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History of Apache - History

History of Apache - History


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Apache

III

(MB: dp. 12; 1. 62'4"; b. 10'11"; dr. 2'6" (mean); s. 21 k.; cpl. 8; a. I 1-pdr.)

The third Apache-a wooden-hulled cabin motorboat built by the noted Herreshoff Manufacturing Co., Inc. of Bristol, R.I. -was acquired by the Navy on 23 May 1917 from Bostonian Robert F. Herrick whilst apparently still under construction, since records indicate that she was not due to be completed until 12 June.

Commissioned on 7 July 1917, Apache-designated SP-729- served as a despatch and local patrol boat at Boston, operating under the aegis of the 1st Naval District through early October 1918. Due to the urgent need for such craft at Brest, France, at that time, orders apparently went forth from Washington to Boston, directing the Commandant of the Ist Naval District to ready six "SP-boats"-Commodore (SP-1425), Cossack (SP-695), War Bug (SP-1795), Sea Hawk (SP-2365), Kangaroo (SP-1284), and SP-729) (ex-Apache)-to be shipped to France as deck cargo, amply provided with spare parts. The order, dated 14 October 1918, revealed that Apache had in fact lost her "name" by that time and was known simply by her alphanumeric number, SP-729.

Nothing further on this proposed movement appears in the records, however, probably because of the armistice of 11 November 1918 that ended hostilities and eliminated the need for patrol craft. However, SP-729 did head south via the inland waterway that December, bound for Florida to take up station briefly at the Pensacola Naval Air Station, probably for duty as a crash boat.

Decommissioned at Key West, Fla., and struck from the Navy list on 17 May 1919, SP-729 was turned over to the Coast Guard on 22 November 1919. A little less than a month later, she was named Arrow, on 16 December, but was apparently not commissioned for service until 25 August 1921, at Key West. Soon thereafter, the cutter Tallapoosa towed Arrow to Tampa. While Arrow was serving at Tampa, she was reclassified as the unnamed harbor launch, AB-2, on 6 November 1923. The boat was later found unfit for further Coast Guard service and transferred to the Shipping Board on 18 March 1925 for ultimate disposition.


The Number One HTTP Server On The Internet¶

The Apache HTTP Server Project is an effort to develop and maintain an open-source HTTP server for modern operating systems including UNIX and Windows. The goal of this project is to provide a secure, efficient and extensible server that provides HTTP services in sync with the current HTTP standards.

The Apache HTTP Server ("httpd") was launched in 1995 and it has been the most popular web server on the Internet since April 1996. It has celebrated its 25th birthday as a project in February 2020.

The Apache HTTP Server is a project of The Apache Software Foundation.


History of Apache - History

The southern Caddo County town of Apache is situated twenty-three miles north of Lawton at the intersection of U.S. Highway 62/281 and State Highway 19. Before the opening of the Kiowa, Comanche, and Apache Reservation on August 1, 1901, the present Apache townsite had been reserved at the recommendation of land lottery director William A. Richards. He wanted the village to be named for him, and early arrivals expected to settle in the community of "Richards."

Through a twist of events Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railway officials gave the town of Apache its name. The change caught everyone off guard, including the publisher of the town's first newspaper. He printed several issues of the Richards Review before the Apache designation was confirmed.

Town lots in Apache were obtained on August 6, 1901, by a "run," similar to the one that had occurred at Chandler in the Sac and Fox opening of 1891. Therefore, Apache holds the distinction of having Oklahoma's last land run. From the start, entrepreneurs were ready for trade. Five lumberyards and six saloons began within hours. Groceries were sold from a tent. The National Bank was established, and in fewer than three months the Apache State Bank was in operation. The first eight-room, brick schoolhouse in Caddo County was erected at Apache in 1902.

Apache's first officials were elected on the evening of August 6, 1901, in a meeting on the corner of Summit and Evans streets. E. E. Blake was selected as mayor, and F. E. Richey was chosen city clerk. Other appointees included I. F. Crow, city attorney, and Sam Wass, city marshal. On July 22, 1902, Apache was incorporated.

Apache is, and has always been, an agricultural center. Wheat and cattle are the community's primary economic base. The town is the home of the Fort Sill Apache tribal headquarters, whose members have been artist Allan Houser and cultural leader Mildred Cleghorn.

The town's population has fluctuated from a low of 919 in 1920 to higher figures of 1,302 in 1930, 1,455 in 1960, and 1,560 in 1980. It peaked at 1,616 in 2000 but declined to 1,444 in 2010. Along with rodeos, annual events include April's Apache Rattlesnake Festival and the Apache District Fair in August. Local properties listed in the National Register of Historic Places are the Amphlett Brothers Drug and Jewelry Store (NR 82003669) and the Apache State Bank (NR 72001060).

Bibliography

"Apache," Vertical File, Research Division, Oklahoma Historical Society, Oklahoma City.

George Levite, By George! For Lilly (Norman, Okla.: Levite of Apache, 1974).

No part of this site may be construed as in the public domain.

Copyright to all articles and other content in the online and print versions of The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History is held by the Oklahoma Historical Society (OHS). This includes individual articles (copyright to OHS by author assignment) and corporately (as a complete body of work), including web design, graphics, searching functions, and listing/browsing methods. Copyright to all of these materials is protected under United States and International law.

Users agree not to download, copy, modify, sell, lease, rent, reprint, or otherwise distribute these materials, or to link to these materials on another web site, without authorization of the Oklahoma Historical Society. Individual users must determine if their use of the Materials falls under United States copyright law's "Fair Use" guidelines and does not infringe on the proprietary rights of the Oklahoma Historical Society as the legal copyright holder of The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and part or in whole.

Photo credits: All photographs presented in the published and online versions of The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture are the property of the Oklahoma Historical Society (unless otherwise stated).

Citation

The following (as per The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th edition) is the preferred citation for articles:
Roy B. Young, &ldquoApache,&rdquo The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, https://www.okhistory.org/publications/enc/entry.php?entry=AP001.

© Oklahoma Historical Society.


The Land Or How Aravaipa Canyon Was Lost and Regained

Today the Camp Grant Massacre site belongs to over 100 descendants of Chief Capitan Chiquito Bullis, who are determined to conserve its natural beauty and preserve its historic and cultural integrity.

The lands along the Aravaipa were long an important seasonal settlement for the Aravaipa Apache. Traditionally, the lands were planted in spring and then harvested in summer.

Before the bands of Chief Ezkiminzin and Capitan Chiquito sought refuge at Camp Grant, their numbers had already been diminished by the battles at Aravaipa and at Mescal Creek and the Wheatfields.

The slaughter of their women and children on April 30, 1871 nearly made their roles as chiefs irrelevant. Not only had 120 woman and children been killed, but another 26 children were kidnapped and sold into slavery in Mexico. The loss of life threatened their groups’ ability to reproduce and survive.

