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Sample DE-1048 - History

Sample DE-1048 - History


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Sample
(DE-1048: dp. 3,400 (f.); 1. 414'6"; b. 44', dr. 24'6"s. 27+ k.; cpl. 239; a. 2 5", ASROC, 8 tt.; cl.Garcia )

Sample (DE-1048) was laid down on 19 July 1963 by the Puget Sound Bridge and Dry Dock Co., Lockheed Aircraft Corp., Seattle, Wash., launched on 28 April 1964, sponsored by Mrs. David M. Abshire daughter of Rear Admiral Sample; and commissioned on 23 March 1968, Comdr. Ronald T. Kelly in command.

On completion of shakedown, Sample, initially assigned to Destroyer Squadron 29 (DesRon 29) at Long Beach, was ordered to Pearl Harbor and duty in DesDiv 252, DesRon 25. She arrived at her homeport for the first time on 18 October 1968, but was damaged by O'Bannon the following day. Repairs to her sonar dome forced her return to the Puget Sound area, and on 21 January 1969, she departed Bangor to return to Hawaii.

During the remainder of the winter and into the spring, Sample remained in Hawaiian waters. In midApril, she sailed west on her first deployment to the western Pacific and duty with the 7th Fleet. Toward the end of the month, she arrived at Yokosuka, thence continued on to Okinawa and the Philippines. In early May, she arrived in Subic Bay, whence she proceeded to Tonkin Gulf for patrol and escort duty with the carriers supporting operations in South Vietnam. In June, she departed Subic for Taiwan; and, during July, she operated with the Taiwan Strait Patrol. At the end of the month, she returned to Japan; but, in early August, she was back in the South China Sea. At

mid-month, she resumed Taiwan Strait patrol duties and, on the 22d, again steamed for Japan.

In mid-September, Sample departed Yokosuka and sailed south again; operated briefly on patrol off Taiwan; then continued on to the Philippines. At the end of the month, she conducted special operations in the northeastern South China Sea; and, after a call at Hong Kong, headed back to Taiwan and Japan. On 18 October, she departed the latter for Pearl Harbor and a return to duty with the 1st Fleet.

Sample remained in the eastern Pacific into the summer of 1970. On 14 July, she departed Hawaii for her second WestPac deployment. Eight days later, she joined the 7th Fleet; and, on the 28th, she arrived in Subic Bay. On l August, she got underway for duty as escort for Oriskany (CVA-34) on Yankee Station. She operated with TG 77.5 in Tonkin Gulf until 25 August, then steamed for Taiwan, arriving at Kaohsiung on the 27th. By 5 September, she was back at Subic, and on the 15th, she resumed duty with TG 77.5. On the 29th, she returned to Subic; underwent boiler repairs; and sailed for Okinawa on 3 October. Arriving on the 6th, she continued on to Japan, where, from 19 to 27 October, she participated in joint United States-Japan exercises in the Sea of Japan. A call at Hong Kong followed her departure from Japan; and, on 13 November, she arrived at Keelung, Taiwan. Two days later, she continued on to Sasebo, whence she conducted exercises in the Sea of Japan, then steamed for Yokosuka. On 6 December, she departed the latter port and headed for home.

Sample returned to Pearl Harbor on 12 December. A post-deployment period of leave and liberty took her into the new year, 1971. Sample spent the entire year in Hawaii, either in port at Pearl Harbor or cruising in the local operating area. During the latter part of January, she began a period of availability, including a drydock period, which lasted until June. From June to December, she operated in Hawaiian waters, first undergoing trials; then, refresher training; and, finally, participating in ASW exercises. The end of 1971 and the beginning of 1972 brought preparations for overseas movement. On 27 January 1972, Sample got underway for an extended deployment to the western Pacific. During the major portion of 1972, she alternated between SAR, PIRAZ, and naval gunfire support duties off the coast of Vietnam. She departed Vietnamese waters on 10 August and reentered Pearl Harbor on the 25th

She remained in port for the remainder of the year engaged in post-deployment stand down and in restricted availability, the only exception being her participation in COMTUEX 4-72 between 4 and 8 December. Sample remained in Hawaii until 14 May 1973 when she redeployed to the western Pacific. After another seven months plying the waters of the Far East, she reentered Pearl Harbor on 8 December. As of May 1974, Sample is still in port at Pearl Harbor.

Sample has received five campaign stars for service off Vietnam.


File:USS Sample (DE-1048) insignia, in 1967 (NH 68122-KN).png

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Sample DE-1048 - History

During the first two weeks of 1970, KING was drydocked in Drydock #3 of the San Francisco Bay Naval Shipyard (SFBNSY) for sonar repairs, screw and hull work. In addition, extensive off-ship schooling and on-board lectures for officers and men were conducted in preparation for refresher training and subsequent deployment.

On 13 January the ship was taken out of drydock and the ship's regular overhaul was continued at piers 4 & 10 of SFBNSY. During this period the crew lived in barracks 103 of the shipyard due to continuous shipyard work and closure of the crew's mess.

On 8 January, CAPTAIN EDWARD C. KLINE, JR., COMDESDIV 52, conducted an in­formal inspection of the ship to determine overhaul progress, 3-M procedures and refresher training preparations and was generally pleased with KING's progress.

Due to problems in the ship's forced draft blowers, engineering sea trials were delayed several times and KING received a two week extension in her shipyard overhaul. Engineering and electronic sea trials were held con­currently on both 2-3 March and 18-19 March. The ship completed her ROH period on 24 March. On that date, KING got underway for weapons loadout at Con­cord, remaining overnight before sailing to Port Hueneme for a missile sys­tems test. KING completed the voyage to her home port of San Diego on the 27 th of March.

From 28 March to 13 April, KING was inport in San Diego making final prepara­tions for the refresher training (REFTRA) which was conducted by Fleet Training Group, San Diego, Several periods of ASW team training were conducted at the ASW school. In addition, this period was utilized for a medical assist visit and quarterly medical inspection by the DESRON FIVE medical officer.

The first week of REFTRA started on 13 April with training readiness evaluations and correction of the discrepancies noted in the initial underway period. The second week of REFTRA consisted of self-observed training battle problems, exercises at general drills, three days of intensive inport training and two days of Anti-submarine warfare exercises with the USS ROBISON (DDG12) and the USS SEGUNDO (SS398).

In addition to the tasks mentioned already the first three days of REFTRA were also devoted to inport shore bombardment drills, anti-ship missile defense training and a course designed to help prepare KING for her nuclear weapons acceptance inspection. The course was conducted by a team from the Nuclear Weapons Training Center at North Island.

The last part of the week was utilized for a training battle problem, shore bombardment at San Clemente Island, anti-air gunnery exercise and engineering casualty control drills.

The fourth week of REFTRA consisted of an underway engineering damage control battle problems, air control exercises, ECM training and precision anchoring drills.

