shareholders from the period in which Grohe AG was listed on the stock market). Grohe Holding GmbH is owned by investors.
In June 2010, the company saw a ruling against the European sanitary fittings industry by the European Commission. The Commission found that European manufacturers had operated a cartel between 1992 and 2002 and imposed a collective fine of 622 million euros. Grohe's share of the fine amounted to 54.8 million euros.  The Grohe board of directors, which took up business after the period under investigation, introduced awareness programmes about competition law and operates a zero-tolerance policy towards price-fixing. 
In early 2011, Grohe acquired a majority stake in the leading Chinese sanitary fittings producer Joyou, making a successful public takeover bid. The aim of this takeover is above all to strengthen Grohe’s sales infrastructure on the fast-growing Asian market.  Grohe currently holds a 72 percent stake in Joyou. 
In 2012, Grohe AG's revenues increased by 21 percent to 1,405 million euros operating profits improved by 18 percent to reach 273 million euros, representing a return on revenue of 19.4 percent. 
In May 2013, David Haines, chairman of Grohe, confirmed that, although the company is examining all options for ending investor involvement, no concrete plans had yet been made. Capital market experts estimate that Grohe would currently be valued at up to four billion euros if it were to return to the stock market. 
In September 2013, it was announced that Grohe had received the largest ever investment from a Japanese company in Germany. The firm is now almost entirely owned by the Japanese building materials company Lixil Group and the Development Bank of Japan, after a €3 billion deal for 87.5 percent of the firm. 
Grohe was taken over by Lixil and the Development Bank of Japan in January 2014. 
In February 2017, the company's revenues accounted 965 million euros during the first nine months of the fiscal year. Grohe claimed their solid growth is based on their international marketshares with Grohe products available in 150 countries as well as increasing sales in Germany. 
In May 2017, Grohe announced the takeover of the former joint venture Grome. 
In September 2017, Grohe was listed in the Change the World ranking of the business magazine Fortune as one of 50 international companies whose strategy have a positive impact on society. 
The registered office of Grohe AG is located in Hemer and the head office in Düsseldorf, Germany. Grohe AG is a subsidiary of Grohe Holding GmbH. Grohe Holding GmbH is wholly owned by Grohe Group S.à.r.l., which gets consolidated by its parent company Lixil Group. 
The company's Management Board consists of four members and is led by Thomas Fuhr as chairman of the board. Other members are Jonas Brennwald as Deputy CEO, Stefan Gesing as Chief Financial Officer, and Michael Mager as Executive Director Human Resources & Organization.  
The Supervisory Board of Grohe AG is composed of an equal numbers of six employee representatives and six shareholder representatives. The Chairman of the Supervisory Board is Kinya Seto, Chief Executive Officer of the LIXIL Group. 
In 1975, Grohe opened a small office just outside Chicago, and its representative, Urell, Inc. in Massachusetts, began supplying European-style kitchen and bathroom fixtures to American tradesmen and retailers. The new venture was incorporated a year later as Grohe America, Inc. and moved into a small warehouse-office complex. In order to keep pace with its rapid growth, the company regularly upsized its premises: a section of a larger warehouse facility in 1978, a whole warehouse in Wood Dale in 1986, and finally settled into today’s custom-built 90,000 square-foot facility in Bloomingdale, Illinois, in 1993. 
Sales figures doubled year after year as Grohe introduced a series of products such as the Ladylux of 1983 – the first pull-out spray kitchen faucet, including detachable hand-spray and snap-on accessories (also the first hand-spray with a filter for drinking water), on the US market – or the Europlus of 1989, another pull-out spray faucet. In the early 1990s, Grohe introduced a new designer finish "white" which increased sales for the next 7 years. Introduction of clear powder-coating in the 1980s resulted in the advent of polished brass and other finishes having superior adhesion, solving a major problem in the industry. In the late 1990s, Grohe replaced the powder-coated first generation of these products with stainless steel versions.
1979 saw the launch of the Grohmix thermostat line, able to regulate water temperature to an accuracy of one degree Fahrenheit. In 1980, Grohe also implemented water-temperature regulation technology.
These shower systems saw Grohe America take the step of advertising directly to consumers. For commercial customers, Grohe introduced a new product line in 1989, following it up with a showroom marketing program for wholesalers. In 1996, Grohe America launched its first television advertisement campaign and started offering a limited lifetime warranty in 1997. By the mid-1990s, Grohe America was selling fixtures with a value of $38 million annually, with a market share of 1.7 percent.