Chief Capitan Chiquito struggled for the next 40 years to gain ownership of the land where his clan was almost eliminated and where the graves of his relatives were located. In spite of the fact the Apache Reservation had been relocated some 50 miles north, Capitan Chiquito was able to obtain permission to live and farm the land along Aravaipa Creek.

With the enactment of the Dawes Act in 1887, Capitan Chiquito was granted an allotment of 160 acres that included the gravesite of his murdered clansmen. This land was to be held in trust for Capitan Chiquito for 25 years by the U.S. Government, after which he could apply for a patent of ownership.

Capitan Chiquito’s patent was delayed due to accusations that he harbored the renegade Apache Kid in the canyon. The Apache Kid was a member of Capitan Chiquito’s band who was being sought for the murder of the Gila County sheriff. Because authorities were unable to find the Apache Kid, Capitan Chiquito and his family were taken prisoner and sent to Alabama where Geronimo and the Chiricahua Apaches were being detained.

After spending three years in Alabama, Capitan Chiquito and his family were allowed to return to Arizona. Upon his return, he had to deal with squatters who had moved into the area in his absence.

Capitan Chiquito spent the next 25 years of his life restoring his own spirit and resurrecting the spirit of the land by planting fruit trees and growing crops. Capitan Chiquito died in 1919 after acquiring influenza from other victims of the disease whom he had been caring for. Shortly after his death, the patent of ownership of this land was granted to Capitan Chiquito’s heirs. The land is presently owned by his direct descendants.

Since the death of Capitan Chiquito, the place where “the big sycamore is standing there” has gradually lost its human presence. For many years after Capitan Chiquito’s departure his relatives would return to the land for family gatherings and to collect herbs for food and medicine. The road from Old San Carlos to Aravaipa was heavily traveled by horseback and by those on foot. With the construction of Coolidge Dam in the 1930’s the Old Town was flooded and San Carlos was moved to its present site. When the automobile became the predominant means of transportation, the twenty mile road to Aravaipa that was traveled by horseback became inaccessible. The trip to Aravaipa is now about a 70 mile drive by automobile from San Carlos.

Chief Capitan Chiquito Bullis, ca. 1890s.

Last known photograph of Capitan Chiquito, here pictured as an older man with his wife and visitor at his Aravaipa homestead.

I love my land here at the Aravaipa Canyon and wish to live well and happy.

He took us down there specifically to visit Aravaipa, to remember it – what he went through with the people living there. He told us a lot of stories when we were there, the good and the bad. He said, “That's good, graddaughter, you're here so someday you'll remember this – that you come from this, from my mother.”

Adella Swift on her visits to Aravaipa in the 1940s with her grandfather, Andrew Noline. Reported in Big Sycamore Stands Alone by Ian Record (p.56).


Historical Snapshot

The AH-64 Apache was designed to be an extremely tough survivor under combat. The prototype Apache made its first flight in 1975 as the YAH-64, and in 1976, Hughes received a full-scale development contract. In 1982, the Army approved the program, now known as AH-64A Apache, for production. Deliveries began from the McDonnell Douglas plant at Mesa, Ariz., in 1984 &mdash the year Hughes Helicopters became part of McDonnell Douglas.

A target acquisition and designation sight/pilot night-vision sensor and other advanced technologies added to its effectiveness in the ground support role. To reduce costs and simplify logistics, the Apache used the same T700 engines as the Army&rsquos Sikorsky UH-60 Black Hawk utility helicopter and its naval cousin, the SH-60 Seahawk.

Highly maneuverable and heavily armed, the combat-proven Apache helicopter is the backbone of the U.S. Army&rsquos all-weather, ground-support capability. The AH-64D Apache Longbow, which first flew as a prototype on May 14, 1992, provided a quantum leap in capability over the AH-64A. The Apache Longbow&rsquos fire-control radar and advanced avionics suite gave combat pilots the ability to rapidly detect, classify, prioritize, and engage stationary or moving enemy targets at standoff ranges in nearly all weather conditions. There is also an international Apache export version.

Over the years, the Apache has been enhanced with advanced technology to make the helicopter more survivable, deployable and easier to maintain. The AH-64 Apache is the most advanced multirole combat helicopter for the U.S. Army and a growing number of international defense forces.

In 2003, the Army accepted the first advanced technology Boeing AH-64D Apache Longbow, referred to as Block II. The Block II version incorporated advanced avionics, digital enhancements and communications upgrades.

In 2011, Boeing delivered the first AH-64D Apache Block III multirole attack helicopter to the Army. Block III brought superior flight performance and increased networked communications capabilities. The AH-64D Apache Block III was renamed the AH-64E Apache &ldquoGuardian&rdquo in 2012.

In 2012, Boeing also received all-new fuselages for the first AH-64E helicopters, incorporating a variety of small but important modifications to accommodate AH-64E configuration changes, such as enhancements to the extended forward avionics bays and slots for new electronics. More than 100 AH-64Es had been produced as of October 2014.


Local History of the Apaches – Cochise County

Chiricahua Apaches: 1886. Image by C.S. Fly, Tombstone photographer.

Today, no one can understand the history of Tucson and Southern Arizona without first understanding the Apache Wars. For this reason Southern Arizona Guide has many articles about this complex and fascinating era of our history: America's longest war.

Cochise County in Southeast Arizona is where many major 19 th century battles took place between the Apaches and the United States Army. Today, you can visit the historical sites made famous by the great chiefs, such as Cochise, Mangas Coloradas (Red Sleeves), and Victorio and the fearless, ruthless shaman Goyathlay, better known today by his Spanish name &hellip Geronimo.
Taking side trips and back roads through the beautiful countryside of Southeastern Arizona, you can stand in their shadow and begin to understand what it was like to live here on the frontier during the Apache Wars. Click on this link to view the Apache Wars Timeline.

Ruins of Ft Bowie Calvary Barracks at Apache Pass

The Forts

A series of forts were built to house the United States Army whose presence was needed by Anglo Americans to protect them from the dreaded Apaches. No such forts were built to protect the Apaches from the dreaded Anglos.

On the east side of Tucson is the restored Fort Lowell&rsquos officers quarters and military museum. See our Arizona Historical Society Ft. Lowell video here.
Within a two-hour drive east from Tucson, you can visit the ruins of Fort Bowie once a frontier outpost that guarded Apache Springs for the stagecoaches of the Butterfield Overland Mail Company. Near Fort Bowie ruins are Chiricahua National Monument with its magnificent &ldquoStanding Up Rocks&rdquo and well-preserved Faraway Ranch and Cochise Stronghold which served as a high, rocky fortification and lookout station for the Chiricahua Apaches.
South of Tucson at Sierra Vista is the still-active Fort Huachuca, home of the Buffalo Soldiers. It is here that their story is told in exhibits at a small but fine military history museum. (Actually there are two fine museums on Fort Huachuca. The other is about the history of U.S. military spying.)
North of Tucson, there are other forts built to subdue the Apaches, including Fort Apache on the Fort Apache Reservation and the nearby San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation that the Apaches feared most because of deplorable conditions there, including killer diseases, such as malaria. On the way is the site of Camp Grant where a mob of Tucson Anglo and Mexican civic leaders and Papago (now Tohono O&rsquoodham) Indians massacred over a hundred Apaches, almost all women and young children, and took the few surviving children as slaves.