The fifth week of REFTRA, while underway in the SOCAL OP areas included exercises in aircraft control, helicopter launch and recovery, vertical replenishment, precision anchoring, ECM detection and analysis, underway replenishment and refueling, and surface gunnery. In addition, the ship conducted her mid-term battle problem and was advised of progress made during the initial half of REFTRA.

The sixth week of REFTRA began on 18 May and included exercises in NTDS tracking, ECM analysis, detection, and direction finding helicopter in­ flight refueling underway replenishment and anti-air gunnery.

On Saturday, 23 May, Commander Dempster M. JACKSON, USN relieved Commander John D. SCULL, USN as Commanding Officer of KING in ceremonies at Pier. 4 of the Naval Station, San Diego.

The seventh week of REFTRA consisted of exercises in surface and air tracking, vertical replenishment , anti-ship cruise missile defense, and the final battle problem.

The eighth and final week of REFTRA included ship&rsquos qualification trials/ refresher training missile firing at the Pacific Missile Range. Upon her return to San Diego, KING had completed her REFTRA requirements and the crew began preparations for PMS inspection, RPS inspection, and Nuclear Weapons Acceptance Inspection which were held on 8-9 June, 11 June and 16 June respectively. These inspections were completed before the ship again got underway for a missile firing exercise conducted on the Pacific Missile Range on 16-18 June. KING completed a weapons loadout at Seal Beach on 19 June and returned to. San Diego for a command inspection given by USS ROBISON (DDG12) on 22-23 June. The next two weeks were spent in preparation for the ship&rsquos seventh WESTPAC Deployment.

In accordance with COMFIRSTFLT quarterly employment schedule, KING left San Diego on 6 July for Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, in company with USS AGERHOLM (DD826), USS CHEVALIER (DD805), USS ROBISON (DDG12), and USS ROGERS (DD876). Commander Destroyer Division 52, Captain Edward C. KLINE, Jr., was SOPA and OTC for the transit which was utilized for general drills, familiarization with WESTPAC directives, and quarterly PMS inspections.

KING arrived in Pearl Harbor on 12 July and commenced two days of briefings on WESTPAC Operations, and one day of ASW training. The crew utilized the off duty time for sight seeing in the 50 th State.

KING got underway for Midway with the USS EPPERSON (DD719) on 15 July and conducted a missile firing during transit. Arriving in Midway on 18 July KING refueled and steamed independently to Subic Bay with a fuel stop at Guam. On 29 July, KING arrived in Subic Bay after transit through the San Bernadino Straits and commenced her WESTPAC loadout of weapons and communication gear. In addition, KING embarked a security team detachment and helicopter personnel in anticipation of operations in the Gulf of Tonkin.

KING departed Subic Bay on 5 August for Danang, RVN after an ammunition loadout at Nabasson Pier, Naval Magazine, Subic. The transit to Danang was utilized for gunnery exercises and participation in penetration exercise which tested the response of coastal defense, forces.

On 8 August, KING anchored in Danang Harbor for operations briefings and then got underway for night anti-PT boat training. KING then steamed north in the Gulf of Tonkin to relieve the USS COONTZ (DLG9) as NSAR ship.

The period 9-19 August was spent in the Gulf of Tonkin as CTU 77.0.1 in company with USS GURKE (DD783) and refueled from USS SACRAMENTO (AOE1) on 14 August and USS CALIENTE (A053) on 1.8 August.

During the initial assignment to NSAR, KING was hampered by TACAN casualty but was able to meet her commitments as the primary air control PLATFORM in the Northern Gulf of Tonkin. KING was also a key NTDS ship and assumed net control of the Link 11 Broadcast during part of her tour.

KING was relieved by the USS BAINBRIDGE (DLGN25) on 19 August and departed for Yokosuka, Japan via a fuel stop in Kaohsiung, Taiwan on the 21st of August.

KING arrived in Yokosuka on 24 August and personnel attended briefings on scheduled operations in the Sea of Japan. In addition, tours to the World&rsquos Fair in Osaka and athletic activities were organized to allow the crew to relax.

After remaining in Yokosuka two days longer than originally scheduled to avoid a typhoon, KING got underway on 30 August for Sasebo, Japan in company with USS CARPENTER (DD825). Arriving on 1 September, KING relieved USS MAHAN (DLG-11) as PARPRO Picket (CTU 71.0.4). During inport periods in Sasebo KING was on 12 hour notice to get underway at all times. This increased the main­tainance problems for the ship but with the help of the USS HECTOR (AR-7) much worthwhile maintenance was accomplished despite the stringent readiness re­quirements.

On 5-6 September, the crew held its only scheduled WESTPAC party at the Hotel BANSHORO in Sasebo. Entertainment was provided by a band, hostesses, two exotic dancers, and drinks at 15 cents apiece.

On 8 September, Vice Admiral MIZUTANI, Commandant of the Sasebo Sector of the Japanese Maritime Self Defense Force, paid an informal visit to KING and toured various parts of the ship.

On 11 September, KING got underway for her first operations in the Sea of Japan and conducted anti-air gunnery exercises and damage control drills. Accompanied by USS CARPENTER (DD825) KING remained in the Sea of Japan until 18 September when she returned to Sasebo. During this period, KING functioned as a picket supporting the peacetime aerial reconnaissance program and provided liaison between the 5 th Air Force and Commander Task Force 71. In addition, KING and CARPENTER personnel conducted quarterly competitive damage control drills and refueled from the USS PONCHATOULA (AO148) on 17 September.

KING remained in Sasebo until 22 September when she got underway as an advance AAW Picket for the USS AMERICA (CVA-66) which conducted operations in the Sea of Japan. Performing in accordance with her usual standards, KING detected all Soviet Aircraft in her area and on several occasions vectored carrier fighter aircraft to escort Russian Aircraft in the vicinity of the carrier. KING refueled from the USS PONCHATOULA (AO-148) on 25 September and, returned to Sasebo to be relieved by the USS WAINWRIGHT (DLG-28) as CTU 71.0.4.

Obtaining a respite from the twelve hour standby required in Sasebo, KING got underway for Kaohsiung, Taiwan for a one day liberty stop on 1 October, and a 5 day inport period in Hong Kong, B.C.C. Here the crew was able relax and take advantage of the bargains for which those parts are noted.

Typhoon IRIS was expected to hit Hong Kong during KING's visit, but did not. However the typhoon warnings and the preparations made for the typhoon caused the loss of two days of liberty for the crew.

KING transited to Subic Bay from 7-9 October and again acquired helicopter detachment and security group personnel for her second tour as NSAR in the Gulf of Tonkin where she relieved the USS BENJAMIN STODDERT (DDG-22) on the 11th of October. With all of her AAW and NTDS equipment operational, KING was again quickly established as a key AAW ship in the Tonkin Gulf operations. KING refueled from USS NAVASOTA (AO-106) on 12 October and planted a buoy at the center of the NSAR operating area to provide navigational assistance in an area where radar navigation is somewhat unreliable. Typhoon JOAN forced evacuation of the Tonkin Gulf on 15 October as KING experienced heavy seas for 4 days while evading the storm and returning to the Gulf. Heavy weather unreps were conducted with the USS WICHITA (AOR-1) on 15 and 18 October and with the USS KAWISHIWI (AO-146) on 20 and 23 October. The USS WHITE PLAINS (AFS-4) also provided vertical replenishment on 23 October.

