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Hero Overpowering a Lion

Hero Overpowering a Lion

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Contest frieze with bull and nude bearded hero bull-man and lion

Damaged cylinder.
"In the seals of mature Akkad style, the theme of contest between heroes and beasts is embodied in two pairs of fighting figures flanking a central design or the panel of an inscription. A characteristic detail of the resulting rather formal composition is the lozenge effect produced by the arms of the fighters and the legs of their victims. The nude bearded hero and the bull-man are the most common protagonists in these contests, but figures attired like human huntsmen often take the place of the nude bearded hero (165) or of both fighters (166, 169). In other instances two identical bull-men (167) or nude bearded heroes (168) are represented. Water buffaloes and lions are the most frequent opponents of the heroes. In these seals of mature Akkad style, lions are almost always shown in profile. The scene of 170, showing a figure pouring a libation beside the two fighting pairs, is exceptional." Porada, CANES, p. 22

Bull subdued by nude bearded hero -- Bull-man overpowering lion -- Between contestant pairs, inscription -- Terminal: Kneeling mouflon.


Creation of Narnia

Aslan created the world of Narnia in the Earth year 1900. He created and brought everything to life in there. Narnia was made in the image of Aslan’s Country, the “real” Narnia, although it was nothing more than a shadow compared to the latter’s glory. At the creation of Narnia, Aslan also witnessed the writing of the Deep Magic from the Dawn of Time by his father, the Emperor-beyond-the-Sea.

Aslan chose two specimens, one male and one female, of each species of dumb beasts, upon which to endow the powers of thought and speech. These intelligent beasts then formed the first council of Narnia, which eventually spawned the races of talking beasts that populated Narnia for centuries afterwards. He crowned Frank and his wife, Helen, two humans from Earth, the first King and Queen of Narnia. It is clear that all humans in Narnia originate from Earth.

Aslan banished Jadis, a half-Jinn, half-giant woman, originally from the world of Charn, who had accidentally been brought into Narnia, to the northern land of Ettinsmoor. He then ordered Digory Kirke, a human boy from Earth in Narnia at the time, to fetch an apple from the Tree of Youth, from whose seeds grew the Tree of Protection, from which in turn he allowed Digory to take an apple to Earth, in order to heal his sick mother. This apple’s seeds eventually grew into the tree whose wood would become the wardrobe.

Winter Revolution

When the four Pevensies first came to Narnia, heralding the fulfillment of the Golden Age Prophecy, Aslan returned to Narnia in order to aid them in their fight against the White Witch. His presence brought an end to the Long Winter. Upon arrival, he began gathering all those still faithful to him near the Stone Table.

Aslan greeted Peter, Susan, and Lucy Pevensie upon their arrival at his campsite, near the Stone Table. He asked where Edmund was, yet appeared emotionless when told of Edmund's betrayal to the White Witch, though he did say, "All shall be done" to save their brother. After that, he briefly spoke to Peter, telling him how he would be the High King, and showed him the site of Cair Paravel. Shortly after, the Wolf, Maugrim, arrived and attempted to kill Susan and Lucy, only to be slayed by Peter. For his heroism, Aslan knighted him to The Most Noble Order of the Lion, as Sir Peter Wolfsbane.

Aslan then sent his army to rescue Edmund from the White Witch. According to the laws of the Deep Magic, it was the White Witch’s right to sacrifice Edmund, as he was a traitor, and all traitors belong to her. In order to save him, Aslan agreed to be sacrificed in his stead. However, Aslan was resurrected.

Upon his resurrection, he then revived the petrified Narnians in the White Witch's Courtyard, and led them into the First Battle of Beruna, which he quickly resolved by killing the Witch.

After the war was won, Aslan revived those who had been petrified in the battle, and crowned the Pevensies as the new monarchs of Narnia, before disappearing. Mr. Beaver told the Pevensies that Aslan often left to attend to other countries, and that he didn't like being tied down, but assured them he would return one day. He did warn them, however, not to press him, as he wasn't a tame lion.

Cor & Aravis

During the Golden Age, Aslan returned briefly to Narnia, and also to Archenland, to help Shasta, Aravis and the talking horses, Bree and Hwin, escape Calormen for the freedom of Narnia.

He also apparently helped save Cor as a baby, by seeing to it that the boat Cor was on floated to the shoreline, where he was found by his adoptive guardian, Arsheesh. In the process, he helped Shasta discover his true identity as Cor, Prince of Archenland, taught Aravis to abandon her pride and faith in the Calormene god Tash, and helped stop Rabadash from conquering Narnia.

When Aravis fled to the Archenland border, he slashed her back to inflict on her the punishment she had caused to be inflicted on the slave she had drugged to escape her prideful stepmother. When he approached Aravis later, he explained his actions, and she agreed she had deserved the shock of corporal punishment. Thus reconciled, Aslan led the Calormene refugees to the council where Rabadash met his own punishment with distinctly less grace and dignity than Aravis had displayed.

Narnian Revolution

Aslan was absent from Narnia during the Telmarine Conquest, and therefore most of the hunted and oppressed Narnians lost faith in him. However, when the Pevensies were transported to Narnia by Susan's horn, Aslan returned, and slowly tried to get them to believe in him once more. Although they did not follow him at first, they eventually trusted him again, and, accordingly, Aslan awoke the hibernating Narnians, and called forth a river-god to end the Second Battle of Beruna. Aslan crowned Caspian X as the next king of Narnia, and returned many of the conquered Telmarines to Earth, to start a new life.

Search for Aslan's Country and the Seven Lost Lords

Several years after ascending his throne, Caspian X lead a voyage aboard the Dawn Treader to find Aslan’s Country at the end of the world, and to find the Seven Lost Lords. Aslan called Edmund, Lucy Pevensie and Eustace Scrubb from Earth to join Caspian on his voyage, in order to teach them important personal lessons.

On Deathwater Island, Aslan helped Caspian and Edmund learn to resist greed, helped Lucy come to terms with her insecurities and need to be beautiful on Coriakin's Island, and turned Eustace into a dragon in order to help him realise his own flaws and self-righteousness on Dragon Island.

Once the Dawn Treader reached the sweet waters, Aslan ordered Caspian through a dream to send Edmund, Lucy, Eustace and the talking mouse, Reepicheep, to the shore at the end of the world. Here, Aslan allowed Reepicheep to pass on from Narnia to Aslan’s Country, as was his greatest dream, and sent the others home.

Search for Prince Rillian

When Caspian’s wife, Ramandu's daughter, was killed by the Lady of the Green Kirtle, and his only son, Prince Rilian, was kidnapped by the same witch she planned to use him to slowly conquer Narnia. As an old man, Caspian chose to search for Aslan, to ask him who should ascend the throne of Narnia after he died, believing that Rilian was lost.

Aslan, knowing that Rilian was alive, but hypnotized by the Lady of the Green Kirtle’s enchantments, brought Eustace Scrubb and Jill Pole to Narnia, and ordered them to find him. They eventually succeeded, but Caspian had by that time died Aslan took him to his Country, a young man once more.When Caspian’s wife, Ramandu's daughter, was killed by the Lady of the Green Kirtle, and his only son, Prince Rilian, was kidnapped by the same witch she planned to use him to slowly conquer Narnia. As an old man, Caspian chose to search for Aslan, to ask him who should ascend the throne of Narnia after he died, believing that Rilian was lost.

Aslan, knowing that Rilian was alive, but hypnotized by the Lady of the Green Kirtle’s enchantments, brought Eustace Scrubb and Jill Pole to Narnia, and ordered them to find him. They eventually succeeded, but Caspian had by that time died Aslan took him to his Country, a young man once more.

Destruction of Narnia

During the rule of King Tirian, most of the inhabitants of Narnia fell prey to a lie, stating that the donkey Puzzle was Aslan, and that Aslan and the demon Tash, whom the Calormenes worshipped, were one of the same being. A great war between the Calormenes and the Narnians ravaged all the lands.

Aslan came to Narnia for the last time, and destroyed the entire world. He passed judgment of every one of its inhabitants, allowing those who were faithful, good and innocent to pass into Aslan’s Country, where they would exist in eternal peace, while the unvirtuous and honorless vanish into his shadow, their fate is unknown even to the author. It is presumed that they are sent to Tash's country for eternal damnation. At the same time, a train crash, which killed the Seven Friends of Narnia, as well as Mr. and Mrs. Pevensie, occurred, but Aslan had them all brought to Narnia. He ordered Peter Pevensie to “Shut the Door” on Narnia forever, and admitted them all to his Country.