Background

From 1840&rsquos until the final surrender of Geronimo in late 1886, farmers, ranchers, miners, & merchants attempting to settle the American Southwest and Northern Mexico lived in terror of the Apaches.

For centuries prior to the coming of the Europeans, the Apache had it pretty good. Theirs were small hunter-gatherer, kin-related bands that moved frequently according to the seasons and other factors, such as the availability of game and fresh water. Sometimes they traded peaceably with neighboring Navajo, Hopi, Zuni, Papago, Pima, Yavapai, and other tribes. But often these encounters were hostile. Perhaps it was the Yavapai, or was it the Zuni, who were the first to call them &lsquoapache&rsquo, which means &lsquoenemy&rsquo?

The Raiders

They were frequent and feared raiders, which is a polite way of saying the Apaches were marauding thieves and murderers when they wanted food, horses, guns, ammunition, and captives for slaves and ransom.

Apaches. Photo by Edward Curtis.

Usually they killed for what they considered necessity or self-defense. As the wars of the 1870&rsquos and &lsquo80&rsquos wore on, as often as not they killed for revenge, as did the Americans, who tried to herd them into concentration camps called reservations, and Mexicans who tried to exterminate them.

If the Apaches could not intimidate other tribes into turning over the fruits of their hard labor, their food stores and herds, the Apaches typically killed the males and older females, plundered whatever they could carry, and then sold the young women and children into slavery in Mexico. The Mexicans frequently forced the young Indian slave women into prostitution. They suffered greatly and eventually died from disease, abuse, and despair. From the Apache perspective, and for centuries, it was good to be the alpha predators of the American Southwest and Northern Mexico.

The Invaders

Miners, such as Ed Schieffelin of Tombstone fame, swarmed over the Apache's ancestral homeland in search of gold and silver.

However, by the 1850&rsquos, the table was turning. With the arrival of significant numbers of Anglos into what became New Mexico and Arizona, and ever-greater numbers of Mexican settlers arriving in Chihuahua and Sonora, the Apaches were beginning to realize that they were being supplanted by other, more powerful super-predators. It took most of them years to realize that their continued efforts to repel the avaricious, heavily armed invaders, remain free to live on their ancestral lands and pursue their predatory way of life, were utterly hopeless. By 1886, even the recalcitrant Chiricahua under Geronimo realized that their only options were (a) the dreaded San Carlos Reservation, (b) confinement as prisoners of war in a faraway place, or (c) annihilation.

The Americans

Compared to the Mexicans, the American&rsquos &lsquoIndian Removal Policy&rsquo was generous, at least officially. On the one hand, the Apaches were offered reservation lands on which they could receive rations, learn farming, get an Anglo education, convert to Christianity, and become 'civilized'.
On the other hand, Apaches found off the reservation were fair game. Whether man, woman, or child, Anglos would seldom be questioned for killing free-roaming Apaches like vermin.

The Mexicans

The official Mexican policy was somewhat different. No reservations. Assimilation or death. The Mexicans hated the Apaches. The Apaches hated the Mexicans. And for decades, they slaughtered each other whenever possible.

Apache Women Collecting Water In Jugs

Mexican civilians near the U.S. border would sometimes lure Apache men with their families into town to talk trade and peace, get the Indians drunk, then kill them all. Conversely, Apaches were known to kill and mutilate Mexican men, women, and children and not always in that order.
A never-ending cycle of vengeance was the way of the border from roughly 1847 through 1886 when Geronimo surrendered for the fourth and last time. Even then, some renegade Apaches continued to raid, kill, and be killed in Northern Mexico until around 1915. Both Apaches and Mexicans adhered to the Old Testament principle of &ldquoan eye for an eye.&rdquo Such is the way of most primitive people everywhere in every time, including the present.

The Reservations

General Phil Sheridan: "A good Indian is a dead Indian."

For the American&rsquos part in this violent collision of cultures, they felt that Native Americans in general and the Apaches in particular had no rights any White man was bound to respect. As General Sheridan was famously misquoted, &ldquoA good Indian is a dead Indian.&rdquo The United States government, through its military and Bureau of Indian Affairs, broke treaties as if they were dry twigs.

The American government directed its army to herd the Apaches onto reservations far from their homeland, where they would suffer tremendously and die from exposure, contaminated food, lack of clean drinking water, malnutrition, and disease, primarily smallpox and malaria. Once on the reservations, corrupt Indian agents stole their government-issued food and blankets, which the agents then sold for personal profit. The Apaches were to be subdued or eliminated by any means necessary.

To be fair, it wasn&rsquot so much that the American Anglos treated the Apaches with intentional cruelty. Certainly acts of extreme cruelty occurred &ndash on both sides. But such was not the general rule. Rather most Anglos were simply indifferent to the needs and suffering of their vanquished charges. If the Indians died en masse on reservations, very few Americans really cared and far fewer acted to prevent it.

Prisoners-of-War: Geronimo, wife & children farming melon patch, Ft. Sill. 1890's

Apache leaders, such as Cochise, Victorio, Juh (pronounced &lsquoWhoo&rsquo or 'Ho'), Nana, Chihuahua, and Geronimo, often led their people off their reservation in order to survive. Once off their reservation, the U.S. Army considered the Apaches &lsquohostiles&rsquo and pursued them with the invaluable assistance of Apache scouts, otherwise known as mercenaries. The Army's mission: either return renegade Apaches to their reservation or exterminate them.

Skirmishes, ambushes, full-blown battles, and bloody massacres ensued.
Next:


History of Apache - History

The Apache peoples are made up of a group of American Indian tribes that are similar in culture and speak the same language. There are six tribes that make up the Apache: the Chiricahua, Jicarillo, Lipan, Mescalero, Western Apache, and Kiowa.

The Apache traditionally lived in the Southern Great Plains including Texas, Arizona, New Mexico, and Oklahoma. They are closely related to the Navajo Indians.

The Apache lived in two types of traditional homes wikiups and teepees. The wikiup, also called a wigwam, was a more permanent home. Its frame was made from tree saplings and formed a dome. It was covered with bark or grass. Teepees were a more temporary home that could be moved easily when the tribe was hunting buffalo. The teepee's frame was made of long poles and then covered with buffalo hide. It was shaped like an upside down cone. Both types of homes were small and cozy.