Typhoon KATE made her presence felt on 23 October and KING with the remainder of the Yankee Team ships again moved out of the Gulf. After three days of typhoon evasion, KING returned to North SAR station on 26 October and was relieved by USS BENJAMIN STODDERT (DDG-22) on 27 October. Upon being relieved and after refueling from USS WICHITA (AOR-I), KING again departed for Sasebo, Japan via Subic Bay, where HC-7 Detachment 107 was off-loaded and Security Group personnel returned to NAVCOMMSTA Philippines.

KING departed Subic Bay on 30 October and arrived in Sasebo 2 November to relieve USS WAINWRIGHT (DLG-28) as CTU 71.0.4. USS WILTSIE (DD-716) acted as KING's shotgun during the initial November PARPRO Operations which were conducted during the period 7-11 November. On 10 November, KING conducted a FLAREX which tested the response available for air protection of the PARPRO picket ships. While inport Sasebo on 17 November, KING celebrated her 10 th anniversary in conjunction with the Commanding Officer&rsquos Birthday. In addition, the USS OKLAHOMA CITY (CLG-5) conducted a quarterly PMS inspection on the same day.

During the final November at sea period, KING was flagship for COMDESDIV 15 Captain W. A. TEASLEY, who observed PARPRO picket operation. USS SAMPLE (DE-1048) acted as escort during the period. The task unit refueled from USS CHIPOLA (AO-63) on 14 November. The final day in the Sea of Japan proved to be the most interesting when a Russian destroyer followed KING to the Tushima Straits. KING returned to Sasebo on 27 November and got underway for Yokosuka on 30 November after being relieved as CTU 71.0.4 by USS HALSEY (DLG-23). During transit, KING passed through the Shimnoseki Straits and Bungo Suido and arrived in Yokosuka on 2 December for a four day stay.

On 6 December, KING got underway for San Diego in company with the USS SAMPLE (DE-1048). During the transit KING acted as an advanced helicopter refueling base for the evacuation of a critically ill seaman aboard the SS ATLANTIC SUNBEAM. KING was instrumental in providing medical services and supplies and, enabled the man to be delivered to a Japanese hospital some 15 hours earlier than originally anticipated.

Transit time to Midway was used for general drills and lectures on EASTPAC Operations. On Tuesday, 10 December, KING gained an extra day due to crossing the International Date. Line and utilized the day for a brief stop for fuel in Midway.

Getting underway after a 6 hour stop, KING steamed independently to Pearl Harbor, Hawaii for another fuel stop on 12 December and commenced the last leg of her homeward journey. KING arrived in San Diego on 17 December and was welcomed back to the States by families and friends.

The last two weeks of 1970 were spent moored to Pier 8 of the Naval Station in San Diego with the crew enjoying the holidays with their families after a 6 month separation.

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Contents

The name, Penang, comes from the modern Malay name Pulau Pinang, which means The Island of the Areca Nut Palm (Areca catechu). [18] The State of Penang is also referred to as the Pearl of the Orient and Pulau Pinang Pulau Mutiara (Penang Island, The Island of Pearls). [19] [20]

Penang Island was originally known by native seafarers as Pulau Ka-Satu, meaning The First Island, because it was the largest island encountered on the trading sea-route between Lingga and Kedah. [21] Similarly, the Siamese, then the overlord of Kedah, referred to the island as Koh Maak (Thai: เกาะหมาก ). [22] [23]

In the 15th century, Penang Island was referred to as Bīnláng Yù [ citation needed ] (traditional Chinese: 檳榔嶼 simplified Chinese: 槟榔屿 pinyin: bīn láng yǔ Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Pin-nn̂g-sū ) in the navigational drawings used by Admiral Zheng He of Ming China. [24] Emanuel Godinho de Eredia, a 16th-century Portuguese historian, also referred to the island as Pulo Pinaom in the Description of Malacca. [25]

Historical affiliations Period
Kedah Sultanate 1136–1786
Siam 1786–1867
Straits Settlements 1826–1941 1945–1946
Empire of Japan 1941–1945
Malayan Union 1946–1948
Federation of Malaya 1948–1963
Malaysia 1963–Present

Prehistory Edit

Human remains, dating back to about 5,000 to 6,000 years ago, have been uncovered in Seberang Perai, along with seashells, pottery and hunting tools. [26] [27] These artifacts indicate that the earliest inhabitants of Penang were nomadic Melanesians during the Neolithic era. [26] [27] [28]

Early history Edit

The Cherok Tok Kun megalith in Bukit Mertajam, uncovered in 1845, contains Pali inscriptions, indicating that the Hindu-Buddhist Bujang Valley civilisation based in what is now Kedah had established control over parts of Seberang Perai by the 6th century. [29] The entirety of what is now Penang would later become part of the Sultanate of Kedah up to the late 18th century.

Founding of Penang Edit

However, the modern history of Penang only began in the late 18th century. In the 1770s, Francis Light was instructed by the British East India Company to form trade relations in the Malay Peninsula. [30] [31] Light subsequently landed in Kedah, which was by then a Siamese vassal state. Aware that the Sultanate was under external and internal threats, he promised British military protection to the then Sultan of Kedah, Sultan Muhammad Jiwa Zainal Adilin II in return, the Sultan offered Penang Island to the British. [30] [32]

It was only in 1786 when the British East India Company finally ordered Light to obtain the island from Kedah. [30] [37] Light negotiated with the new Sultan of Kedah, Sultan Abdullah Mukarram Shah, regarding the cession of the island to the British East India Company in exchange for British military aid. [30] [37] [38] After an agreement between Light and the Sultan was ratified, Light and his entourage sailed on to Penang Island, where they arrived on 17 July 1786. [39] [40] Light took formal possession of the island on 11 August "in the name of His Britannic Majesty, King George III and the Honourable East India Company". [30] [31] Penang Island was renamed the Prince of Wales Island after the heir to the British throne, while the new settlement of George Town was established in honour of King George III. [41] [42]

Unbeknownst to Sultan Abdullah, Light had been acting without the authority or the consent of his superiors in India. [31] [30] When Light reneged on his promise of military protection, the Kedah Sultan launched an attempt to recapture the Prince of Wales Island in 1791 the British East India Company subsequently defeated the Kedah forces. [30] [43] The Sultan sued for peace and an annual payment of 6000 Spanish dollars to the Sultan was agreed. [44]