Notably, Aslan chose not to bring Susan Pevensie to his Country (though she did not actually die in the train crash). She did not believe in Aslan or Narnia at the time, though it is considered likely that she would later remember the truth, and would one day enter Aslan's Country. Notably, Aslan himself had instructed the elder Pevensie children to look to their own lives and not try to enter Narnia again after the Exile of the Telmarines. It would seem quite out of character for Aslan to simply abandon Susan to the loss of her entire family for having done exactly what he had ordered her to do, though Aslan could have had other plans for Susan in the future.

In Other Worlds

As seen in The Magician's Nephew, there are other worlds besides Narnia. There are a vast number of worlds with their own lands, inhabitants and laws, all of which are accessible from the Wood between the Worlds. It is indicated that Aslan exists in all worlds as some sort of divine figure of good. His avatars are different in each world, as are his specific attributes and abilities. It is clear that on Earth, Aslan is Jesus Christ. C.S. Lewis writes in The Last Battle that in Aslan’s Country, Aslan no longer looks like a lion. It is unknown what shape he takes in his own country and it is also unknown what form (or forms) he takes in the various other worlds.

It is likely that Aslan's avatar of Charn brought the world of to its end when Jadis first left it, leaving it completely barren of all life.

In Other Worlds

As seen in The Magician's Nephew, there are other worlds besides Narnia. There are a vast number of worlds with their own lands, inhabitants and laws, all of which are accessible from the Wood between the Worlds.

It is indicated that Aslan exists in all worlds as some sort of divine figure of good. His avatars are different in each world, as are his specific attributes and abilities. It is clear that on Earth, Aslan is Jesus Christ. C.S. Lewis writes in The Last Battle that in Aslan’s Country, Aslan no longer looks like a lion. It is unknown what shape he takes in his own country and it is also unknown what form (or forms) he takes in the various other worlds.

It is likely that Aslan's avatar of Charn brought the world of to its end when Jadis first left it, leaving it completely barren of all life.

Africans had a notable presence in the Americas before colonization

Prior to 1619, hundreds of thousands of Africans, both free and enslaved, aided the establishment and survival of colonies in the Americas and the New World. They also fought against European oppression, and, in some instances, hindered the systematic spread of colonization.

Christopher Columbus likely transported the first Africans to the Americas in the late 1490s on his expeditions to the island of Hispaniola, now Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Their exact status, whether free or enslaved, remains disputed. But the timeline fits with what we know of the origins of the slave trade.

European trade of enslaved Africans began in the 1400s. “The first example we have of Africans being taken against their will and put on board European ships would take the story back to 1441,” says Guasco, when the Portuguese captured 12 Africans in Cabo Branco—modern-day Mauritania in north Africa𠅊nd brought them to Portugal as enslaved peoples.

In the region that would become the United States, there were no enslaved Africans before the Spanish occupation of Florida in the early 16th century, according to Linda Heywood and John Thornton, professors at Boston University and co-authors of Central Africans, Atlantic Creoles and the Foundation of the Americas, 1585-1660.

“There were significant numbers who were brought in as early as 1526,” says Heywood. That year, some of these enslaved Africans became part of a Spanish expedition to establish an outpost in what is now South Carolina. They rebelled, preventing the Spanish from founding the colony.

The uprising didn’t stop the inflow of enslaved Africans to Spanish Florida. “We don’t know how many followed, but there was certainly a slave population around St. Augustine," says Heywood.

Africans also played a role in England&aposs early colonization efforts. Enslaved Africans may have been on board Sir Francis Drake’s fleet when he arrived at Roanoke Island in 1586 and failed to establish the first permanent English settlement in America. He and his cousin, John Hawkins, made three voyages to Guinea and Sierra Leone and enslaved between 1,200 and 1,400 Africans.

Although not part of present-day America, Africans from the West Indies were also present in the English colony of Bermuda in 1616, where they provided expert knowledge of tobacco cultivation to the Virginia Company.

Why Benedict Arnold Turned Traitor Against the American Revolution

He was short, solidly built (one acquaintance remembered that “there wasn’t any wasted timber in him”) and blessed with almost superhuman energy and endurance. He was handsome and charismatic, with black hair, gray eyes and an aquiline nose, and he carried himself with the lissome elegance of a natural athlete. A neighbor from Connecticut remembered that Benedict Arnold was “the most accomplished and graceful skater” he had ever seen.

From This Story

He was born in 1741, a descendant of the Rhode Island equivalent of royalty. The first Benedict Arnold had been one of the colony’s founders, and subsequent generations had helped to establish the Arnolds as solid and respected citizens. But Arnold’s father, who had settled in Norwich, Connecticut, proved to be a drunkard only after his son moved to New Haven could he begin to free himself from the ignominy of his childhood. By his mid-30s he had had enough success as an apothecary and a seagoing merchant to begin building one of the finest homes in town. But he remained hypersensitive to any slight, and like many gentlemen of his time he had challenged more than one man to a duel.

From the first, he distinguished himself as one of New Haven’s more vocal and combative patriots. On hearing of the Boston Massacre, he thundered, “Good God, are the Americans all asleep and tamely giving up their glorious liberties?” When in April 1775 he learned of the skirmishes at Lexington and Concord, he seized a portion of New Haven’s gunpowder supply and marched north with a company of volunteers. In Cambridge, Massachusetts, he convinced Dr. Joseph Warren and the Massachusetts Committee of Safety to authorize an expedition to capture Fort Ticonderoga in New York State and its 80 or more cannons.

As it turned out, others had the same idea, and Arnold was forced to form an uneasy alliance with Ethan Allen and his Green Mountain Boys before the two leaders strode side by side into Ticonderoga. While Allen and his men turned their attention to consuming the British liquor supply, Arnold sailed and rowed to St. John, at the opposite end of Lake Champlain, where he and a small group of men captured several British military vessels and instantly gave America command of the lake.

Abrupt and impatient with anything he deemed superfluous to the matter at hand, Arnold had a fatal tendency to criticize and even ridicule those with whom he disagreed. When a few weeks later a Continental Army officer named James Easton dared to question the legitimacy of his authority as the self-proclaimed commodore of the American Navy on Lake Champlain, Arnold proceeded to “kick him very heartily.” It was an insult Easton never forgot, and in the years ahead, he became one of a virtual Greek chorus of Arnold detractors who would plague him for the rest of his military career. And yet, if a soldier served with him during one of his more heroic adventures, that soldier was likely to regard him as the most inspiring officer he had ever known.

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This story is a selection from the May issue of Smithsonian magazine

The American Revolution as it actually unfolded was so troubling and strange that once the struggle was over, a generation did its best to remove all traces of the truth. Although it later became convenient to portray Arnold as a conniving Satan from the start, the truth is more complex and, ultimately, more disturbing. Without the discovery of his treason in the fall of 1780, the American people might never have been forced to realize that the real threat to their liberties came not from without, but from within.

In that first Revolutionary spring of 1775, Arnold learned of the death of his wife, Margaret. Upon returning from Lake Champlain to New Haven, he visited her grave with his three young sons at his side. Arnold’s letters to her prior to the Revolution had been filled with pleas for her to write more often, and his grief upon her death seems to have been almost overpowering. And yet, for someone of Arnold’s restless temperament, it was inconceivable to remain in New Haven with his sorrow. “An idle life under my present circumstances,” he explained, “would be but a lingering death.” After just three weeks, Arnold left his children under the care of his sister Hannah and was on his way back to Cambridge, where he hoped to bury his anguish in what he called “the public calamity.” Over the next three years—in Canada, on Lake Champlain, in Rhode Island and Connecticut and again in New York—he made himself indispensable to his commander in chief, George Washington, and the Revolutionary cause.

It is impossible to say when 37-year-old Benedict Arnold first met 18-year-old Peggy Shippen, but we do know that on September 25, 1778, he wrote her a love letter—much of it an exact copy of one he’d sent to another woman six months before. But if the overheated rhetoric was recycled, Arnold’s passion was genuine. Knowing of “the affection you bear your amiable and tender parents,” he had also written to Peggy’s loyalist-leaning father. “Our difference in political sentiments will, I hope, be no bar to my happiness,” he wrote. “I flatter myself the time is at hand when our unhappy contest will be at an end.” He also assured Peggy’s father that he was wealthy enough “to make us both happy” and that he had no expectations of any kind of dowry.