Most of the Apache clothing was made from leather or buckskin. The women wore buckskin dresses while the men wore shirts and breechcloths. Sometimes they would decorate their clothing with fringes, beads, feathers, and shells. They wore soft leather shoes called moccasins.


Apache Bride by Unknown.

The Apache ate a wide variety of food, but their main staple was corn, also called maize, and meat from the buffalo. They also gathered food such as berries and acorns. Another traditional food was roasted agave, which was roasted for many days in a pit. Some Apaches hunted other animals like deer and rabbits.

To hunt, the Apache used bows and arrows. Arrowheads were made from rocks that were chipped down to a sharp point. Bow strings were made from the tendons of animals.

To carry their teepees and other items when they moved, the Apache used something called a travois. The travois was a sled that could be filled with items and then dragged by a dog. When the Europeans brought horses to the Americas, the Apache started using horses to drag the travois. Because horses were so much bigger and stronger, the travois could be bigger and carry a a lot more stuff. This also allowed the Apache to make larger teepees.


Apache Still Life by Edward S. Curtis.

The Apache women wove large baskets to store grain and other food. They also made pots from clay to hold liquids and other items.

The Apache social life was based around the family. Groups of extended family members would live together. The extended family was based on the women, meaning that when a man married a woman he would become part of her extended family and leave his own family. A number of extended families would live near each other in a local group which had a chief as the leader. The chief would be a man who had earned the position by being the strongest and most capable leader.

The women Apache were responsible for the home and cooking the food. They would also do crafts, make clothes, and weave baskets. The men were responsible for hunting and were the tribal leaders.

Europeans and the Apache Wars

In the late 1800s the Apache's fought a number of battles against the United States government. They were trying to fight back from the aggression and takeover of their land. Several great Apache leaders arose such as Cochise and Geronimo. They fought with ferocity for decades, but finally had to surrender and were forced into reservations.

Today many of the Apache tribes live in reservations in New Mexico and Arizona. Some also live in Oklahoma and Texas.


Apache chief Cochise dies

Chief Cochise, one of the great leaders of the Apache Indians in their battles with the Anglo-Americans, dies on the Chiricahua reservation in southeastern Arizona.

Little is known of Cochise’s early life. By the mid-19th century, he had become a prominent leader of the Chiricahua band of Apache Indians living in southern Arizona and northern Mexico. Like many other Chiricahua Apache, Cochise resented the encroachment of Mexican and American settlers on their traditional lands. Cochise led numerous raids on the settlers living on both sides of the border, and Mexicans and Americans alike began to call for military protection and retribution.

War between the U.S. and Cochise, however, resulted from a misunderstanding. In October 1860, a band of Apache attacked the ranch of an Irish-American named John Ward and kidnapped his adopted son, Felix Telles. Although Ward had been away at the time of the raid, he believed that Cochise had been the leader of the raiding Apache. Ward demanded that the U.S. Army rescue the kidnapped boy and bring Cochise to justice. The military obliged by dispatching a force under the command of Lieutenant George Bascom. Unaware that they were in any danger, Cochise and many of his top men responded to Bascom’s invitation to join him for a night of entertainment at a nearby stage station. When the Apache arrived, Bascom’s soldiers arrested them.

Cochise told Bascom that he had not been responsible for the kidnapping of Felix Telles, but the lieutenant refused to believe him. He ordered Cochise be kept as a hostage until the boy was returned. Cochise would not tolerate being imprisoned unjustly. He used his knife to cut a hole in the tent he was held in and escaped.

During the next decade, Cochise and his warriors increased their raids on American settlements and fought occasional skirmishes with soldiers. Many panicked settlers abandoned their homes. By 1872, the U.S. was anxious for peace, and the government offered Cochise and his people a huge reservation in the southeastern corner of Arizona Territory if they would cease hostilities. Cochise agreed, saying, “The white man and the Indian are to drink of the same water, eat of the same bread, and be at peace.”

The great chief did not have the privilege of enjoying his hard-won peace for long. In 1874, he became seriously ill, possibly with stomach cancer. He died on this day in 1874. That night his warriors painted his body yellow, black and vermilion, and took him deep into the Dragoon Mountains. They lowered his body and weapons into a rocky crevice, the exact location of which remains unknown. Today, however, that section of the Dragoon Mountains is known as Cochise’s Stronghold.


History of the Apache Belles

In September of 1947, Tyler Junior College President, Dr. Harry E. Jenkins asked Mildred Stringer, the wife of Tyler banker J. Harold Stringer and founder of the Tyler High School Blue Brigade, to form some kind of girls pep squad. Dr. Jenkins wanted TJC, now separate from the Tyler public school system, to have its own organization.

Mrs. Stringer compiled a team of 40 young women and designed what the girls would wear. The first outfit was made of heavy brown twill and fringe and included an Indian head band, moccasins and a gold elastic band around their right ankle that had a copper miniature cowbell attached to it. Some of the members of the first line of the Apache Belles say that is where the name Apache Belles came from which changed in December of 1947 from the original name of Apache Roses. At this point Mrs. Stringer officially joined the group as Director. The members were expected to be polite, well behaved young women- complete with proper posture and manners. During their afternoon practices, the Belles always said &ldquoYes Ma&rsquoam&rdquo and &ldquoNo Ma&rsquoam.&rdquo To assist with choreography, Mrs. Stringer hired Billie Marie Coyle as the dance instructor for the new precision dance team.

The Belles performed on the field next to the high school/ junior college in downtown Tyler on North Bois D&rsquoArc Avenue. Their first performance was on September 27, 1947 at a Tyler Junior College football game.

Mrs. Stringer hired the former Tyler High School head cheerleader Alfred Gilliam &ndash after his completion of military service and graduation from the University of Miami- as a full-time dance instructor for the Belles. He remained with TJC until his retirement in 1984.

Mr. Gilliam and Mrs. Stringer recruited young ladies with beauty and talent, either in music or dance. The Belles began appearing in parades and as hostesses at major TJC civic events.

To help the Belles achieve more polish and poise, Mrs. Stringer took a John Roberts Power course and passed along what she learned to the Belles, instructing them in proper posture, walking, sitting, etc. She also offered tips on dress, make-up and hair styling. Mrs. Stringer also instituted a rule requiring Apache Belles to maintain at least a 2.0 grade point average.

The second line of the Apache Belles were among the first students to walk on the brand new Fifth Street TJC campus and the first to put on the Apache Belle &ldquouniform&rdquo of a white hat, a gold overlay, white fringe panties, and a full circle skirt with white boots.

Dr. Edwin E. Fowler was hired as the director of the Apache Band and the relationship of the &ldquoBelles and Band&rdquo was born. After Cotton Bowl officials saw the Belles and Band perform at a football game against Paris Junior College, they invited them to participate in the Cotton Bowl Halftime set for January 1, 1950.