In 1800, Lieutenant-Governor Sir George Leith secured a strip of hinterland across the Penang Strait which in subsequent years was named Province Wellesley (now Seberang Perai). [45] [30] [46] The treaty, negotiated between Leith's First Assistant George Caunter and the new Sultan of Kedah, superseded Light's earlier agreement and gave the British permanent sovereignty over both Prince of Wales Island and the newly ceded mainland territory. [47] Province Wellesley was then gradually expanded up to its present-day boundaries in 1874. [36] [33] [35] In exchange for the acquisition, the annual payment to the Sultan of Kedah was increased to 10,000 Spanish dollars per annum. To this day, the Malaysian federal government still pays Kedah, on behalf of Penang, RM 10,000 annually as a symbolic gesture. [48]

Colonial Penang Edit

Light founded George Town as a free port to entice traders away from nearby Dutch trading posts. [49] Simultaneously, spices were harvested on the island, turning it into a regional centre for spice production. [50] [51] Consequently, maritime trade at the Port of Penang grew exponentially the number of incoming vessels rose from 85 in 1786 to 3,569 in 1802. [52] [53]

In 1805, Penang became a separate presidency of British India, sharing similar status with Bombay and Madras. [37] By 1808, a local government for George Town was in place, whilst the establishment of the Supreme Court of Penang marked the birth of Malaysia's modern judiciary. [54] In 1826, Penang, Singapore and Malacca were incorporated into the Straits Settlements, with George Town as the capital.

However, Penang's importance was soon supplanted by Singapore, as the latter rapidly outstripped the Port of Penang as the region's premier entrepôt. In 1832, Singapore replaced George Town as the capital of the Straits Settlements. [55]

Even so, the Port of Penang retained its importance as a vital British entrepôt. [56] [57] Towards the end of the 19th century, it became a major tin-exporting harbour. [58] [59] George Town concurrently evolved into Malaya's principal financial hub, as banks and mercantile firms flocked into the city. [40] [59] Meanwhile, other towns, including Bayan Lepas on the island, and Butterworth and Bukit Mertajam in Province Wellesley, emerged due to agricultural and logistical developments. [60] [61] [62]

Throughout the century, Penang's cosmopolitan population, comprising Chinese, Malay, Indian, Peranakan, Eurasian, Thai and other ethnicities, grew rapidly in tandem with the economic prosperity. However, the population growth also led to social problems, such as inadequate sanitation and public health facilities, as well as rampant crime, with the latter culminating in the Penang Riots of 1867. [63] [64] Also in 1867, the Straits Settlements was made a British crown colony. [65] [66] Direct British rule meant better law enforcement, as the police force was beefed up and the secret societies that had previously plagued Penang were gradually outlawed. [56] [67] More investments were also made on health care and public transportation. [37] [64] [68]

Due to the improved access to education, the active participation in municipal affairs by its Asian residents and substantial press freedom, George Town was perceived as being more intellectually receptive than Singapore. [37] [56] [69] The city became a magnet for reputable English authors, Asian intellectuals and revolutionaries, including Rudyard Kipling, Somerset Maugham and Sun Yat-sen. [70] [71] [72]

World wars Edit

During World War I, in the Battle of Penang, the German cruiser SMS Emden surreptitiously sailed to Penang Island and sank two Allied warships off its coast, Russian protected cruiser Zhemchug and the French destroyer Mousquet . [73] [74] 147 French and Russian sailors perished during the battle. [74] World War II, on the other hand, led to unparallelled social and political upheaval. Although Penang Island had been designated as a fortress, Penang fell to the Imperial Japanese Army on 19 December 1941, after suffering devastating aerial attacks. The British covertly evacuated Penang's European populace historians have since contended that the moral collapse of British rule in Southeast Asia came not at Singapore, but at Penang. [75] [76]

Penang Island was subsequently renamed Tojo-to, after Japanese Prime Minister Hideki Tojo. [76] The period of Japanese occupation was renowned for the Imperial Japanese Army's massacres of Penang's Chinese populace, known as Sook Ching to the locals. [77] Women in George Town were also coerced to work as comfort women by the Japanese. [78] Meanwhile, the Port of Penang was put to use as a major submarine base by the Axis Powers. [79] [80] [81]

In the last years of the war, Allied bombers from India repeatedly bombed George Town, seeking to destroy the naval facilities and administrative centres. [82] Several colonial buildings were destroyed or damaged, such as the Government Offices, St. Xavier's Institution and Hutchings School (now Penang State Museum). [59] The Penang Strait was also mined to constrict Japanese shipping. [83] Following the surrender of Japan, British forces launched Operation Jurist to recapture Penang Island on 3 September 1945, making George Town the first city in Malaya to be liberated from the Japanese. [82]

Post-war years Edit

Penang was placed under a military administration until 1946. Subsequently, the Straits Settlements was abolished, as the British sought to consolidate the various political entities in British Malaya under a single polity named the Malayan Union. The now separate Crown Colony of Penang was consequently merged into the Malayan Union, which was then replaced by the Federation of Malaya in 1948.

The idea of the absorption of Penang into the vast Malay heartland initially proved unpopular amongst Penangites. [84] Economic and ethnic concerns led to the formation of the Penang Secessionist Committee in 1948. However, the committee's attempt to avert Penang's merger with Malaya ultimately petered out due to British disapproval. [11] [85] [86]

The British government allayed the concerns raised by the secessionists by guaranteeing George Town's free port status, as well as reintroducing municipal elections in George Town in 1951. [85] By 1956, George Town became the first fully elected municipality in Malaya and in the following year, it was granted city status by Queen Elizabeth II, becoming the first city within the Federation of Malaya, and by extension, Malaysia.

Post-independence era Edit

George Town was, since colonial times, a free port—until its sudden revocation by the Malaysian federal government in 1969. [11] [69] [87] Penang subsequently suffered an economic crisis, with the loss of maritime trade resulting in massive unemployment and brain drain. [69] [88] [89] To alleviate the downturn, the then Chief Minister, Lim Chong Eu, masterminded the construction of the Bayan Lepas Free Industrial Zone. [89] The zone, regarded by many as the Silicon Valley of the East, proved instrumental in reversing Penang's economic slump and led to the state's rapid economic growth until the late 1990s. [89] [90] During Lim's tenure, a number of major infrastructural projects were also undertaken, chiefly the Penang Bridge, the first road link between Penang Island and the Malay Peninsula. Completed in 1985, it was the longest bridge in Southeast Asia until 2014 when it was superseded by the Second Penang Bridge.