Peggy Arnold and daughter (NYPL)

Here in this letter are hints as to the motives behind Arnold’s subsequent behavior. While lacking the social connections of the Shippens, who were the equivalent of Philadelphia aristocracy, Arnold had had prospects of accumulating a sizable personal fortune. Now the British had abandoned their occupation of the revolutionaries’ capital, and Washington, needing something for Arnold to do while he recuperated from a battle-shattered left thigh, had named him the city’s military governor. Having lost once-significant wealth, Arnold embarked on a campaign of secret, and underhanded, schemes to re-establish himself as a prosperous merchant. That end—and those means—were not uncommon among officers of the Continental Army.

But in September 1778 he did not yet have the money he needed to maintain Peggy in the style to which she was accustomed. There was also the matter of the Shippens’ politics. They might not be outright loyalists, but they had a decided distaste for the radical patriots who were waging an undeclared war on Philadelphia’s upper classes now that the British had gone. Given Arnold’s interest in Edward Shippen’s daughter and his lifelong desire to acquire the wealth his bankrupt father had denied him, it is not surprising that he embraced the city’s marginalized nobility with a vengeance.

Thumbing his nose at the pious patriots who ruled the city, he purchased an ornate carriage and entertained extravagantly at his new residence, the same grand house the British general William Howe had occupied. He attended the theater, even though the Continental Congress had advised the states to ban such entertainments as “productive of idleness, dissipation and general depravity.” He issued passes to suspected loyalists wanting to visit friends and relatives in New York City, which was held by the British. He even appeared at a ball in a scarlet uniform, which led a young lady whose father had been arrested for corresponding with the British to joyfully exclaim, “Heyday, I see certain animals will put on the lion’s skin.”

One of Arnold’s misfortunes was that Joseph Reed had become a champion, however unlikely, of Pennsylvania’s radical patriots. A London-educated lawyer with an English wife, Reed had a reputation as one of Philadelphia’s finest and most ambitious attorneys before the Revolution. But the Reeds had not fit well into the upper echelons of Philadelphia society. Reed’s pious wife complained that one of Peggy Shippen’s relatives had accused her of being “sly,” claiming that “religion is often a cloak to hide bad actions.”

Reed had served on Washington’s staff as adjutant general at the beginning, when Washington faced the daunting task of dislodging the British from Boston in 1775. But by the end of the year, with the Continental Army run out of New York City and retreating across New Jersey, he had lost faith in his commander. Reed was away from headquarters when a letter arrived from the army’s second-ranking officer, Maj. Gen. Charles Lee. Assuming the letter related to official business, Washington promptly broke the seal. He soon discovered that Reed had established his own line of communication with Lee and that the primary topic of their correspondence was the failings of their commander in chief.

Joseph Reed (Hulton Archive / Getty Images)

Washington forwarded the letter to Reed with a note explaining why he had opened it, but otherwise let him twist in the icy emptiness of his withheld wrath. He kept Reed on, but their intimacy had ended.

Brilliant, mercurial and outspoken, Reed had a habit of antagonizing even his closest friends and associates, and he eventually left Washington’s staff to serve in a variety of official capacities, always restless, always the smartest, most judgmental person in the room. As a New England minister wrote to Washington, the man was “more formed for dividing than uniting.”

In the fall of 1778, Reed stepped down as a Pennsylvania delegate to Congress to help the state’s attorney general prosecute 23 suspected loyalists for treason. He lost 21 of those cases—there wasn’t much evidence to work with—but the position established him as one of the city’s most zealous patriots. That November, the two wealthy Quakers who had been convicted were hanged.

In an apparent act of protest, Arnold hosted “a public entertainment” at which he received “not only Tory [or loyalist] ladies but the wives and daughters of persons proscribed by the state” in “a very considerable number,” Reed sputtered in a letter to a friend. Perhaps contributing to his ire was the fact that he and his wife had recently moved into the house next to Arnold’s and hadn’t been invited to the party.

By December Reed was president of the state’s Supreme Executive Council, making him the most powerful man in one of the most powerful states in the country. He quickly made it clear that conservative patriots were the enemy, as were the Continental Congress and the Continental Army. As council president, he insisted that Pennsylvania prevail in any and all disputes with the national government, regardless of what was best for the United States as a whole. Philadelphia was at the vortex of an increasingly rancorous struggle involving almost all the seminal issues related to creating a functioning democratic republic, issues that would not begin to be resolved until the Constitutional Convention of 1787.

Amid all this upheaval, Reed launched an investigation into the military governor’s conduct. The prosecution of Benedict Arnold—a Washington favorite, an emblem of national authority and a friend to Philadelphia’s wealthy—would be the pretext to flex his state’s political muscle. And it would lead Arnold to doubt the cause to which he had given so much.

By late January 1779, Arnold was preparing to leave the military. Officials in New York State, where he was held in high regard, had encouraged him to consider becoming a landowner on the scale of the loyalist Philip Skene, whose vast estate at the southern tip of Lake Champlain had been confiscated by the state. Arnold’s financial dealings in Philadelphia had failed to yield the anticipated returns. Becoming a land baron in New York might be the way to acquire the wealth and prestige that he had always craved and that Peggy and her family expected.

By early February he had decided to journey to New York, stopping to visit Washington at his headquarters in New Jersey. Reed, fearing that Arnold might escape to New York before he could be brought to justice for his sins in Philadelphia, hurriedly put together a list of eight charges, most of them based on rumor. Given the pettiness of many of the charges (which included being ungracious to a militiaman and preferring loyalists to patriots), Reed appeared to be embarked on more of a smear campaign than a trial. That Arnold was guilty of some of the more substantive charges (such as illegally purchasing goods upon his arrival in Philadelphia) did not change the fact that Reed lacked the evidence to make a creditable case against him. Arnold knew as much, and he complained of his treatment to Washington and the commander’s family of officers.

Washington had refused to take sides in the dispute between Philadelphia’s radicals and conservatives. But he knew that Reed was hardly the steadfast patriot he claimed to be. For the last year, a rumor had been circulating among the officers of the Continental Army: Reed had been in such despair over the state of the war in late December 1776 that he’d spent the night of Washington’s assault on Trenton at a home in Hessian-occupied New Jersey, poised to defect to the British in the event of an American defeat. In that light, his self-righteous prosecution of Quakers and other loyalists seemed hypocritical in the extreme. It’s likely that Washington had heard at least some version of the claim, and just as likely that he took the charges against Arnold with a grain of salt. Still, Reed’s position on the Supreme Executive Council required that Washington accord him more civility than he probably deserved.

On February 8, 1779, Arnold wrote to Peggy from the army’s headquarters in Middlebrook, New Jersey. “I am treated with the greatest politeness by General Washington and the officers of the army,” he assured her. He claimed that the consensus at headquarters was that he should ignore the charges and continue on to New York.

Despite this advice, he had resolved to return to Philadelphia, not only to clear his name but because he was so desperately missing Peggy. “Six days’ absence without hearing from my Dear Peggy is intolerable,” he wrote. “Heavens! What must I have suffered had I continued my journey—the loss of happiness for a few dirty acres. I can almost bless the villainous. men who oblige me to return.” In utter denial regarding his complicity in the trouble he was now in, he was also deeply in love.

After Arnold’s betrayal, Philadelphians paraded a two-faced effigy of him through the streets before burning it. (Antiquarian Society)

Back in Philadelphia, Arnold came under near-ceaseless attack from the Supreme Executive Council. But since the council was unwilling to provide the required evidence—primarily because it did not have any—the Congressional committee appointed to examine the charges had no choice but to find in Arnold’s favor. When the council threatened to withhold the state militia and the large number of state-owned wagons upon which Washington’s army depended, Congress tabled its committee’s report and turned the case over to Washington for a court-martial.

More than a few Congressional delegates began to wonder what Reed was trying to accomplish. As a patriot and a Philadelphian, Congress’s secretary Charles Thomson had once considered Reed a friend. No more. Reed’s refusal to bring forward any legitimate evidence, combined with his continual assaults on the authority and integrity of Congress, made Thomson wonder whether his former friend was trying to destroy the political body upon which the country’s very existence depended. Was Reed, in fact, the traitor?