The Belles and Band perform at their first Cotton Bowl Game January 1, 1950 in Dallas, Texas. After their Cotton Bowl performance, the Belles and Band perform at &ldquoEast Texas Day&rdquo at the Texas State Fair in Dallas, and happened to be on the same program with legendary singer Frank Sinatra.

Apache Belles perform at State Fair in Dallas for East Texas Day and are on the program with famed singer, Frank Sinatra.

The Belles and Band performed at halftime of the Sugar Bowl in New Orleans, Louisiana. A photograph of this performance was published in major newspapers in New Orleans and Louisville, Kentucky. This was the first of six performances at the Sugar Bowl.

The Belles and Band performed at the Colorado Air Force Base and the Sheppard Air Force Base.

The Apache Belles perform in Pasadena, California at the Junior Rose Bowl, and perform at the N.I.R.A. Rodeo in Fort Worth, Texas.

They also appear in a News Reel, which is their first recorded media exposure.

The Belles rub shoulders with their first major political figure as they perform for a week at the Colorado State Fair. General Dwight Eisenhower appeared on the same program with the Belles just before he announced that he would run for President.

Apache Belles perform at N.I.R.A. Rodeo in Fort Worth, Texas

Apache Belles were featured performers at the Colorado State Fair in Pueblo, Colorado.

Apache Belles perform at the inaugural ceremony for Texas Governor, Allan Shivers.

The Apache Belles are featured in the Magnolia Oil Company Calendar

The Apache Belles appear in the Paramount Show, &ldquoDrilling for Girls in Texas&rdquo

Apache Belles perform at Fort Hood, Texas.

Apache Belles perform at the opening of the Republic National Bank in Dallas, Texas.

Apache Belles appear in Family Weekly Magazine on September 4, 1955 and are labeled as the &ldquoPrettiest Drill Team in the World.&rdquo

The Apache Belles Perform in the Gator Bowl in Jacksonville, Florida

Apache Belles return to perform at the Junior Rose Bowl in Pasadena, California

Apache Belles perform at the Blue Gray Game December 23-25th in Montgomery, Alabama

Apache Belles perform at the Sugar Bowl held at Tulane University in New Orleans, Louisiana.

Apache Belles perform for the Dallas Cowboys vs. Baltimore Colts Game in Miami Florida and the Orange Bowl, also in Miami Florida

Apache Belles perform at the Blue Gray Game on December 24th in Montgomery Alabama.

Apache Belles perform at the opening of the Houston Astrodome in Houston, Texas.

Apache Belles Appear in the Southwestern Belle Telephone Hour, Talent &lsquo66&rsquo

Apache Belles featured in the December 1966 issue of Montgomery Doin&rsquos

Apache Belles appear in IN Magazine- December 11, 1966

Apache Belles perform at the NFL Championship Game at the Cotton Bowl between the Dallas Cowboys and the Green Bay Packers.

Apache Belles perform at the Dallas Cowboys vs. Baltimore Colts game on September 9, 1967 in Dallas, Texas.

Apache Belles perform for the Washington Dallas Cowboys vs. Washington Redskins game in Washington D.C. on October 8, 1967.

Apache Belles, while in Washington D.C. to perform, tour the military service hospitals of Andrews Air Force Base Hospital, Walter Reed Army Hospital, and the Veterans Administration Hospital.

The Apache Belles present a certificate to first lady, Lady Bird Johnson on October 7, 1967 making her an honorary member of the Tyler Junior College Apache Belles.

Apache Belles appear in Southern Living Magazine- January 1967.

Apache Belles appear in VENTURE Magazine &ndash June/ July 1967.

Apache Belles perform at the Baltimore Colts vs. Dallas Cowboys game in Dallas, Texas on September 7, 1968

Apache Belles perform at the Dallas Cowboys vs. New York Giants game in Yankee Stadium in New York, New York on December 15, 1968.

The Apache Belles travel to Mexico City and Cholula, Mexico to perform at the University de los Americas for a Basketball Tournament. The famed group performed two to three times each evening at the national games plus three parades and performances, at the Central School &ldquoNinos Heroes de Chapultepec&rdquo as well as the National Football Soccer game held by the Soccer Association. In total, 12 performances in 3 days.

Apache Belles Appear in Woman&rsquos Day magazine.

Apache Belles perform at the opening of the Houston Astro Baseball season in Houston, Texas

Apache Belles perform at the Green Bay Packers vs. Dallas Cowboys game in Dallas, Texas on August 23, 1969.

Apache Belles perform at the Baltimore Colts vs. Dallas Cowboys game in Dallas, Texas on September 14, 1969.

Apache Belles appear in the Dallas Times Herald Sunday Magazine- October 26, 1969.

Apache Belles perform at the New York Giants vs. Dallas Cowboys game in Dallas, Texas on October 27, 1969.

Apache Belles perform at the Dallas Cowboys vs. Los Angeles Rams game at Memorial Coliseum in Los Angeles, California on November 23, 1969.

Apache Belles perform at the Cleveland Browns vs. Dallas Cowboys Eastern Conference Championship Game on December 28, 1969 in Dallas, TX.

Apache Belles appear in Texas Realtor Magazine

Apache Belles present astronaut Buzz Aldrin with a certificate on January 12, 1969 pronouncing him and honorary Apache Belle Beau

Apache Belles present astronaut Bob Hope with a certificate on October 9, 1969 pronouncing him and honorary Apache Belle Beau

Apache Belles perform at the Kansas City Chiefs vs. Dallas Cowboys game in Dallas, Texas on September 5, 1970.

Apache Belles perform at the New York Giants vs. Dallas Cowboys game in Dallas, Texas on September 27, 1970.

Apache Belles appear in Grit Magazine October 4, 1970.

Apache Belles present President Richard Nixon with a certificate on November 21, 1970 pronouncing him and honorary Apache Belle Beau

Apache Belles perform at the Dallas Cowboys vs. Washington Redskins in RFK Stadium in Washington D.C. on November 22, 1970.

Apache Belles present Congressman Ray Roberts with a certificate on December 4, 1970 pronouncing him and honorary Apache Belle Beau

Apache Belles perform at the National Football Conference Playoff between the Dallas Cowboys and the Detroit Lions on December 26, 1970 in Dallas, Texas.

Apache Belles perform at the Dallas Cowboys vs. New England Patriots in Dallas, Texas on October 24, 1971

Apache Belles travel to Chicago, Illinois to perform at Soldier Field for the Chicago Bears vs. Dallas Cowboys game on October 31, 1971

Apache Belles perform in Dallas, Texas for the Dallas Cowboys vs. St. Louis Cardinals game on December 18, 1971

Apache Belles appear in Texas Outlook Magazine

Apache Belles perform for Super Bowl VI in Dallas, Texas as the Cowboys played the Miami Dolphins in Tulane Stadium located in New Orleans, Louisiana on January 16, 1972. Click here to watch the highlights.