However, the persistent brain drain, exacerbated by federal government policies that favoured the development of Kuala Lumpur, meant that Penang was no longer at the forefront of the country's economy by the 2000s. [69] [90] Penang's economy slowed down in the early 2000s, while the deteriorating state of affairs in general, including an incoherent urban planning policy, poor traffic management and the dilapidation of George Town's heritage buildings due to the repeal of the Rent Control Act in 2001, led to simmering discontent within Penang's society. [38] [90] [91]

In response, George Town's non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and the national press galvanised public support and formed strategic partnerships to restore the city to its former glory. [69] [92] [93] Also as a result of the widespread resentment, the then federal opposition coalition, Pakatan Rakyat (now Pakatan Harapan), was voted into power within Penang in the 2008 State Election, replacing the erstwhile administration led by the Barisan Nasional. [38] [90] [94] Meanwhile, the efforts to conserve George Town's heritage architecture paid off, when in 2008, the city's historical core was inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. [95]

The Indian Ocean tsunami which struck on Boxing Day of 2004 hit the western and northern coasts of Penang Island, claiming 52 lives (out of 68 in Malaysia). [96]

With a total land area of just 1,048 km 2 (405 sq mi), Penang is the second smallest state in Malaysia by land mass after Perlis. Penang, situated at the northwestern coastline of Peninsular Malaysia, lies between latitudes 5.59° and 5.12°N, and longitudes 100.17° and 100.56°E. The state consists of Penang Island, Seberang Perai (a narrow strip of the Malay Peninsula) and a handful of smaller islets. Its capital city, George Town, is located at the northeastern tip of Penang Island.

Topography Edit

Penang is geographically divided into two major halves physically divided by the Penang Strait.

    , a 293 km 2 (113 sq mi) island. , a 751 km 2 (290 sq mi) hinterland on the Malay Peninsula. It is bordered by Kedah to the east and north, and by Perak to the south.

The Penang Strait is further divided into the North Channel and the South Channel. At the strait's narrowest section, George Town on the island is separated from Butterworth on the mainland by a mere 3 km (1.9 mi).

Penang Island is irregularly shaped, with a hilly and mostly forested interior its coastal plains are narrow, the most extensive of which is at the northeastern cape. [97] With a height of 833 m (2,733 ft), Penang Hill, at the centre of the island, is the tallest point within Penang. From a small settlement at the northeastern tip of Penang Island, George Town has expanded over the centuries, particularly in the northwestern, western and southern directions, eventually linking up with Bayan Lepas at the island's southeast and urbanising the entire eastern coast of the island. [98] Meanwhile, the topography of Seberang Perai is mostly flat, save for a few hills such as Bukit Mertajam. [99]

The major rivers within Penang include the Pinang, Perai, Muda and Kerian rivers. In particular, the Muda River serves as the northern border between Seberang Perai and Kedah, while the Kerian River forms the southern boundary between Seberang Perai, Kedah and Perak.

Due to land scarcity, land reclamation projects have been undertaken in high-demand areas such as Tanjung Tokong, Jelutong and Gurney Drive. [100] [101] [102] The latter is being transformed into Gurney Wharf which is a planned seafront park, with land for this purpose currently being reclaimed off Gurney Drive in George TownPenang. Intended as a "new iconic waterfront destination for Penang", Phase 1 of the development is scheduled for completion by 2018. [103] [104] Upon the expected completion of Gurney Wharf by August 2021, [105] the 24.28-hectare seafront park will comprise four distinct recreational areas - a beach, a coastal grove, a water garden, and a seaside retail food and beverages (F&B) area. [106] An additional reclamation project at Bayan Baru themed “Linear Waterfront" would extend the electronics-dominated Free Industrial Zone and would include improving and adding fishermen’s wharves set up as well also have hotels, restaurants, medical and other developments. [107]

Nature and parks Edit

In spite of rapid urbanisation, Penang has still managed to safeguard a considerable area of natural environment. Within the state, 7,761 ha (77.61 km 2 ) have been designated as protected forest reserves. [109]

The central hills of Penang Island, including Penang Hill, serve as the green lung for the urbanised island. [110] Two of the major parks within George Town - the Penang Botanical Gardens and the City Park - are situated near the hills.

Penang is also home to the smallest national park in the world - the Penang National Park. Covering 2,562 ha (25.62 km 2 ) of the northwestern tip of Penang Island, it encompasses mangrove swamps, rainforest interspersed with hiking trails and tranquil beaches. [111] Other notable natural attractions nearby include the Tropical Spice Garden and the Entopia Butterfly Farm, the latter of which was Malaysia's first butterfly sanctuary. [112] [113]

In Seberang Perai, the Penang Bird Park, established in 1988 in Seberang Jaya, was the first aviary in Malaysia. [114]

Outlying islets Edit

Penang also consists of nine other islets off its coasts. The biggest of all, Jerejak Island, is located in the South Channel of the Penang Strait. Once the site of a leper asylum built in 1868, which was later converted into a maximum-security penitentiary, Jerejak Island remains heavily forested. [115] The other islets under the jurisdiction of Penang include Aman, Betong, Gedung, Kendi and Rimau.

Climate Edit

Climate data for Penang
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 31.6
(88.9)
32.2
(90.0)
32.2
(90.0)
31.9
(89.4)
31.6
(88.9)
31.4
(88.5)
31.0
(87.8)
30.9
(87.6)
30.4
(86.7)
30.4
(86.7)
30.7
(87.3)
31.1
(88.0)
31.3
(88.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) 26.9
(80.4)
27.4
(81.3)
27.6
(81.7)
27.7
(81.9)
27.6
(81.7)
27.3
(81.1)
26.9
(80.4)
26.8
(80.2)
26.5
(79.7)
26.4
(79.5)
26.5
(79.7)
26.7
(80.1)
27.0
(80.6)
Average low °C (°F) 23.2
(73.8)
23.5
(74.3)
23.7
(74.7)
24.1
(75.4)
24.2
(75.6)
23.8
(74.8)
23.4
(74.1)
23.4
(74.1)
23.2
(73.8)
23.3
(73.9)
23.3
(73.9)
23.4
(74.1)
23.5
(74.4)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 68.7
(2.70)
71.7
(2.82)
146.4
(5.76)
220.5
(8.68)
203.4
(8.01)
178.0
(7.01)
192.1
(7.56)
242.4
(9.54)
356.1
(14.02)
383.0
(15.08)
231.8
(9.13)
113.5
(4.47)
2,407.6
(94.79)
Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm) 5 6 9 14 14 11 12 14 18 19 15 9 146
Mean monthly sunshine hours 248.8 233.2 235.3 224.5 203.6 202.4 205.5 188.8 161.0 170.2 182.1 209.0 2,464.4
Source: NOAA [116]

As in the rest of Malaysia, Penang has a tropical rainforest climate bordering on a tropical monsoon climate, although the state does experience slightly drier conditions from December to February of the following year. The climate is very much dictated by the surrounding sea and the prevailing wind system.