The previous summer Reed had received an offer of 㾶,000 if he would assist a British peace commission’s efforts with Congress. In a letter published in a Philadelphia newspaper, Reed claimed to have indignantly refused the overture. But had he really? One of the commissioners had recently assured Parliament that secret efforts were under way to destabilize the government of the United States and that these “other means” might prove more effective in ending the war than military attempts to defeat Washington’s army. There is no evidence that Reed was indeed bent on a treasonous effort to bring down Congress, but as Thomson made clear in a letter to him, his monomaniacal pursuit of Arnold was threatening to accomplish exactly that.

In the meantime, Arnold needed money, and fast. He had promised Edward Shippen that he would bestow “a settlement” on his daughter prior to their marriage as proof that he had the financial resources Peggy’s father required. So in March of 1779, Arnold took out a loan for 㾸,000 and, with the help of a sizable mortgage, bought Mount Pleasant, a mansion on 96 acres beside the Schuylkill that John Adams had once claimed was “the most elegant seat in Pennsylvania.”

There was one hitch, however. Although he had technically purchased Peggy a mansion, they were not going to be able to live in it, since Arnold needed the rental payments from the house’s current occupant to help pay the mortgage.

Harassed by Reed, carrying a frightening burden of debt, Arnold nonetheless had the satisfaction of finally winning Edward Shippen’s consent, and on April 8, he and Peggy were married at the Shippens’ house. Now Arnold had a young, beautiful and adoring wife who was, he proudly reported the next morning to several of his friends, good in bed—at least that was the rumor the Marquis de Chastellux, a major general in the French Army who was fluent in English, heard later when visiting Philadelphia.

However, within just a few weeks, Arnold was finding it difficult to lose himself in the delights of the connubial bed. Reed had not only forced a court-martial upon Arnold he was now attempting to delay the proceedings so that he could gather more evidence. What’s more, he had called one of Washington’s former aides as a witness, an even more disturbing development since Arnold had no idea what the aide knew. Arnold began to realize that he was, in fact, in serious trouble.

Aggravating the situation, his left leg was not healing as quickly as he had hoped, and his right leg became wracked by gout, making it impossible for him to walk. Arnold had been in tight spots before, but always had been able to do something to bring about a miraculous recovery. But now, what was there to do?

If the last nine months had taught him anything, it was that the country to which he had given everything but his life could easily fall apart. Instead of a national government, Congress had become a facade behind which 13 states did whatever was best for each of them. Indeed, it might be argued that Joseph Reed was now more influential than all of Congress combined.

What made all of this particularly galling was the hostility that Reed— and apparently most of the American people—held toward the Continental Army. More and more Americans regarded officers like Arnold as dangerous hirelings on the order of the Hessian mercenaries and British regulars, while local militiamen were looked to as the patriotic ideal. In reality, many of these militiamen were employed by community officials as thuggish enforcers to terrorize local citizens whose loyalties were suspect. In this increasingly toxic and volatile environment, issues of class threatened to transform a collective quest for national independence into a sordid and self-defeating civil war.

By the spring of 1779, Arnold had begun to believe that the experiment in independence had failed. And as far as he could tell, the British had a higher regard for his abilities than his own country did. Gen. John Burgoyne was in London defending himself before Parliament with the claim that if not for Arnold, his army would have won the Battle of Saratoga. That February, the Royal Gazette had referred sympathetically to his plight in Philadelphia: “General Arnold heretofore had been styled another Hannibal, but losing a leg in the service of the Congress, the latter considering him unfit for any further exercise of his military talents, permit him thus to fall into the unmerciful fangs of the executive council of Pennsylvania.” Perhaps the time was right for him to offer his services to the British.

Arnold is usually credited with coming up with the idea himself, but there are reasons to think the decision to turn traitor originated with Peggy. Certainly the timing is suspect, following so soon after their marriage. Arnold was bitter, but even he had to admit that the Revolution had catapulted him from the fringes of respectability in New Haven to the national stage. Peggy, on the other hand, regarded the Revolution as a disaster from the start. Not only had it initially forced her family to flee from Philadelphia it had reduced her beloved father to a cringing parody of his former self. How different life had been during those blessed months of the British occupation, when noble gentleman-officers had danced with the belles of the city. With her ever-growing attachment to Arnold fueling her outrage, she had come to despise the revolutionary government that was now trying to destroy her husband.

By marrying Peggy, Arnold had attached himself to a woman who knew how to get what she wanted. When her father had initially refused to allow her to marry Arnold, she had used her seeming frailty—her fits, her hysteria, whatever you wanted to call it—to manipulate him into agreeing to the engagement for fear that she might otherwise suffer irreparable harm. Now she would get her way with her equally indulgent husband.

Given the ultimate course of Arnold’s life, it is easy to assume that he had fully committed himself to treason by the time he sent out his first feelers to the British in early May 1779. But that was not the case. He still felt a genuine loyalty to Washington. On May 5, Arnold wrote his commander what can only be described as a hysterical letter. The apparent reason for it was the delay of his court-martial to June 1. But the letter was really about Arnold’s fear that he might actually do as his wife suggested. “If your Excellency thinks me criminal,” he wrote, “for heaven’s sake, let me be immediately tried and if found guilty executed.”

What Arnold wanted more than anything now was clarity. With the court-martial and exoneration behind him, he might fend off Peggy’s appeals. Joseph Reed, however, was bent on delaying the court-martial for as long as possible. In limbo like this, Arnold was dangerously susceptible to seeing treason not as a betrayal of all he had held sacred but as a way to save his country from the revolutionary government that was threatening to destroy it.

In his anguish on May 5, he offered Washington a warning: “Having made every sacrifice of fortune and blood, and become a cripple in the service of my country, I little expected to meet the ungrateful returns I have received of my countrymen, but as Congress have stamped ingratitude as a current coin I must take it. I wish your Excellency for your long and eminent services may not be paid of in the same coin.”

In the reference to money, Arnold unintentionally betrayed the real reason he had been moved to consider this course. If he handled the negotiations correctly, turning traitor could be extremely lucrative. Not only would he be able to walk away from his current financial obligations, he might command a figure from the British that would make him independently wealthy for life.

On May 10, an emissary from Arnold reached John André, a British captain whom Peggy had come to know well in Philadelphia. But now André was living in New York City, which would become crucial to the Revolution’s prospects in the months ahead. Arnold wanted to explore the possibility of defecting, but first he needed to be assured of two things: Were the British in this war to stay? And how much were his services worth?

In the tortuous months ahead, Arnold would survive his oft-delayed court-martial with a reprimand, and Washington would restore him to command. But the emissary’s visit was the first tentative step that led, in late summer-fall of 1780, to Arnold’s doomed effort to hand over the fortifications at West Point to the enemy.

By reaching out to the British, Arnold gave his enemies the exquisite satisfaction of having been right all along. Like Robert E. Lee at the beginning of the American Civil War, Arnold could have declared his change of heart and simply shifted sides. But as he was about to make clear, he was doing this first and foremost for the money.

Editor-in-chief Michael Caruso interviewed author Nathaniel Philbrick on our Facebook page about Benedict Arnold. Watch the video and follow us for more great history stories from Smithsonian magazine and ​Smithsonian.com.

About Nathaniel Philbrick

Nathaniel Philbrick is the award-winning author of several books, including In the Heart of the Sea and Bunker Hill. His writing has appeared in The New York Times Book Review, the Wall Street Journal, Vanity Fair and other places.


Shie Hassaikai Arc

Ryukyu congratulating Ochaco and Tsuyu.

Upon Nejire's recommendation, Ryukyu hires Ochaco Uraraka and Tsuyu Asui. Days later, after witnessing how Nejire, Tsuyu, and Ochaco take down two giant villains, Ryuko praises them and notes that Nejire improved the timing of her attacks. Ryuko then proposes that she deems them all fit enough to take part in Sir Nighteye's team request. Γ]

Ryuko is among the Pro Heroes and their sidekicks present at Sir Nighteye's meeting. As Nejire asks Ryuko what the meeting is about, Ryuko tells her that Sir Nighteye is about to explain. Δ] Nighteye explains that he has been investigating a Yakuza group known as Shie Hassaikai, whose leader Overhaul, had recently become involved in drug trafficking and had contacted the League of Villains.

Ryukyu investigating the Shie Hassaikai.