Grohe opened a 15,000 square-foot showroom for professional partners and visitors on Fifth Avenue in New York City in September 2011.  In February 2012, Grohe announced its US headquarters will move from Bloomingdale, Illinois to New York City. 
Legendary Songwriter Don Moen Reveals Heartbreaking Story Behind 'God Will Make a Way'
"God Will Make a Way" is one of the most well-known worship songs of all time, inspiring millions around the world with its hopeful lyrics.
But according to legendary Christian singer-songwriter and worship leader Don Moen, the song was born out of extreme tragedy.
"I got a call from my mother-in-law late one night, and she told me that my wife's sister and her husband, Craig and Susan Phelps, had been involved in a tragic car accident while taking their kids on a ski trip," he recounted to The Christian Post. "All four of their children were thrown out of the vehicle, and the oldest, a 9-year-old boy, was killed instantly. The other three were seriously injured."
"It was life-altering I didn't know what to say to them," he continued. "Craig was a Bible teacher at his church, and they were both full of faith. As I sat on the plane, wondering what I should say to them, I began to read in the book of Isaiah, and chapter 43, verse 19 stood out to me: 'I will even make a way in the wilderness, and rivers in the desert.' Instantly, the Lord gave me a song to sing to them."
Privately, Moen performed the song for his grieving in-laws, which includes the poignant lyrics, "Oh, God will make a way/Where there seems to be no way/He works in ways we cannot see/He will make a way for me."
"It was a song written in desperation, but it brought a word of hope to them," he told CP. "When everything around you seems lost, God is working in ways you cannot see."
"God Will Make a Way" would become the award-winning hallmark song of Moen's career, sung by millions around the world. He shares the inspiration behind the song in his debut book, God Will Make A Way: Discovering His Hope in Your Story, releasing on Oct. 16 on Emanate Books, an imprint of Thomas Nelson.
"I've never written a book before and I thought, 'If I'm going to write one, I'm going to write about something that was a life-changing experience,'" he said.
In his book, Moen uses personal stories and Scripture to remind readers that God does not forget His children and remains faithful — even when all hope seems lost.
"So often, people look at their lives and everything is going fine," he said. "Then you lose your job, go through a divorce, lose a family, or receive a devastating health diagnosis. These things can rock your world and you think, 'How am I going to find hope in my story?' All they can see is hopelessness."
"I want people to know that God is with them in spite of loss and hopelessness. If you look close enough, you can see the hand of God in your life."
God Will Make a Way features a foreword from world champion boxer Manny Pacquiao, whom Moen referred to as a "friend" and a "personal hero."
"I met Manny in the '90s, and we've since become good friends," he said. "I don't ever want to take advantage of my friendships with people, but because he believes in the message — that God will make a way for him — he wanted to write the foreword to the book. When he was just a little boy and had nothing, God made a way for him. The song resonates with Manny and with Filipinos all over the world. It's become sort of a theme song."
The award-winning songwriter, who has sold over five million records during his career, told CP that his music is birthed out of his deep love for Christ and desire to speak to the human experience.
"If you analyze my songs, you'll see that a lot of them are prayers," he said. "Life situations motivate me. I'm not the kind of songwriter that sits down in the morning and writes a song I want to write songs that go beyond the intellect and emotion and really reach deep and touch people in their spirit. That's what will change a life.
"I want readers to know that God isn't finished with them. He is going to do something new and make a road in the wilderness."
To learn more about God Will Make a Way, click here.
Photo courtesy of the Norwegian Immigration Association
Before moving to a permanent building, the Bethel Ship church served Norwegian sailors.
The Norwegian Immigration Association
Many of us know the history of the Norwegian colony in Bay Ridge. However, was this the first neighborhood Norwegian immigrants inhabited? Where was the first colony? And when did it start?
Although some Norwegians had been in New York as far back as the 1600s, many people consider that the beginning of Norwegian immigration to the U.S. took place on July 4, 1825, when the “sloop” Restauration left Stavanger, Norway, for the U.S. Just like the passengers on the Mayflower, they were coming in search of religious freedom. Most of those passengers continued on to Kendall, Orlean County, in upstate N.Y. Forty years later, in 1865, the first mass migration of over 100,000 people occurred, but many of them continued on to the midwest.