Penang's proximity with the island of Sumatra makes it susceptible to dust particles carried by wind from perennial but transient forest fires, creating a phenomenon known as the Southeast Asian haze. [117]

The Penang Meteorological Office in Bayan Lepas is the primary weather forecast facility for northern Malaysia. [118]

Temperature (day) 30–32 °C
Temperature (night) 23–25 °C
Ave annual rainfall 2670 mm
Relative humidity 0%–50%

Urban and suburban areas Edit

George Town Conurbation Edit

Penang forms the heart of the Greater Penang Conurbation, Malaysia's second biggest conurbation. Centred in George Town, the metropolitan area encompasses the entire State of Penang, southern Kedah and northern Perak. As of 2010 [update] , Greater Penang had nearly 2.5 million residents, second only to Greater Kuala Lumpur (Klang Valley). [119] Greater Penang also generated a GDP of US$13,596,418 in 2010, making the conurbation the second biggest contributor of Malaysia's GDP after Greater Kuala Lumpur. [120]

Penang, being a former British crown colony, is one of only four Malaysian states without hereditary monarchies. The head of state of Penang is the Governor (Malay: Yang di-Pertua Negeri), who is appointed by the King of Malaysia (Malay: Yang di-Pertuan Agong). The present Governor of Penang, Ahmad Fuzi Abdul Razak, assumed office in 1st May 2021. In practice, the Governor is a figurehead whose functions are chiefly symbolic and ceremonial. [121]

The Penang state government has its own executive council and legislature, but they have relatively limited powers in comparison with those of the Malaysian federal government. According to the Malaysian Federal Constitution, the state may legislate on matters pertaining to Malay customs, land, agriculture and forestry, local government, civil and water works, and state administration, whereas matters that fall under the joint purview of both state and federal authorities include social welfare, wildlife protection and national parks, scholarships, husbandry, town planning, drainage and irrigation, and public health and health regulations. [122]

The Constitution of Penang, codified in 1957, embodies the state's highest laws. [123] Consisting of 42 articles, the constitution pertains to the proceedings and powers of the state government.

Executive Edit

The Penang State Executive Council is the executive authority of the Penang state government, similar in function to the national Cabinet. It is led by the Chief Minister, who serves as the head of government in Penang. To this day, Penang remains the only Malaysian state where the position of the head of government has been continuously held by an ethnic Chinese since the nation's independence in 1957. [87]

The current Chief Minister of Penang is Chow Kon Yeow of the Democratic Action Party (DAP), who assumed office after the 2018 State Election. [124] Following the 2008 State Election, the Pakatan Rakyat coalition (now Pakatan Harapan), which at the time consisted of the DAP, the People's Justice Party (PKR) and the Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS), formed the Penang state government, with the head of government going to the former for being the single largest party in the state legislature.

Legislature Edit

The unicameral 40-seat Penang State Legislative Assembly, whose members are called State Assemblymen, convenes at the neoclassical Penang State Assembly Building in George Town. Penang practises the Westminster system whereby members of the Penang State Executive Council are appointed from amongst the elected State Assemblymen. Moreover, the dissolution of the Penang State Legislative Assembly, typically conducted prior to a State Election, requires the consent of the Governor of Penang.

Following the 2018 State Election, the Pakatan Harapan (PH) coalition commands a supermajority in the legislature by controlling 37 seats. Out of the 37 PH seats, 19 are retained by the Democratic Action Party (DAP), 14 by the People's Justice Party (PKR), two by the Malaysian United Indigenous Party (Bersatu) and two by the National Trust Party (Amanah). The state opposition is formed by the Barisan Nasional (BN) coalition, which holds two seats, and the Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS), which occupies one seat.

Amendments to Penang's Constitution require the support of two-thirds of the Penang State Legislative Assembly. [123]

Affiliation Coalition/Party Leader Status Seats
2018 election Current
Pakatan Harapan Chow Kon Yeow Government 37 33
Perikatan Nasional Muhamad Yusoff Mohd. Noor Opposition 2 7
Total 40 40
Government majority 37 33

Local governments Edit

There are currently two local governments in Penang.

  • The Penang Island City Council administers the city of George Town, which includes the entirety of Penang Island. It is made up of a mayor, a city secretary and 24 councillors.
  • The Seberang Perai City Council is in charge of Seberang Perai. It also consists of a mayor, a city secretary and 24 councillors.

Both the mayor of Penang Island and Seberang Perai are appointed by the Penang state government for a two-year term, while the councillors are appointed for one-year terms of office. [125] The local councils are responsible, among others, for regulating traffic and parking, maintaining cleanliness and drainage, managing waste disposal, issuing business licenses, and overseeing public health. [ citation needed ]

Penang is also divided into five administrative districts - two on Penang Island and three in Seberang Perai. Each district is headed by a district officer. The lands and district office in each district deals with land administration and revenue thus it differs from the local governments (city council) which oversee the provision and maintenance of urban infrastructure. [126]

Judiciary Edit

The Malaysian legal system had its roots in 19th-century George Town. In 1807, a Royal Charter was granted to Penang which provided for the establishment of a Supreme Court. The Supreme Court of Penang, then sited at Fort Cornwallis, was opened in 1808. [127] Sir Edmond Stanley assumed office as the First Recorder of the Supreme Court in 1808, thus serving as the first Superior Court Judge in British Malaya. [127] The legal establishment in Penang was progressively extended to the whole of Malaya by 1951. [127]

Today, the Penang High Court in George Town sits at the pinnacle of the hierarchy of courts within Penang. There are also four Magistrates Courts and two Sessions Courts scattered throughout the state. [128]

Foreign relations Edit

A total of 24 countries have either established their consulates or appointed honorary consuls within Penang. [129] The State of Penang has also ratified a sister state agreement with Japan's Kanagawa Prefecture and a friendship state agreement with China's Hainan Province. [130] [131] In addition, George Town is twinned with eight sister cities and five friendship cities, while Seberang Perai has four sister cities. [132] [133]

Consulates Edit

  • Australia[134]
  • Austria[135]
  • Bangladesh[136]
  • Brazil[137]
  • China[138]
  • Denmark[139]
  • France[140]
  • Finland[141]
  • Germany[142]
  • Hungary[143]
  • Indonesia[144]
  • Japan[145]
  • Nepal[146]
  • Norway[147]
  • Pakistan[148]
  • Poland[149]
  • Russia[150]
  • Sweden[151]
  • South Africa[152]
  • Thailand[153]
  • United Kingdom[154]
  • Ukraine[155]

Sister cities Edit

Source of interstate immigrants to Penang in 2016 [156]

Penang, with an estimated population of 1,766,800 as of 2018 [update] , has the highest population density of all Malaysian states (excluding Kuala Lumpur), at 1,684/km 2 (4,360/sq mi). [2] In addition, Penang is one of the most urbanised Malaysian states, with an urbanisation level of 90.8% as of 2015 [update] . [157]

Due to its vibrant economy, Penang is also one of the major recipients of interstate migrants within Malaysia. [158] Between 2015 and 2016, Penang achieved the highest migration effectiveness ratio among Malaysian states for every 100 Malaysians that migrated into and out of Penang, the state's population increased by 58 persons. [156] [159] The bulk of the interstate immigrants came from Perak, Selangor, Kedah, Johor and Kuala Lumpur. [156]

Penang's population is almost equally distributed between the island and the mainland.

    had a population of 722,384 as of 2010 [update] and a population density of 2,465.47/km 2 (6,385.5/sq mi). [160] had a population of 838,999 as of 2010 [update] and a population density of 1,117.18/km 2 (2,893.5/sq mi). [160]