Thanks to the fact that Fat Gum and his Trainees defeated some villains connected with the Shie Hassaikai, a special bullet was recovered. This bullet content allows to eliminate the gifts temporarily. After examining the contents, they discovered that inside the bullet were human blood and cells. Ryukyu surmises that the bullet contained the DNA of a Quirk that destroys other Quirks. Sir Nighteye adds that Izuku and Mirio encountered Overhaul's daughter Eri, who had bandages running up and down her legs, and suspects Overhaul is using Eri to create the Quirk Destroying Drug. This revelation disturbs everybody and Ryukyu expresses sadness and shock over the thought of Chisaki using his own daughter to create weapons. Ε]

After the explanation, they all agree to rescue the girl. During the following days Ryukyu participates in the investigations to find out Eri's whereabouts, until Sir Nighteye discovers that she is in the Shie Hassaikai Compound. Ζ] The next morning at 8:00 AM, in front of the Police Station, Heroes partaking in the rescue operation have been given detailed information about the Shie Hassaikai's complex underground facility and and the Quirks of the people who are part of the organization.

Ryukyu stops Rikiya with her dragon form.

At 8:30 AM, the Heroes and Police Force are outside the Shie Hassaikai's Headquarters and commence the operation. While the heroes and the police forcer waited outside, suddenly, the gates smash open courtesy of Rikiya Katsukame and he begins to attack them. Ryuko turns into a dragon, and easily intercepts Rikiya’s punch with her draconian claw. Ryukyu orders her Heroes from the Ryukyu Offices to deal with Rikiya and asks the other groups to move on. Ryukyu smashes the large Shie Hassaikai member to the ground as the other Heroes and Police Force members start storming into the headquarters. Η]

Ryuko’s group managed to overpower Rikiya and knock him unconscious. Ryukyu orders the Police Force to restrain Rikiya while Nejire Hado, Ochaco Uraraka, and Tsuyu Asui prepare to head after Sir Nighteye's group. Suddenly, Ochaco and Tsuyu along with the Police Force become tired due to Rikiya inhaling their vitality, much to Ryukyu's surprise since she thought she knocked him out. Conscious, Rikiya reveals that the drug he took is kicking in which has enhanced his Quirk and now he can absorb a target's vitality simply by inhaling.

Ryukyu Squad suddenly appears!

Now larger and stronger than before, Rikiya attacks the Police Force only for Ryukyu to take them to safety. 20 minutes pass and Ryukyu's group is in a standstill against the rejuvenated Rikiya. Only Nejire continues to fight against him.

Suddenly, "Izuku Midoriya" appears and states that he called reinforcements and that their objective is underneath a nearby crossroad. With this information, Ryukyu hatches a plan, transforms into her dragon form, and charges at Rikiya. With the help of Ochaco, Tsuyu, and Nejire, she crashes Rikiya against the point indicated by Izuku, collapsing the crossroad, and causing Ryukyu's group along with Rikiya to fall down right into the Yakuza's underground pathway, in the middle of the battle between Izuku and Kai. ⎖]

Ryukyu thanks Izuku for his bravery.

Actually, the Izuku of the surface reveals to be Himiko Toga, who used her quirk to impersonating him. With her are Twice and a copy of Mr. Compress, whom they sent to capture Eri, but Ryuko notices the presence of the League of Villains’s members. While Izuku continues fighting against Kai, she destroys the Mr. Compress clone and sends Ochaco to the surface to get a seriously wounded Sir Nighteye to the ambulance. ⎗]

Izuku manages to defeat Kai and the mission ends in success, Eri is rescued and the organization dismantled. Ryukyu orders the police to call ambulances for the injured and asks them to search for the League of Villains as well, although Himiko and Twice manage to escape. Ryukyu also takes a moment to thank Izuku for his incredible bravery. With that, the rescue mission completed at 9:15 AM. ⎘]

Remedial Course Arc

The students say goodbye to their tutors.

Unfortunately, Nighteye died from the injuries he sustained in his fight against Overhaul, which is why at the beginning of October, Ryuko Tatsuma attends his funeral along with the rest of the heroes and the students who participated in the Hero Work-Studies.

Due to what happened, they are informed that the Hero Work Studies program is postponed for the moment, so Ochaco, Tsuyu and Nejire say goodbye to Ryukyu. ⎙]

Pro Hero Arc

Ryukyu doesn't consider herself worthy of her position.

Months later, the Hero Billboard Chart JP is shown, and it is seen that Ryuko has dropped a rank of the ten best heroes in Japan, dropped from the ninth to the tenth position.

During the ceremony, when she gives her opinion on how she feels about her ranking, Ryuko honestly says she does not feel worthy to be in the top ten, because there are lives she could not save and promises she will continue to strive to be a hero more befitting of the rank. Her words move the hero Crust, who tries to cheer her up. ⎚]

My Hero Academia: Heroes: Rising

In the aftermath of Nine's invasion on Nabu Island, Ryukyu goes to the island as backup for Class 1-A, who defended its residents from Nine and his crew. Ryukyu is seen carrying an injured Ochaco to safety.

Endeavor Agency Arc

During the second round of Work-Studies, Ryukyu employees Ochaco, Tsuyu and Nejire once again. ⎛]

Paranormal Liberation War Arc

Ryukyu and the heroes raid the lab.

By the end of March, thanks to the police investigations, and the information leaked by Hawks, who was acting as a spy, the Hero Public Safety Commission organize the Heroes and the Police Force to take down the Paranormal Liberation Front. Ryukyu is part of the team of heroes led by Endeavor in charge of raiding on Jaku General Hospital, and arresting Dr. Kyudai Garaki, ally of Tomura Shigaraki and creator of the Nomu. ⎜] ⎝]

Shortly after beginning the operation, Dr. Garaki releases a large number of Nomu to confront the heroes. He even frees the High-End Nomus to gain as much time as possible to wake Tomura, who is stasis in his secret lab after undergoing an operation to obtain more power. ⎞] ⎟] In spite of everything, the heroes manage to prevail and enter the lair. Ryukyu and other heroes use their abilities to restrain the High-End Nomu, Woman, allowing Endeavor to land a finishing blow that decapitates her instantly.

Ryukyu and the other Heroes evacuate the hospital.

All Nomu are defeated and during the confrontation, the capsule that contained Tomura is destroyed before Kyodai could reactivate his heart. Facing his defeat, a heartbroken Dr. Garaki declares that the Devil's Dream has finally ended. ⎠]

However, against all odds, Tomura Shigaraki awakens, despite having previously verified that his heart was not beating. Seeing the situation, he immediately uses his decay, which spreads rapidly through the laboratory, disintegrating everything in its path.

Ryukyu rescues and carries Eraser Head, Manual, Rock Lock and several other unnamed heroes in her dragon form before the place ends up completely disintegrated. Unfortunately, most heroes die from Tomura's Decay. Tomura's Quirk is so powerful that it destroys the entire hospital and the mountain it is on, reaching the city nearby. ⎡]

Despite knowing of Tomura's power increase, Ryukyu is one of the Heroes who challenges him, when he heads to the city to face Deku. Ryukyu flies up to Tomura and swipes him with her claws. Tomura touches her claw as it approached to destroy her, but Eraser Head uses his Erasure to cancel Tomura's Quirk, and Ryukyu knocks Tomura into the air. ⎢]

Ryuko calls Endeavor to attack Tomura, but the villain manages to avoid the flares. Ryukyu flies towards Endeavor to assist him but Tomura uses his enormous strength to slam Endeavor into her, sending them both plummeting into the ground. Tomura then stands triumphantly on the defeated Endeavor and Ryuko while raising his right arm in the air similarly to when Endeavor raised his left arm in the air after defeating Hood, as a sort of mockery.

Tomura stands triumphantly over Endeavor and Ryukyu.

Endeavor tries to strike him again but Tomura dodges and moves away from him, heading towards Eraser Head to kill him, because his Eraser Quirk prevents him from using all his power. ⎣] Izuku, Katsuki, Endeavor, and Gran Torino try to stop him, while Manual and Rock Lock try to drive the injured Eraser Head away from Tomura.

Despite their efforts, they are unable to stop him, and Gran Torino is seriously injured, enraging Izuku. Tomura runs towards Eraser Head but Ryuko appears and manages to grab him with his gigantic Draconian hands. Izuku joins her to hold the villain in place. Tomura, however, pierces through Ryuko's claws carrying a couple of Quirk-Destroying Drugs. ⎤] The hero sees that he is holding the bullets between his fingers and warns the others.