The Apache Belles were made Honorary Members of HELL ON WHEELS, 2nd Armored Division, and made a picture poster to be used in recruiting stations throughout the nation.

The Apache Belles perform for the Dallas Cowboys vs. New York Jets at Texas Stadium in Dallas on August 26, 1972.

The Apache Belles appear in Time-Picayune Dixie Magazine- New Orleans, LA

Apache Belles appear in Texas Star on October 15, 1972

The Apache Belles perform at the AFC/ NFC Pro Bowl All Stars Game on January 21, 1973 located in Dallas, Texas at Texas Stadium.

The Apache Belles perform at the Dallas Cowboys vs. Miami Dolphins in Texas Stadium on September 6, 1973.

The Apache Belles perform at Mile-High Stadium in Denver, Colorado for the Dallas Cowboys vs. the Denver Bronco game on December 2, 1973.

The Apache Belles perform in Dallas, Texas for the Los Angeles Rams vs. Dallas Cowboys game on December 23, 1973.

The Apache Belles return to Mexico to perform for at the University de los Americas once again.

Apache Belles present Governor Gonzalo Bautista O&rsquoFerrill, of Puebla, Mexico with a certificate on February 23, 1973 pronouncing him and honorary Apache Belle Beau

Apache Belles present Mayor Luis Vazquez Lapuente with a certificate on February 23, 1973 pronouncing him and honorary Apache Belle Beau

Apache Belles present actress Sandy Duncan with a certificate on March 9, 1973 pronouncing her and honorary Apache Belle.

Apache Belles perform for the Pittsburgh Steelers vs. Dallas Cowboys in Dallas, Texas on September 5, 1974.

Apache Belles perform for the Dallas Cowboys vs. Washington Redskins game at RFK Stadium in Washington D.C. on November 17, 1974.

Apache Belles perform at the Oakland Raiders vs. Dallas Cowboys game in Dallas, Texas on September 5, 1975.

Apache Belles perform at the Dallas Cowboys vs. Detroit Lions game on October 6, 1975 at the Pontiac Metropolitan Stadium and Detroit, Michigan.

Apache Belles perform at the Pittsburgh Steelers vs. Dallas Cowboys game on August 28, 1975 in Dallas, Texas.

Apache Belles perform at the Super Dome in New Orleans, Louisiana on September 25, 1976 for the Boston College vs. Tulane University.

Apache Belles perform at the NFL Championship Game on December 18, 1976 in Dallas, Texas.

Apache Belles perform at The Senior Bowl in Mobile, Alabama on January 8, 1977.

The Apache Belles perform at Baltimore Colts vs. Dallas Cowboys game on August 27, 1977 in Dallas Texas.

Apache Belles are the halftime performers for Super Bowl XII as the Dallas Cowboys take on the Denver Broncos in New Orleans, Louisiana at the Super Dome on January 16, 1978.

The Apache Belles make their first appearance at the Cherry Blossom Festival in Washington D.C.

Apache Belles perform in January 1980 in Jacksonville, Florida at the Gator Bowl.

Apache Belles present President Ronald Reagan with a certificate on October 11, 1982 pronouncing him and honorary Apache Belle Beau

The Apache Belles were invited to Dallas, Texas to meet and perform for President Raegan.

The Apache Belles have been invited to open several rides at Six Flags over Texas in Arlington. This includes the &ldquoTexas Shoot Out,&rdquo &ldquoJudge Roy Scream,&rdquo and the most recent, in 1983, &ldquoRoaring Rapids.&rdquo

The Apache Belles have also made appearances in Austin, Texas at &ldquoTyler Day.&rdquo They have performed on the floor of the Senate, prior to their session and also in the rotunda of the capitol. In addition, the Apache Belles have had the opportunity to meet and present roses to several dignitaries and their wives including former Governor and Mrs. Mark White in 1983.

The Apache Belles have participated in two Sister City exchanges. In May of 1983 delegates from Tyler visited Metz, France. Among these delegates were two Apache Belles on request of the Chamber of Commerce. The Apache Belles toured Metz, participated in the &ldquoSister Cities&rdquo ribbon cutting ceremony and parade, and met many new people.

While in Washington, D.C. to perform for the Cherry Blossom Festival in 1987, the Apache Belles had the honor of meeting President Jimmy Carter.

The Apache Belles performed on October 29, 1988 at the Dallas Mavericks vs. LA Lakers game.

The Apache Belles perform at the first exhibition game of &ldquoThe Ballpark in Arlington&rdquo- home of the Texas Rangers.

The Apache Belles travel to Nice, France to perform for the Carnival.

Performed for a San Antonio Spurs Game.

Apache Belles perform for President-Elect Bill Clinton on his campaign tour through Tyler, Texas.

Apache Belles performed in the Cherry Blossom Parade in Washington D.C.

Apache Belles Perform in the Houston Thanksgiving Day Parade

The Apache Belles perform for the Houston Oiler&rsquos halftime.

The Apache Belles celebrate their 50th Anniversary.

Apache Belles appear on the cover of Dance and Drill Magazine

Apache Belles appear on an episode of Texas Country Reporter featuring the Apache Belles Uniforms and Costumes made by Lesby Ray of Custom Designs.

In March of 2000, the Apache Belles traveled to Dublin Ireland to perform at the World&rsquos Largest St. Patrick&rsquos Day Parade and also for the Lord Mayor&rsquos Ball that evening. A full news crew from Tyler accompanied the Apache Belles and ran a week long special about the group and their exciting travels over Spring Break, 2001

Performed in &ldquoBest in Texas&rdquo show at Six Flags Over Texas.

A group of Apache Belles participated in the sister cities program and traveled to China.

The Apache Belles travel to Hawaii and perform at two military bases- Pearl Harbor and Sheffield Air Force Base

The Apache Belles travel to Austria and Germany and perform for the military men and women stationed at Ramstein Air Force Base.

The Apache Belles celebrate their 60th Anniversary.

Mrs. Ruth Flynn celebrates 25 years as Director of the Tyler Junior College Apache Belles and is inducted into the Texas Dance Educator&rsquos of America Hall of Fame.

In October, the Apache Belles receive their first invitation to perform for the Dallas Cattle Baron's Ball.

March- Apache Belles travel to Oahu, Hawaii to perform for U.S. Military stationed at the Marine Base at Kaneohe Bay and conduct a one day Belles Babes workshop for military families as well as performed at the USS Missouri Memorial.

October- Apache Belles return to South Fork Ranch and are showcased at the Dallas Cattle Baron's Ball with performers Dierks Bently, Darius Rucker and Clint Black.