The Greater Penang Conurbation, which also covers parts of neighbouring Kedah and Perak, is the second largest metropolitan area in the nation, with almost 2.5 million inhabitants as of 2010 [update] . [ citation needed ]

Ethnicities Edit

In particular, George Town remains a Chinese-majority city, with the Chinese making up over half of the city's population as of 2010 [update] . [160] George Town's Chinese populace includes the Peranakan, a hybrid ethnicity whose rich legacies can still be seen to this day in the form of distinctive architectures, costumes and cuisine. [162] [163] [164] Moreover, the city is also renowned for its more cosmopolitan population, which also comprises indigenous East Malaysians, the Eurasians and the Siamese. [7] [161] [165] Meanwhile, the Malays have formed the plurality in Seberang Perai. [160]

In addition, Penang is home to a sizeable expatriate population, especially from Singapore, Japan and various Asian countries, as well as other Commonwealth nations. Almost 9% of Penang's population consisted of foreigners, reflecting the well-established allure of Penang amongst expatriates. [2] Most expatriates settle within the vicinity of George Town the city's northern suburbs, such as Tanjung Tokong, Tanjung Bungah and Batu Ferringhi, are particularly popular. [9] [160]

Languages Edit

Major languages spoken in Penang are Malay, English, Hokkien, Teochew, Cantonese, Hakka, Mandarin, and Tamil. In particular, Penang is well known for its distinctive Hokkien language, known as Penang Hokkien. [166]

Under British rule, English was the official language in Penang. The mushrooming of English and missionary schools throughout George Town contributed greatly to the widespread use of the language in the state. [43] [167]

As in the rest of Malaysia, Malay is currently the official language in Penang. The Malays in Penang also use a variant of the Kedah Malay dialect, with slight modifications made to the original dialect to suit the conditions of an urban, cosmopolitan society. [168]

Tamil is the most widely spoken language amongst Penang's Indian community. There are also other Indian languages spoken by minority Indians such as Telugu, Malayalam and Punjabi who hailed from diverse ancestries in the Indian subcontinent. [169] [170] Meanwhile, Penang's Chinese population uses a variety of Chinese dialects, including Hakka and Cantonese. Mandarin, more commonly used by youths, has been the medium of instruction in Chinese schools throughout the state. [171]

Penang Hokkien serves as the lingua franca among the various ethnic Chinese communities in Penang. [172] Originally a variant of the Minnan language, Penang Hokkien has absorbed numerous loanwords from Malay and English, yet another legacy of the Peranakan culture. It is spoken by many Penangites irrespective of race for communication purposes. [166] [173] [174] Greater emphasis has been placed on preserving the language's relevance in the face of the increasing influence of Mandarin and English among the youth. [175] [176]

Religions Edit

As with other Peninsular states, Islam is the official religion of the State of Penang. [123] Even so, other religions are allowed to be practised within the state, contributing to its cosmopolitan society.

As of 2010 [update] , Muslims constituted over 44% of Penang's population, followed by the Buddhists at nearly 36% and the Hindus at almost 9%. Notably, smaller communities of Chinese Muslims and Indian Muslims have long existed within George Town, while most Buddhists in Penang follow either Theravada, Mahayana or Vajrayana traditions. [177] [178] [179] A significant multiracial community of Christians, of both Catholic and Protestant sects, also exist in Penang, consisting of ethnic Chinese, Indians, Eurasians, East Malaysian migrants and expatriates. [160] Meanwhile, more than 10% of the state's Chinese populace adhere to Taoism and other Chinese folk religions. [ citation needed ]

One particular street in George Town exemplifies the harmonious coexistence of the various religions in Penang. Along Pitt Street, Muslim, Taoist, Hindu and Christian places of worship are situated just metres away from one another, earning the street its nickname, the Street of Harmony. [180] [181] This reflects Penang's diverse ethnic and socio-cultural amalgamation.

There was once a tiny community of Jews in George Town, who mainly resided along Jalan Zainal Abidin (formerly Yahudi Road). [51] The last known native Jew died in 2011, rendering the centuries-old Jewish community in Penang effectively extinct. [182]

Economic indicators
Nominal GDP RM77.641 billion (2017) [15]
GDP per capita RM49,873 (2017) [15]
Real GDP growth 5.3% (2017) [15]
CPI inflation 1.4% (February 2018) [183]
Unemployment 2.1% (2017) [15]
Labour force
participation rate
67.5% (2017) [15]
Government debt nil (2016) [184]

Economic sectors in Penang by GDP share (2017) [15]

In spite of its tiny size, Penang, regarded as the Silicon Valley of the East, has one of the largest economies in Malaysia, contributing as much as RM7 billion of the country's tax income in 2015. [185] [186] Penang has the highest Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita among Malaysian states. With a GDP per capita of RM49,873 as of 2017 [update] , Penang has also surpassed the World Bank's threshold to be considered a high-income economy, which was set at US$12,056 within the same year. [15] [187]

Furthermore, Penang consistently records one of the lowest unemployment rates within the nation - 2.1% as of 2017 [update] . [15] [188] The state has experienced one of the largest reductions in Gini coefficient within Malaysia as well, at 0.356 in 2016. [188]

Penang's economic growth, particularly since 2008, was described by Bloomberg as Malaysia's "biggest economic success", despite the federal government's focus on other states such as Johor and Sarawak. [192] Penang's economic performance also allowed the Penang state government to completely eradicate the state's public debt by 2016. [184]

Manufacturing Edit

Since the 1970s, manufacturing has formed the backbone of Penang's economy, contributing 44.8% of the state's GDP as of 2017 [update] and attracting as many as 3,000 firms to set up operations within the state. [15] [193] Machinery and transport equipment accounted for 71% of Penang's total exports during the first nine months of 2014. [194]

The Bayan Lepas Free Industrial Zone, now regarded as the Silicon Valley of the East, is the main electronics manufacturing hub within Malaysia. [12] [13] [185] Located at the southeastern corner of Penang Island, the zone is home to several high-tech multinational firms, including Dell, Intel, AMD, Motorola, Agilent, Renesas, Osram, Bosch, Sony and Seagate.