Izuku hits him to stop him, but Tomura manages to throw off two bullets. One is destroyed before it reaches its target but the other hits Eraser Head in the right leg, who quickly cuts it off before the drug could spread throughout his body.

Despite not having managed to remove the Quirk from Eraser Head, all that does get him to close his eyes a bit, allowing Tomura to unleash a shock wave to break free of Ryuko's grip. Ryuko is knocked out by the shock wave, and Tomura, after getting rid of her, flies straight for Eraser Head, dodging Endeavor's blow. Izuku and the newcomer Shoto manage to prevent Tomura from killing Eraser head, but not from hurting him in the eyes, preventing him from using his eraser Quirk on Tomura again. ⎥]

Now the villain can use all his Quirks without interruption, but because he has been awakened prematurely, his body isn't able to keep up with All For One's incredible power. Determined to finish as soon as possible to recover, Tomura attempts to use his Decay Quirk again to finish everyone off, but an enraged Deku activates One For All at 100% and jumped into the air carrying Tomura and all the Heroes with Blackwhip. ⎦]

Izuku places his allies on the ground, while he continues to hold Tomura in mid-air so he cannot use his Decay, while striking him with all his might to defeat him. ⎧] While Manual and Rock Lock take care of the wounded Ryuko, Eraser Head and Gran Torino and try to take them away from the battlefield. Izuku continues to strike Tomura with 100% All For One, until the villain's regenerative capacity reaches a limit and he can't take it anymore. ⎨] But even with that and the assistance of Endeavor, who burns Tomura completely, the villain continues struggling, seriously injuring Endeavor and Katsuki as well. ⎩]

After one last clash, Izuku reaches his limits, but inexplicably Tomura can still continue fighting despite the punishment received. At that moment Ingenium and Nejire Chan arrived to help the heroes. When Nejire sees her mentor Ryuko injured, she glares at Tomura, and together with Shoto attacks Tomura. ⎪]

Tomura is finally unconscious, but just at that moment Gigantomachia arrives carrying several Paranormal Liberation Front lieutenants on his enormous back. The conflict continues when Mirio and Best Jeanist also team up to stop the villains. While this happens, Manual and Rock Lock manage to take the wounded to the medical camp where the wounds are treated, before returning to the battlefield, ⎫] but unfortunately Tomura and a few lieutenants manage to escape. ⎬]



The Pevensies in their bomb shelter.

Edmund was born in 1930, the third child of his parents, Mr. Pevensie and Helen Pevensie. In 1932, sometime before his second birthday, his sister Lucy was born. At this time, the Pevensie family lived in London, England.

Edmund began attending boarding school with his brother Peter in 1939, at the age of nine. The experience was apparently a bad one for him, as his personality afterwards began to get worse.

Around this time, World War II began, and the children's father was called away to fight in the war. Some time later, in the month of September, in 1940, Edmund and his siblings were evacuated from London, due to the German bombings on the city. They were sent to live in the countryside with an old professor called Professor Digory Kirke. Shortly after their arrival, Edmund began mocking Lucy who professed to have visited Narnia, and befriended a Faun called Mr. Tumnus, through a Wardrobe, hidden somewhere inside the Professor's mansion.

Winter Rebellion

Shortly afterwards, Edmund followed his little sister through the wardrobe, where she claimed her magical country existed. He was shocked to discover she had been telling the truth, as he found himself in a wintry forest. While he was there, he soon stumbled across a sleigh carrying a large lady.

The woman introduced herself as Jadis, the Queen of Narnia. After inviting him to sit and talk with her, and conjuring him food and drink, the Queen confided in Edmund that she had always wanted a son like him to be her heir. Over the course of their chat, Edmund, who of course had no idea of the significance of his information beyond the fact he was telling it to a complete stranger, told her a great deal about his family, and that Lucy had already visited her country, and that she had met Mr. Tumnus.

She offered to make him a prince if he brought his siblings to her realm, to make them dukes and duchesses. Edmund agreed, even though he had no real interest in his siblings getting anything, and promised to keep it a surprise, bidding farewell to the Queen. Shortly afterwards, he found Lucy in the forest, and the two returned to the Professor's house. Lucy warned Edmund that Narnia was ruled by an evil witch who claimed to be the Queen. Despite this warning, Edmund continued to plan to meet with Jadis again, and when questioned by Peter and Susan, Edmund lied and refused to admit that he had in fact seen Narnia.

Several days later, the four siblings were forced to hide in the magic wardrobe, in an attempt to hide from the housekeeper, Mrs. Macready. Thus, all four stumbled into Narnia, and Edmund was forced to admit his lie. When he did, needless to say, his brother was furious with him, calling him a poisonous little beast, but said nothing more to him. Edmund, though, swore to himself that he would get them all back.

After that, they decided to go to visit Mr. Tumnus, but upon arriving at his home, however, the four were dismayed to find it empty, with a warrant for Mr. Tumnus's arrest hanging over the door. Before they could choose what to do, the four were distracted by a bird, who led them into the forests where a Beaver was waiting. The Beaver, called Mr. Beaver, explained to them that Narnia was indeed oppressed by the one everyone called the White Witch, but who referred to herself as the queen of Narnia.

He then took them to his home, where he told them that the true king was called Aslan, and he had returned to reclaim his kingdom. He also told the siblings that according to Aslan's word, the four humans were prophesied to defeat the witch and take her place as the new monarchs of Narnia. In the midst of the meal, Edmund, still planning to meet with the Witch, slipped away and escaped to her castle.

The Witch, however, was furious with him for coming alone, but he told her that he had brought his siblings as far as he could, only for her to throw him into her dungeons. Shortly afterward, he was retrieved from the dungeon, and set out with the Witch on her sleigh to find his siblings.

On the journey to the Stone Table, they found a group of animals eating a meal provided by Father Christmas, in celebration of the return of Aslan. In her anger, she turned the lot of them into stone by use of a magic wand that she possessed over Edmund's protests. With this, Edmund finally learned to his horror what kind of a woman the Witch truly was, and became repentant for his earlier betrayal. Eventually, the snow in the forests began melting, a sign which was recognized to signal the end of the White Witch's power, and the coming of Aslan. This eventually made travel by the sledge impossible and the company had to proceed on foot, with Edmund bound and forced to march ahead of his captors

After some time, with Edmund almost collapsing with exhaustion, the Witch began to realize that she would not catch Edmund's fleeing siblings, and chose instead to kill Edmund at once, to keep the prophecy from being fulfilled.

Fortunately, before she could carry out her intention, a rescue party – sent by Aslan – attacked her, rescued Edmund, and returned him to Narnian custody, where he at long last met Aslan.

After a long private conversation with the Lion and many apologies afterward to his siblings with Aslan's command to consider the matter resolved between them, Edmund was made at home, and declared a prince amongst the Narnians.

Edmund during the First Battle of Beruna.

Later that day, the Witch came to Aslan's Camp and proclaimed that Edmund was hers by right  Although Aslan's army immediately dared her to take him by force, she asserted her right according to the law of The Deep Magic, set down from the beginning of time. Aslan openly confirmed that this was the law, but after a private conference, persuaded her to renounce her claim.

Despite having his life hang by a thread, Edmund remained steadfast and faithful to Aslan during this time, showing no fear, and displaying a rapid change in his personality.

After the White Witch departed, the camp made ready to leave and recamp at the Fords of Beruna. There, plans were made for battle the next day, which Edmund and Peter were to lead.

Edmund destroys Jadis' wand.

The next morning, according to their duties, both brothers rose and prepared for battle, despite the mysterious disappearance in the night of Aslan, Susan and Lucy.

Throughout the impending battle, the Witch turned various creatures into stone with her wand, and Edmund, deducing advantage, took the initiative and destroyed her wand, fighting through several seasoned soldiers to do so.

In doing so, Edmund was severely wounded, but his endeavor gave his army a fighting chance without the Witch's overwhelming advantage. Soon, Aslan arrived with reinforcements and the battle turned decisively against the Witch with Aslan felling her personally, Not long after the end of the battle, Peter, Susan and Lucy arrived at his side, and Lucy used a magical cordial that she had been given by Father Christmas to save his life.

Immediately afterwards, Edmund was made a knight in the presence of Aslan, and the next day, all the Narnians marched to the castle of Cair Paravel, where the Pevensie siblings were crowned the new Kings and Queens of Narnia.