November- The Apache Belles are invited guests of the Houston Holiday Parade and perform for the televised parade stop on Thanksgiving Day broadcast in the Houston, Dallas, San Antonio and Austin areas.

December 24th- the Apache Belles perform the pre-game show for the Philadelphia Eagles vs Dallas Cowboys game at Cowboys Stadium.

January 1, 2012- Apache Belles perform halftime with the Miami Dolphin Cheerleaders for the New York Jets vs. Miami Dolphins game at Sun Life Stadium in Miami, Florida

January 2, 2012- Apache Belles are featured performers of the Capital One Bowl broadcast on ESPN between Nebraska and South Carolina.


History

&ldquoFrom Generation to Generation: The Plains Apache Way&rdquo traces the cultural heritage of the Apache Tribe of Oklahoma. Known historically as the Ka-ta-kas , and later as the Kiowa Apaches, they are descendants of Apache groups who have inhabited the Plains since the 16th century. This exhibit was made possible because of the cooperation of Apache tribal members who have handcrafted objects and participated in the planning and design of the exhibit.

Allies and Traders: 1541-1680

&ldquoThey are gentle people, not cruel, and are faithful in their friendship.&rdquo-Chronicles of the Coronado Expedition, 1541

Arthpaskan-speaking ancestors of the Apaches and the Navajos migrated from homelands in western Canada, arriving in the Southern Plains and Southwest by A.D. 1400. The chronicles of Francisco Vasquez de Coronado&rsquos expedition in 1341, and of other Spanish explorers, provide the earliest descriptions of the Plains Apaches. They were nomadic people who gathered plant foods and hunted the wandering buffalo herds and other wild game. Living in tipis of smoke-darkened hides, they camped much of the year in small groups of closely related families. In seasons when food was plentiful, the local groups came together to renew ceremonial and kinship ties.

Apache families produced the basic necessities of life from the various parts of the buffalo, which dominated the animal life of the Plains. Women worked with implements of sharpened bone and horn to make containers and clothing. Long hours were spent fleshing, scraping, and softening the hides which were then sewn with sinew. Working together, women made tipi covers which required as many as a dozen hides. Tanned hides were also used for robes and bedding, and horns were shaped as cups and spoons. The paunch and the bladder served as containers and could be suspended over a cooking fire or filled with hot stones to boil meat. Meat was also dried and mixed with berries to make pemmican for winter months.

With stone, bone, and wood, the men of the camp shaped tools and weapons. Bows and arrows, as well as the lance, were used for hunting and defense. Women gathered and prepared plant foods and were adept at moving camp and setting up tipis. Because camps were often moved, material possessions were minimal. Dogs provided the earliest transport of the families&rsquo belongings.

In the course of their seasonal rounds, Plains Apaches traveled to Pueblo villages of eastern New Mexico to trade hides, meat, tallow and salt for farm produce, turquoise, shell ornaments, and obsidian. Often they camped near these villages in winter. As trading partnerships developed, the Plains Apaches assumed the role of allies with Pueblo villages. When the Spaniards occupied New Mexico in the latter part of the 16th and early 17th centuries, the Plains Apaches continued their trading expeditions, acquiring metal containers and weapons as well as other Spanish goods that were adapted to the Apache hunting and gathering way of life.

Warriors in Search of Peace: 1680-1867

&ldquoThey were all on horseback, and the women and children, composing by far the greatest part of the cavalcade, passed us without halting. Every women appeared to have under her care a greater or lesser numbers of horses, which were driven before her, some dragging lodgepoles, some loaded with packs of meat, and some carrying children&hellip&rdquo-Edwin James, Account of an Expedition to the Rocky Mountains under Major Stephen Long, 1820

By 1680, the Plains Apaches acquired horses and began to extend their hunting and trading range. Horses, obtained from Spanish settlements through raiding and bartering, were traded north to the earthlodge villagers of the Upper Missouri for corn and other produce. From these villagers they also obtained European goods, including firearms which the Spanish in the south refused to trade. With horses they could travel greater distances, hunt buffalo more efficiently, and make large tipis. Long tipi poles were dragged at each side of the animal, forming a travois for the transport of family possessions.

Attracted to the new opportunities provided by the horse and the gun, the Comanches, and later the Arapahoes and Cheyennes, entered the plains. Apachean groups like the Lipan and Jicarilla, were forced to the more arid south and west by intruders. Only the Kat-ta-kas, the northmost Apaches, remained to carry on the Plains Apache way.

Though speaking a different language and practicing different customs, the Ka-ta-kas had long been allied with the most numerous Kiowas. During the summer, when the buffalo grazed in large herds and the hunt was plentiful, the Ka-ta-kas joined the camp circle of the Kiowas for the Sun Dance, an annual world renewal ceremony. In winter their dispersed camps were often located near those of the Kiowas. Through this association, they were known historically as the Kiowa Apaches.

Near and distant kinship ties joined all the members of the small Ka-ta-ka tribe. The family group included not only parents and children, but aunts, uncles, cousins, and grandparents as well. Several of these extended families camped together throughout the year, cooperating in various activities and sharing their harvest of plants and game. Because a young married couple often camped with the parents of the bride, this local group had a tendency to be related through the female line. Men respected for their wisdom, experience, and generosity were recognized as leaders. When the local groups came together, these men acted as the tribal council.

The concentration of the Comanches, Cheyennes, Arapahoes, Kiowa, and Ka-ta-kas in the Central and Southern Plains brought about conflicts over hunting and trading ranges. Settlers entered Texas in great number, and the route to Santa Fe brought increased traffic through tribal lands. In 1840, with the Ka-ta-kas and Arapahoes acting as peacemakers, the five southern tribes entered into an alliance that remained unbroken.

The Ka-ta-kas continued to pursue a policy of peace. By 1865, they were camping with the more peaceful bands of Cheyennes and Arapahoes. With the Treaty of Little Arkansas in 1865, they were assigned to a common reservation. Unlike earlier peace treaties of 1837 and 1853, the Little Arkansas Treaty restricted the Ka-ta-ka hunting range to lands south of the Arkansas River.

Strangers in Their Own Land: 1867-1934

&ldquoWhen my father took me to school form the camp, I had long hair and was dressed in buckskin. They took off my buckskin and gave me a shirt. My hair was long and braided&hellipThey took scissors and cut the braids off and gave them to my father. The superintendent cam in.. He said, my name was going to be James.&rdquo-Joe Blackbear in Jim Whitewolf: The Life of a Kiowa Apache Indian, 1949

Because Congress failed to ratify the Treaty of the Little Arkansas, settlers moved into reservation lands, and negotiations began for further reducing tribal domains. Over 7,000 Comanches, Kiowa, Apaches, Cheyennes, and Arapahoes gathered as their disheartened leaders reluctantly signed the Treaties of Medicine Lodge in 1867. Renewing their old friendship with the Comanches and Kiowas, the Apaches were assigned with these tribes to a reservation in present southwestern Oklahoma.