The second mass migration occurred in 1880 when Norway suffered a great depression. At the same time, there was a transition from sail to steam. Many of the young sailors who came on these ships “jumped ship” and stayed in New York.
The first colony of Norwegians in the Northeast was in Manhattan, in an area bounded by the Brooklyn Bridge, Manhattan Bridge, and the East River.
In the late 1800s, the population of New York increased, technology advanced, and the East River was spanned by bridge and ferry. Industries seeking more space began to move out of Manhattan. Brooklyn replaced Manhattan as the shipbuilding, ship repairing, and docking center. This provided even more work for Norwegians. By the 1870s, the Norwegian population began to migrate to the first Brooklyn settlement, “Old South Brooklyn,” near the shipping activity in Red Hook.
The third mass migration of Norwegians occurred in the early 1900s—over 200,000—and many of them settled in this first Norwegian community in Brooklyn.
The churches followed the people to Brooklyn. The church was very important to the Norwegian immigrant and provided social and charitable benefits as well as religious activities.
One of these churches was the Bethel Ship, which was actually a ship moored off a dock in Red Hook. This church later moved to a regular building on Carroll Street before following the next migration to Bay Ridge. The Norwegian Seamens Church was a place where young seamen could find a place to stay. In addition to a brownstone building next door, the church had a huge basement and could house over 200 sailors.
This downtown settlement lasted through the 1920s. The Norwegians were becoming more prosperous and wanted to get away from the unsavory area of Hamilton Avenue and the stench of the Gowanus Canal. Two more factors contributed to the Norwegian immigrants moving out from “downtown Brooklyn” as they called it: the fact that new docks and warehouses began to extend out to 59th Street, and the completion of the Fourth Avenue subway in 1915. So this next move was out to what was at the time called Bay Ridge, but is now called Sunset Park.
After World War II, conditions were very bad in Norway. Norwegian Americans used to send care packages of clothing and food to their relatives back home. And so the next group of immigrants came—young men who went into construction and carpentry and young women who were au pairs, “cleaning ladies,” seamstresses, etc. Eighth Avenue (nicknamed Lapskaus Boulevard) was the center of the Norwegian community. Their grocery stores, bakeries, and restaurants dominated the scene.
The peak of the Norwegian community in Bay Ridge lasted through the 1950s or 60s. After that, the children of immigrants and the immigrants themselves moved in more scattered directions—Long Island, New Jersey, upstate New York, and Connecticut.
What is the current status of the Norwegian community in Brooklyn? In the 1980s, the Norwegian Seamen’s Church relocated from “downtown Brooklyn” to Manhattan. Their mission today is no longer to sailors but to au pairs, students, visitors, and others. They hold church services in Norwegian every Sunday, have an art gallery featuring Norwegian artists, and hold special events. Although most of the old “Norwegian” churches in Bay Ridge house other ethnic groups as well, some hold Norwegian services or events periodically.
The last Scandinavian bakery, Leskes, closed in 2011, but has reopened under new management and still carries some of the old Norwegian specialties. In January 2015, Nordic Delicacies closed after 29 years—a big loss to the Scandinavian community. It was the last place available to purchase Norwegian foods, sweaters, and jewelry.
The Scandinavian East Coast Museum was founded in the 1990s. Its mission is to preserve the history of the Norwegians in Bay Ridge and to hold events celebrating Scandinavian holidays. They sponsor outdoor festivals in May and October. The Leif Erikson Society of Brooklyn meets once a month in Bay Ridge to “study the Vikings.”
Two of the Sons of Norway Lodges established in Brooklyn are still active today and meet regularly in Bay Ridge: Brooklyn Lodge and Færder Lodge. Gjøa Sporting Club is still also active.
The 17th of May Norwegian Constitution Day Parade is still held in Bay Ridge on the Sunday closest to May 17. People come from all over to march or to view the parade and then get together afterwards at one of the churches or clubhouses.
There is a new group on Facebook called Brooklyn Norwegians. It consists of people who grew up in the Norwegian community of Brooklyn. They reminisce, trade recipes and old photos, and plan to march as a group in this year’s parade.