Golden Age of Narnia

The Pevensies' reign lasted fifteen years (1000 NT-1015 NT). Throughout their rule, Edmund became known as King Edmund the Just, because of his great council and judgment. He also became an accomplished diplomat and warrior, and the reign he shared with his siblings became known as the Golden Age of Narnia.

Fourteen years after the coronation of Edmund and his siblings, he accompanied his sister, Queen Susan, to Tashbaan, to form a treaty. While there, the prince of Calormen, Rabadash, desired to have Susan as his wife, but they both soon realized that Rabadash was an unsavory character, but realized too late that if they refused his offer then they, and their embassy, would become his prisoners. After devising a disguised escape on their ship, the Splendor Hyaline, they sailed to Cair Paravel.

After landing at the castle, they were informed by a stag that a furious Rabadash was marching on their ally in Archenland. Edmund at once summoned a Narnian army, and, with Queen Lucy, marched south to save the Archenlanders in a hard-fought battle. Rabadash challenged Edmund, but King Lune refused to let Edmund fight, as he felt that Radadash didn't deserve the honour.

One year later, in 1015 NT, the monarchs received news from Tumnus that the White Stag had returned to Narnia. They promptly arranged a hunt for it, but were stymied in the woods when they came upon a mysterious glade. All four admitted to having memories of the forest, and agreed to explore further.

After going deeper into the woods, all four found themselves back in England, still children, with their adventure having taken no time at all.


The four siblings discovered that due to Narnian magic, their fifteen-year reign had not taken up a second on Earth, and they had not been missed or changed. Edmund, again a young boy, returned to boarding school with his brother that fall, greatly changed in personality. The following year, all four siblings set out for boarding school. Peter and Edmund went to Hendon House, and the girls went to Saint Finbar's.

While on their way, they felt a strange tugging or pinching, which Edmund first recognized as the pull of magic. Moments later, all four were pulled out of Earth, and into a strange forest. They were going to Narnia!

War of Deliverance

Edmund in the royal treasury.

Upon arriving, they explored their new surroundings, which was an overgrown forest on an uninhabited island. After some walking, they found a castle in ruins, which Peter later deduced to be the former great castle of Cair Paravel.

Edmund argued against it, finding it impossible that Narnia could have changed so much in one year. He was proven wrong, though, when the four discovered their old treasury within the ruins, which they got in thanks to Edmund's new electric torch that he had brought with him. The following morning, Edmund solved the issue of the vast change in Narnia, by recalling how the times of the worlds are not concurrent.

That morning, the four stumbled upon their first sighting of humans two strange soldiers trying to drown a dwarf. After Peter and Susan saved the dwarf, Edmund cut his bonds, and all four inquired about the situation. The dwarf told them that the year was then 2303 NT, and Narnia had been overrun by the Telmarine humans, who had driven the Narnians into hiding.

The Narnians were now being led by a Telmarine prince, called Caspian X, who had promised to give them freedom once he gained back his throne. Apparently, he had called the Kings and Queens into Narnia, to help him, through Susan's horn.

The dwarf introduced himself as Trumpkin, a Narnian scout sent to bring them to Caspian. After telling them he found them unfit for battle, he was challenged to a duel with Edmund. After a long spar, Edmund was victorious, and Trumpkin then agreed to lead all four to Caspian, and they set out.

They traveled first on a boat, and then walked on land until they encountered a gorge. The river below, they realized, was the Rush. They argued about which way to go, when Lucy claimed that she saw Aslan, but instead of going up, as Edmund and Lucy insisted, they went down. They almost walked into a Telmarine outpost, and were attacked with arrows, but managed to escape.

Edmund in battle with the Telmarine soldiers.

On the second night of their journey, Edmund was awoken by Lucy, who told him that Aslan had told her which way to go, to get to Caspian. Edmund was disgruntled, but agreed more easily than his sibings to follow her. After a short walk, Edmund too was able to see and follow Aslan, and all five reached Caspian's camp not long after.

When they met with Aslan, he greeted Edmund only by telling him, 'Well done". Peter, Edmund, and Trumpkin then went to meet with Caspian, as the queens departed with Aslan.

Edmund carries the challenge to Miraz.

They arrived at Caspian's camp in time to witness Caspian's attempted assassination by a werewolf, a hag, and a Black Dwarf.

After slaying the attackers, the kings were introduced to Prince Caspian, and King Peter immediately took charge, and arranged a duel with the enemy's King Miraz. Edmund was chosen to carry the challenge to the king.

Later that day, he also witnessed the duel alongside Caspian.

Edmund and Lucy learn only they will return to Narnia.

After the duel went afoul, and the Telmarines declared open battle, Edmund was the first to rush to Peter's side and fight in the battle.

When the Telmarines retreated, Edmund pursued them to the fords of Beruna, where their escape was cut off. Aslan, the queens, and the Narnian reinforcements met them at the fords, where the Telmarines surrendered.

Caspian was knighted on the spot, along with many of his followers.

The Four kings and queens then spent several days in Caspian's company, as he set up his new reign.

They departed the day after Caspian's coronation, through a simple-looking but magical doorway, and were returned to their homeland on Earth.


The Pevensies then found themselves again on their way to school, just as they had been when they left, though Edmund learned that he had lost his new torch, which he had left in Narnia. Edmund and Peter returned to school as planned, and the following year their parents and Susan traveled to America, while Edmund and Lucy were sent to stay with their Aunt Alberta and Uncle Harold.

Edmund was forced to share a room with his cousin, Eustace Scrubb, a younger boy whom he openly detested. During this visit, he was known to visit Lucy's private bedroom, where the two would talk about Narnia and study a painting on Lucy's wall, which they agreed resembled a Narnian ship. Eustace once caught them talking about Narnia, and entered with the intention of teasing them about it. Once he entered, the painting drew them into it, again bringing Edmund and Lucy into Narnia, along with their cousin.

Voyage on the Dawn Treader

Edmund, Lucy and Eustace found themselves in the Narnian seas. After struggling for several minutes to stay afloat, they were rescued by a passing ship. Edmund and Lucy were overjoyed to discover that the ship was indeed Narnian, and was on a voyage being led by their old friend King Caspian.

Caspian welcomed them, and explained that his ship, the Dawn Treader, was on its maiden voyage, sailing to find Seven Lost Lords of Narnia. Caspian's secondary purpose on the voyage was to explore to the end of the world, in the hopes that he might find Aslan there.

Shortly after arriving in Narnia, Edmund accompanied Caspian and a small party on a walk over the island of Felimath, where the party was captured by slave traders. Edmund, Lucy, Eustace and Reepicheep the mouse were separated from Caspian, and spent the night on a slave ship. The next morning, they were sold separately at a slave auction until Caspian and his Narnian crew shut down both the auction and the entire trade. After being freed, the Narnians spent several more days at the Lone Islands before sailing on.

Eustace, Edmund, Lucy and Caspian.

The ship weathered a hurricane before arriving at an uninhabited island for repairs. The day of their landing, Eustace disappeared, and Edmund and most of the crew participated in searching for him. The next morning, Edmund and the crew were confronted by a dragon, which they faced bravely until they realized that it was in fact Eustace, under an enchantment.

After several weeks stuck on the island due to Eustace's predicament, Edmund woke early one morning and found someone wandering the woods near their camp. He was overjoyed to discover that it was Eustace, again a human. Telling his story, Eustace appeared contrite for his earlier actions, and humbly listened to Edmund's advice. And in the next few days, Eustace began to change.

Afterwards, the Dawn Treader sailed on and was attacked by a sea serpent before landing on another unknown island, where they found armor, coins and a sword, which were Narnian. They then found a lifelike golden statue of a man in a deep pool of water. Here, Edmund was the first to deduce that the pond was magic, and the statue was in fact a real man turned into gold. Though aware of the pull of magic, Edmund briefly fell under the enchantment of the island, and began to quarrel greedily with Caspian and Lucy, until Aslan appeared briefly, and all were brought back into their right minds.

They next arrived on a cultivated island, where they found an empty house and an abandoned estate. They were later dismayed to discover that the island was inhabited by invisible people who desired to kidnap the Narnians, and force them to agree to their own terms. With no choice, the Narnian party agreed to the terms of their invisible captors, who asked Lucy to perform a magic spell on them to make them visible. Despite Edmund's apprehension, Lucy did so, and the Narnians left the island on good terms with its inhabitants.