Through the years of disruptive warfare, tribal dislocations, and epidemics of cholera and smallpox, the Apaches maintained their tribal unity and continued to observe bonds of kinship and cultural tradition. With each new generation, relatives came together to celebrate the birth of a new family member. Later the child was ceremoniously given a name honoring a forefather or a special event. By the time boys and girls were old enough to walk, they belonged to Kasowe, or Rabbit Society. Through this association they formed many lasting friendships.

The relationship between grandparent and grandchild was especially warm and close. From their grandparents, the young learned the Plains Apache way. Through observation and instruction, they soon assumed the responsibilities of camp life, and when they married, families celebrated with feasting and giftgiving. Men were honored by initiation into the Manatidie and Klintidie Societies. The Izuwe, a secret society, was reserved for elder women. As they took their places as tribal elders, they were much respected for their knowledge and experience which could be passed on to the new generation.

During the reservation years, federal policies sought to suppress traditional values, beliefs, and practices. Religious ceremonies were discouraged and attempts were made to disrupt family and kinship ties. Absent from the camps were children who had been placed in boarding schools, where they were given English names and were forbidden to speak their native language. As the last of the great southern buffalo herds were slaughtered by commercial hide hunters, families suffered from food shortages and were forced to rely on limited government rations guaranteed by the Medicine Lodge Treaty. Although a primary goal of the government was to make farmers of the Apaches, drought, insects and lack of instruction hampered success.

Traditionally the spiritual life of the Apaches emphasized the harmony of man and nature, and worship centered on four sacred medicine bundles. As churches were established on the reservation, many accepted the messages of Christian missionaries. Others turned to the more traditional teachings of the peyote religion, which was chartered as the Native American Church in 1918. Apache Ben, one of the ten original charter members, helped to organize the Native American Church and preserve the religion for later generations.

During their lifetimes, tribal elders witnessed the gradual reductions of their vast hunting range and, in the early 1900&rsquos, the final destruction of the tribal estate. As pressures increased to open reservation lands to homesteaders, the process of allotment began. Tracts of 160 acres were assigned to tribal members, and the remaining tribal land (called &ldquosurplus land&rdquo) was opened to settlement. When allotment was completed, the Apache were left with 32,643 acres from the original reservation of 2,968,893 acres. Now they were indeed strangers in their own land.

From Generation to Generation: 1934-Present

&ldquoWe know enough to try to respect our culture. When a person receives an Indian name, the family is hoping that he or she will follow in the footsteps of the person who had that name before. We tribal members, we respect the names, all of out names. We&rsquore proud, proud, to be called a name that has been handed down from generation to generation.&rdquo-Alfred Chalepah, Sr., 1980

The horse-using, buffalo-hunting way of life is remembered in the oral tradition of the Plains Apaches. As events of that era have become history, the values of family and social life have endured. During the reservation years, extended family groups continued to camp together. At allotment, family members took adjoining lands bringing households together in the old tradition of sharing and mutual aid. Today, family members often build their houses near one another so that they can visit, care for children, and work together on a daily basis. Grandparents continue to play an important role in the rearing of children, and the stories they tell of how things used to be provide continuity with the past.

The historic Ka-ta-kas are organized by constitution as the Apache Tribe of Oklahoma. In contemporary life they are students, homemakers, farmers, and skilled and professional workers. Crafts-people and artisans continue to make clothing, jewelry, and accessories using traditional and modern designs and materials. The ability to change, innovate, and adapt to new conditions has always been part of the Plains Apache way. Today tribal identity and traditions not only flourish, but have been shaped to serve the modern purposes of the Apaches.

The ceremonial focus of tribal identity is the Blackfoot Dance, which developed from the revival of the Manatidie Society. All Apache families are represented in two Blackfoot Societies that perform on special occasions and at an annual dance held each summer. The dance focuses on four ceremonial staffs. Tribal tradition maintains that the original staffs were captured from enemy tribes long before recorded history. As in earlier times, a high value is placed on honor and bravery in defense of one&rsquos nation. The Blackfoot Dance therefore pays special homage to Apache veterans and men and women in the armed forces.

In summer camps and community gatherings, kinship ties and the legacy of common heritage continue to bind together young and old. Children are introduced into Apache society in the giving of an Apache name and in the performance of the Rabbit Dance. Apaches of all ages participate in family-organized gatherings and traditional songs and dances. These are occasions that bring family and tribe together to renew a heritage that has been handed down from generation to generation.


Why Apache Software is Free¶

Apache Software exists to provide robust and commercial-grade reference implementations of many types of software. It must remain a platform upon which individuals and institutions can build reliable systems, both for experimental purposes and for mission-critical purposes. We believe that the tools of online publishing should be in the hands of everyone, and that software companies should make their money by providing value-added services such as specialized modules and support, amongst other things. We realize that it is often seen as an economic advantage for one company to "own" a market - in the software industry, that means to control tightly a particular conduit such that all others must pay for its use. This is typically done by "owning" the protocols through which companies conduct business, at the expense of all those other companies. To the extent that the protocols of the World Wide Web remain "unowned" by a single company, the Web will remain a level playing field for companies large and small. Thus, "ownership" of the protocols must be prevented. To this end, the existence of robust reference implementations of various protocols and application programming interfaces, available free to all companies and individuals, is a tremendously good thing.

Furthermore, the Apache Software Foundation is an organic entity those who benefit from this software by using it, often contribute back to it by providing feature enhancements, bug fixes, and support for others in public lists and newsgroups. The effort expended by any particular individual is usually fairly light, but the resulting product is made very strong. These kinds of communities can only happen with freely available software -- when someone has paid for software, they usually aren't willing to fix its bugs for free. One can argue, then, that Apache's strength comes from the fact that it's free, and if it were made "not free" it would suffer tremendously, even if that money were spent on a real development team.

We want to see Apache Software used very widely -- by large companies, small companies, research institutions, schools, individuals, in the intranet environment, everywhere -- even though this may mean that companies who could afford commercial software, and would pay for it without blinking, might get a "free ride" by using Apache. We are even happy when some commercial software companies completely drop their own HTTP server development plans and use Apache as a base, with the proper attributions as described in the LICENSE. That is to say, the Apache HTTP Sever only comes from the Apache Software Foundation, but many vendors ship their own product "based on the Apache ". There is no " Apache ", this is an abuse of the Apache Software Foundation's marks.

Copyright © 1997-2021 The Apache Software Foundation.
Apache HTTP Server, Apache, and the Apache feather logo are trademarks of The Apache Software Foundation.


Watch the video: Reportaje. La historia de Carlos Tévez. ESEN ᴴᴰ (July 2022).


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