What is the future of Norwegian Bay Ridge? Only time will tell. Although many third-generation Norwegian Americans have moved out of Brooklyn, there are still people who are keeping the traditions alive.
The author welcomes additional info and comments sent to [email protected]
This article originally appeared in the July 10, 2015, issue of the Norwegian American Weekly. To subscribe, visit SUBSCRIBE or call us at (206) 784-4617.
‘They covered up this history’
Willa Bruce bought their first plot of land by the ocean for $1,225. The LA Times reported in 1912 on the “great agitation” and “opposition” of white property owners, saying she “created a storm … by establishing a seaside resort for her race”.
Willa told the paper: “Wherever we have tried to buy land for a beach resort, we have been refused, but I own this land and I am going to keep it.”
A Los Angeles Times article from 27 June 1912 about Bruce’s Beach. Photograph: Courtesy of Duane Yellow Feather Shepard
The area, which became known as Bruce’s Beach among African Americans, was one of a number of Black leisure spots that were formed in the region at that time.
“African Americans were establishing themselves, because they wanted to enjoy southern California’s offerings,” said Dr Alison Rose Jefferson, a historian and the author of Living the California Dream: African American Leisure Sites during the Jim Crow Era. “Having a place by the beach is a quintessential part of what the California dream is.”
But hate crimes and threats escalated against the Bruces. The KKK started a fire under a main deck, and Black visitors were forced to walk half a mile to reach the beach due to roadblocks set up at the adjacent property of George Peck, a wealthy landowner and developer, according to the LA Times.
In 1924, the city, which by then was called Manhattan Beach, condemned the Bruces’ land and other adjacent homes owned by Black residents, using eminent domain, with the stated goal of building a park. After years of litigation, the Bruces, who had sought $120,000, were given $14,000. And while a judge said they had the right to move back to Manhattan Beach, they couldn’t afford anything after they had lost their wealth and feared the KKK if they returned, said Shepard.
“They were poor and totally devastated,” said Shepard, noting that they moved to the east side of LA and spent the rest of their lives working as cooks in other people’s diners. Willa died five years later.
“Learning that a hate crime was committed against my family, it was jarring,” said Anthony Bruce, recalling his first visit to the site of their stolen land in the 80s when he was five. “It felt personal, like it was an attack against me.”
Today, the Bruces’ property is worth millions.
Anthony’s grandfather, Bernard Bruce, the grandson of Willa and Charles, grew up distraught about this history: “He was obsessed about it, because he knew how much it was worth. He was trying to get that land back for almost his entire life,” Anthony said.
Sweethearts Margie Johnson and John Pettigrew at the crowded Pacific Ocean shoreline. Photograph: Photograph from the private LaVera White Collection of Arthur and Elizabeth Lewis featured in Living the California Dream: African American Leisure Sites during the Jim Crow Era, 2020 by Alison Rose Jefferson.
Bernard made progress in 2006 when, with help from the city’s first Black councilman, officials renamed a nearby park Bruce’s Beach and put up a plaque honoring Willa and Charles. But the plaque excludes any mention of the KKK and harassment, and presents George Peck, considered a co-founder of Manhattan Beach, as a benevolent neighbor, who “made it possible” for the Bruces to run a beach for Black residents.
“George Peck was not the white savior of the Black people to allow this community to begin,” said Jefferson. “It misrepresents what happened.”
Standing by the plaque, Shepard said: “It doesn’t belong here with those lies on it.” He noted that the Bruces should be considered founders of Manhattan Beach just as much as Peck, adding, “Manhattan Beach covered up this history for 80 years. This was by design.”
The uprisings after the killing of George Floyd last year gave the Bruces and their supporters new momentum. But the progress is coming too late for Bernard, who died of Covid-19 in January at age 86.
The Museum of Modern Art history
In the late 1920s, three progressive and influential patrons of the arts, Miss Lillie P. Bliss, Mrs. Cornelius J. Sullivan, and Mrs. John D. Rockefeller, Jr., perceived a need to challenge the conservative policies of traditional museums and to establish an institution devoted exclusively to modern art. They, along with additional original trustees A. Conger Goodyear, Paul Sachs, Frank Crowninshield, and Josephine Boardman Crane, created The Museum of Modern Art in 1929. Its founding director, Alfred H. Barr, Jr., intended the Museum to be dedicated to helping people understand and enjoy the visual arts of our time, and that it might provide New York with “the greatest museum of modern art in the world.”