They next happened upon a dark swath of cloud, which they agreed to sail into. Upon exploring they found a man, who told them that they were inside an island where all nightmares came true. In terror, Edmund and the crew rowed away with the man, who was the Lord Rhoop. With the help of an Albatross, they were able to sail away from the Dark Island.

Continuing east, they stopped at an island where they found a table, a feast, and three men sleeping there. Edmund was wary, but agreed to spend the night on the island with Caspian, Lucy, Eustace and Reepicheep. At dawn, they were approached by a beautiful young woman, who told them of the three men, the islands, and the magic on it. Edmund was polite, but was suspicious of her until introduced to Ramandu, a star and lord of the island, who told them they must sail on until they reached the end of the world, and leave one person there.

Edmund and Lucy before their return to England.

The ship accordingly sailed on, discovering a sea of lilies known as the Silver Sea, where it became obvious that they could sail no further. Edmund, Lucy, Reepicheep and Eustace then went on in a rowboat to the very end of the world, where Reepicheep separated from them, and continued on to Aslan's Country.

The three remaining beached their boat at the End of the World, where they were greeted by a beautiful Lamb, who turned out to be Aslan. He bade all three to go on to Earth, and told Edmund and Lucy that neither would ever return. After rendering open the sky, he created a door, and sent all three back to England.


In 1949, Edmund and the others of the Seven Friends of Narnia--Digory Kirke, Polly Plummer, Peter Pevensie, Lucy Pevensie, Eustace Scrubb, and Jill Pole (Susan no longer believed in Narnia, and thus was not present)--were gathered together at Polly Plummer's home, reminiscing over their memories of Narnia. There, they received a vision of Tirian, the last king of Narnia, in suffering.

The Friends of Narnia then agreed to concoct a plan to send Eustace and Jill back to Narnia by means of the magic rings, which had brought Digory Kirke and Polly Plummer to Narnia at its creation. Edmund and Peter, disguised as workmen, retrieved the rings, which were buried in the backyard of Digory's former home. They subsequently headed to a train station, where they were to wait for the others who were on a train. (The parents of Peter, Edmund, Susan and Lucy were also on that train, though Edmund or the others were not aware of it.)

There was a railway accident, due to the train taking a turn too fast. This was the cause of Edmund's death, including the deaths of the Pevensie family (except for Susan), Professor Kirke and Ms. Polly.

Edmund was later seen in Aslan's Country, and was witness to the end of Narnia's World.


He, along with the other Seven Friends of Narnia, were immediately resurrected in Aslan's Country, and reunited. They witnessed the end of the World of Narnia, reunited with Aslan, and lived eternally thereafter with former inhabitants of both Narnia and England.

Area Effective
Area objectives
Almuten Estates 30 Maintain security around Almuten Mansion (29) Almuten Waypoint Almuten Mansion 1 Vista
Ascalon Settlement 30 Support the troops stationed at Ascalon Settlement (29) Ascalon Settlement Waypoint 1 Vista Shrine to the Six
Bitterfrost Peaks 27 Winter Haven Waypoint Winter Haven
Blood Hill Camps 29 Help Bronson disrupt centaur troops (28) Blood Hill Waypoint Amaranth Grotto
Brigantine Isles 33 Get back at the pirates for Joukje (31) Brigantine Waypoint Jackdaw's Reef Slade's Bay Klakka the Brain (32) 1 Vista
Broadhollow Bluffs 30 Broadhollow Waypoint Quaggankeep Channel Second Aetherblade Site Not So Secret
Cornucopian Fields 31 Help Milton Book and local farmers with their pirate and pest problems (30) Cornucopian Fields Waypoint Applenook Hamlet Waypoint 1 Vista Applenook Hamlet Swashbuckler's Cove
Guardian's Pass 28 Stoneguard Gate Waypoint Stoneguard Gate
Hezran Outcrops 29 Prototype Ooze Concentrate Tincture (28)
Icegate Gorge 29 Icegate Waypoint Janusian Caves Softly Glowing Light
Lake Bounty 30 Stonefish Beach
Lake Gendarr 33 Oogooth Waypoint Mellaggan Shrine Willoo (32) Oogooth
Lionbridge Expanse 29 Lionbridge Waypoint Bad Omen Beach
Nebo Terrace 29 Nebo Terrace Waypoint 1 Vista
Newbeach Bluffs 33 Wiley's Cove
Northfields 30 Northfields Waypoint The Beastpool
Overlook Caverns 28 1 Vista
Provern Shore 33 Help Mei Shadowwalker reclaim the Wiley pirates' stolen treasure (32) Provern Shore Waypoint Roller Beetle Time Trial: Lakeside Loop
Provernic Crypt 33 Spinach
Shiverspur Front 28 Help Lionguard Rhyn drive the dredge away from Junction Haven (27) Assist the Lionguard and protect Junction Haven (28) Junction Haven Waypoint Molenheide Junction Haven
Snowblind Peaks 28 Help Johan with his training duties at Vollym's battle pit (26) Snowblind Waypoint Vollym's Battle Pit Havoc's Heir
Stonebore Vaults 28 Ambush Camp Melandru's Cenote Ancient Cave Spring
Talajian Piedmont 27 Talajian Waypoint Oakheart Seed (26)
The Bloodfields 30 Rescue fallen Seraph in the Bloodfields (27) Bloodfields Waypoint
The Lawen Ponds 27
Traveler's Dale 27 Help First Haven's residents deal with the undead (26) Traveler's Dale Waypoint First Haven Waypoint First Haven
Vigil Keep 30 Vigil Keep Waypoint Vigil HQ Fort Trinity Asura Gate
Vigilant Hills 30 Warmaster Yulia (25) 1 Vista
Witherflank River 30 1 Vista
Type Sold by Location Level
Axe Field Medic Leius Guardian's Pass 27
Dagger Field Medic Leius Guardian's Pass 27
Focus Security Captain Vejj Almuten Estates 29
Greatsword Battle Pit Caretaker Johan Snowblind Peaks 26
Hammer Battle Pit Caretaker Johan Snowblind Peaks 26
Harpoon gun Mei Shadowwalker Provern Shore 32
Longbow Bronson Blood Hill Camps 28
Mace Joukje Brigantine Isles 31
Rifle Clerk Ulva Traveler's Dale 26
Scepter Security Captain Vejj Almuten Estates 29
Shield Sheriff Kaargoth Bloodclaw Shiverspur Front 28
Short bow Kiryn Brant Ascalon Settlement 29
Spear Mei Shadowwalker Provern Shore 32
Staff Security Captain Vejj Almuten Estates 29
Sword Sheriff Kaargoth Bloodclaw Shiverspur Front 28
Torch Clerk Ulva Traveler's Dale 26
Trident Mei Shadowwalker Provern Shore 32
Warhorn Kiryn Brant Ascalon Settlement 29
Type Sold by Location Level
Aquatic helm Mei Shadowwalker Provern Shore 32
Helm Sheriff Kaargoth Bloodclaw Shiverspur Front 28
Shoulders Battle Pit Caretaker Johan Snowblind Peaks 26
Coat Joukje Brigantine Isles 31
Gloves Clerk Ulva Traveler's Dale 26
Leggings Bronson Blood Hill Camps 28
Boots Lionguard Rhyn Shiverspur Front 27


  1. ↑Max Charles. IMDb. IMDb.com, Inc. Retrieved on September 9, 2020.
  2. ↑Aaron Daniel Jacob. IMDb. IMDb.com, Inc. Retrieved on September 9, 2020.
  3. ↑ 3.03.1Online Swahili - English Dictionary. African Languages. Retrieved on September 1, 2020.
  4. ↑ 5.05.1 Simmons, Alex. A Tale of Two Brothers (1994). ISBN: 0717283488.
  5. ↑ Revealed in Disney'sThe Lion Guard: Return of the Roar (2015). Written by Ford Riley, and directed by Howy Parkins. Distributed by Buena Vista Home Entertainment, Inc.
  6. ↑ Revealed in "Battle for the Pride Lands" from Disney Junior's The Lion Guard. No. 1, Season 3. Written by Ford Riley and directed by Howy Parkins. Originally aired August 3, 2019.
  7. ↑ Revealed in "Return to the Pride Lands" from Disney Junior's The Lion Guard. No. 19, Season 3. Written by Kendall Michele Haney and Ford Riley, and directed by Tom De Rosier and Howy Parkins. Originally aired November 3, 2019.

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