The public’s response was overwhelmingly enthusiastic, and over the course of the next 10 years the Museum moved three times into progressively larger temporary quarters, and in 1939 finally opened the doors of the building it still occupies in midtown Manhattan. Upon his appointment as the first director, Barr submitted an innovative plan for the conception and organization of the Museum that would result in a multi-departmental structure based on varied forms of visual expression. Today, these departments include architecture and design, drawings and prints, film, media and performance, painting and sculpture, and photography. Subsequent expansions took place during the 1950s and 1960s, planned by the architect Philip Johnson, who also designed The Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Garden. In 1984, a major renovation designed by Cesar Pelli doubled the Museum’s gallery space and enhanced visitor facilities.
The rich and varied collection of The Museum of Modern Art constitutes one of the most comprehensive and panoramic views into modern art. From an initial gift of eight prints and one drawing, The Museum of Modern Art’s collection has grown to approximately 200,000 paintings, sculptures, drawings, prints, photographs, media and performance art works, architectural models and drawings, design objects, and films. MoMA also owns approximately two million film stills. The Museum’s Library and Archives contain the leading concentration of research material on modern art in the world, and each of the curatorial departments maintains a study center available to students, scholars, and researchers. MoMA’s Library holds over 320,000 items, including books, artists’ books, periodicals, and extensive individual files on more than 90,000 artists. The Museum Archives contains primary source material related to the history of MoMA and modern and contemporary art.
The Museum maintains an active schedule of modern and contemporary art exhibitions addressing a wide range of subject matter, mediums, and time periods, highlighting significant recent developments in the visual arts and new interpretations of major artists and art historical movements. Works of art from its collection are displayed in rotating installations so that the public may regularly expect to find new works on display. Ongoing programs of classic and contemporary films range from retrospectives and historical surveys to introductions of the work of independent and experimental film- and video makers. Visitors also enjoy access to bookstores offering an assortment of publications, and a design store offering objects related to modern and contemporary art and design.
The Museum is dedicated to its role as an educational institution and provides a complete program of activities intended to assist both the general public and special segments of the community in approaching and understanding the world of modern and contemporary art. In addition to gallery talks, lectures, and symposia, the Museum offers special activities for parents, teachers, families, students, preschoolers, bilingual visitors, and people with special needs. In addition, the Museum has one of the most active publishing programs of any art museum and has published more than 2,500 editions appearing in 35 languages.
In January 2000, the Museum and P.S.1 Contemporary Art Center (now MoMA PS1) exercised a Memorandum of Understanding formalizing their affiliation. The final arrangement results in an affiliation in which the Museum becomes the sole corporate member of MoMA PS1 and MoMA PS1 maintains its artistic and corporate independence. This innovative partnership expands outreach for both institutions, and offers a broad range of collaborative opportunities in collections, exhibitions, educational programs, and administration.
In 2006, MoMA completed the largest and most ambitious building project in its history to that point. The project nearly doubled the space for MoMA’s exhibitions and programs. Designed by Yoshio Taniguchi, the facility features 630,000 square feet of new and redesigned space. The Peggy and David Rockefeller Building, on the western portion of the site, houses the main exhibition galleries, and The Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman Education and Research Building—the Museum’s first building devoted solely to these activities—on the eastern portion of the site, provides over five times more space for classrooms, auditoriums, teacher training workshops, and the Museum’s expanded Library and Archives. These two buildings frame the enlarged Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Sculpture Garden. The new Museum opened to the public on November 20, 2004, and the Cullman Building opened in November 2006.
To make way for that renovation and rebuilding project, MoMA closed on 53 Street in Manhattan on May 21, 2002, and opened MoMA QNS in Long Island City, Queens, on June 29, 2002. MoMA QNS served as the base of the Museum’s exhibition program and operations through September 27, 2004, when the facility was closed in preparation for The Museum of Modern Art’s reopening in Manhattan. This building now provides state-of-the-art storage spaces for the Museum.
Today, The Museum of Modern Art and MoMA PS1 welcome millions of visitors every year. A still larger public is served by MoMA’s national and international programs of circulating exhibitions, loan programs, circulating film and video library, publications, Library and Archives holdings, websites, educational activities, special events, and retail sales.