Seberang Perai has witnessed massive industrialisation as well, with industrial estates and oil refineries being established in the late 20th century in areas like Mak Mandin and Perai. [195] The major local firms currently operating in Perai, including Malayan Sugar, Malayawata Steel, Southern Steel, Harvik Rubber and Soon Soon Oilmills, have been joined by multinational companies, such as Mattel, Pensonic, Hitachi, Mitsuoka, Chevron and Honeywell Aerospace. [195] In recent years, Batu Kawan has also been rapidly industrialised, with a number of international firms, such as Boston Scientific and Bose Corporation, setting up manufacturing plants in the town. [196]

Aside from electronics and engineering manufacturing, Penang is Malaysia's main jewellery finishing hub, contributing 85% of the nation's gold and jewellery exports as of 2016 [update] . [197] Penang's gold and jewellery industry is relatively well-established, dating back to the founding of the Penang Goldsmith Association in 1832. [197] Jewellery from Penang is exported to over 20 foreign markets, including Singapore, Hong Kong, Japan, Canada and the United States. [197]

Services Edit

Penang also has a vibrant retail sub-sector, which employs as many as 24% of Penang's workforce. [194] As the main shopping destination in northern Malaysia, Penang is home to several shopping malls, such as Gurney Plaza, Gurney Paragon, 1st Avenue Mall, Straits Quay, Queensbay Mall and Design Village. While shopping malls now dominate the retail scene, centuries-old shophouses are still operating alongside George Town's flea markets and wet markets, all of which cater more to local products, including spices, nutmegs and tau sar pneah, a famous Penang delicacy. [200] [201]

Due to the efforts of the Penang state government to promote the state as a shared services and outsourcing (SSO) hub, Penang has attracted the second largest share of investments for Global Business Services (GBS) within Malaysia, after Kuala Lumpur. [193] [202] Penang's SSO industry, which includes international corporations such as AirAsia, Citigroup, Jabil and Dell, has provided more than 8,000 high-income jobs and contributed RM12.79 billion of revenue in 2013. [193] [203]

In addition to these, a startup community has been growing within Penang, including the likes of Piktochart and DeliverEat. [12] Attracted by the cheaper living costs and the presence of several multinational technology firms, Penang's startups are also being actively encouraged by the public and private sectors, with initiatives to encourage entrepreneurship and promote the Internet of Things (IoT). [204] [205]

Furthermore, George Town is Malaysia's second most popular centre for meetings, incentives, conferences and exhibitions (MICE), after Kuala Lumpur. [206] In 2017, Penang hosted 2,511 business events with an estimated economic impact of RM1.002 billion. [207] Among the major MICE venues within Penang are the SPICE Arena, Straits Quay and Prangin Mall. [208] [209]

Commerce Edit

George Town was formerly the financial centre of British Malaya. The first international bank to open a branch in George Town (and by extension, Malaysia) was Standard Chartered in 1875. [51] [59] This was followed by HSBC and the Royal Bank of Scotland in 1885 and 1888 respectively. [51] [59]

To this day, George Town still serves as the financial centre of northern Malaysia. The city contains various Malaysian and international banks, including Standard Chartered, HSBC, Citibank, UOB, OCBC, Bank of China and Bank Negara Malaysia. Most of the international banks still retain their offices at Beach Street, which also serves as the city's main Central Business District. [ citation needed ]

Since the 1990s, Northam Road, along with Gurney Drive, has also emerged as the George Town's second Central Business District. [210] Northam Road, in particular, hosts an array of financial services, including the Malaysian Employees Provident Fund, as well as accounting, auditing and insurance offices. [211] [212]

Finance and its related activities, such as insurance, auditing and real estate transactions, accounted for more than 8% of Penang's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) as of 2017 [update] . [15]

Tourism Edit

Penang has always been one of the most popular tourist destinations in Malaysia. Throughout history, the state welcomed some of the most influential personalities, including W. Somerset Maugham, Rudyard Kipling, Lee Kuan Yew, Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Charles. [213] [214] [215] Penang is known for its rich heritage and architecture, its vibrant multicultural society, a wide range of modern entertainment and retail choices, natural features such as beaches and hills, and the world-famous Penang cuisine. [216]

Unlike other Malaysian states, Penang does not rely only on air transportation for tourist arrivals. Aside from the Penang International Airport, Swettenham Pier, conveniently located within the heart of George Town, has emerged as one of the major tourist entry points into the state. As of 2017 [update] , Penang attracted nearly 8.6 million tourists, with the airport posting a record 7.2 million passenger arrivals and the pier registering another 1.35 million tourist arrivals. [217] [218] Within the same year, Penang, which contributed close to RM3.9 million of tourism tax revenue, was Malaysia's third largest tourism tax contributor after Kuala Lumpur and Sabah. [219]

In recent years, George Town has received numerous international accolades. The city has been listed by several publications, including the Lonely Planet, CNN, Forbes and Time, as one of Asia's top travel destinations. [220] [221] [222] [223] [224] These are in addition to George Town's reputation as a gastronomic haven, with the CNN placing George Town as one of Asia's best street food cities. [225]

Entrepôt trade and shipping Edit

Formerly a vital British entrepôt, Penang's maritime trade has greatly declined, due to the loss of George Town's free-port status in 1969 and the concurrent development of Port Klang near the federal capital Kuala Lumpur. [69]

In spite of this, the Port of Penang remains the main harbour within northern Malaysia. The Port of Penang handled more than 1.52 million TEUs of cargo in 2017, making it the third busiest seaport by volume in the country. [226] The Port's strategic location enabled it to service not just northern Malaysia, but also southern Thailand. [226]

Public Holidays in Penang
Holiday Date
New Year's Day 1 Jan
Thaipusam variable
Chinese New Year 2 days in
Jan/Feb
Labour Day 1 May
Wesak Day variable
King's Birthday 1st Sat of Jun
George Town World
Heritage City Day
7 Jul
Governor's Birthday 2nd Sat of Jul
Revelation of
the Koran Day
variable
Aidilfitri 2 days
(variable)
National Day 31 Aug
Hari Raya Haji variable
Awal Muharram variable
Deepavali variable
Prophet Muhammad's
Birthday
variable
Christmas 25 Dec

Festivals Edit

Penang's diverse, cosmopolitan society means that there are a great many celebrations and festivities in any given year. The major cultural and religious festivities in the state include, but not limited to, the Chinese New Year, Eid ul-Fitri, Deepavali, Thaipusam, Vaisakhi, Christmas, Vesak Day and Songkran. [227] [228]

Expatriates residing in Penang have also introduced a host of other celebrations. Bon Odori is celebrated yearly by the Japanese in George Town, while St. Patrick's Day and Oktoberfest, traditionally celebrated by the Irish and the Germans respectively, have also been gaining popularity amongst the locals. [229] [230] [231]

Moreover, Penang hosts several major festivals in any given year. The George Town Festival, first held in 2010, has evolved into one of the largest arts events in Southeast Asia, while the Penang Hot Air Balloon Fiesta attracts close to 200,000 visitors from all over the world. [232] [233]

Performance arts Edit

George Town is the birthplace of a unique form of the Chingay procession. Introduced in 1919, Penang's variant of Chingay includes the act of balancing gigantic flags on one's forehead or hands. [234] A yearly Chingay parade is held in the city every December, though Chingay performances are also a common feature of Chinese festivities and major state celebrations in Penang. [234]

Bangsawan, which was also developed in Penang, is a type of Malay theatre that incorporates Indian, Western, Islamic, Chinese and Indonesian influences. [235] [236] Boria is also indigenous to Penang, featuring singing accompanied by violin, maracas and tabla. [237]

Aside from these, the state has orchestras based in George Town, the Penang Philharmonic Orchestra, Penang Symphony Orchestra, as well as several chamber and musical organisations, including the [238] award-winning social enterprise, The Rondo Production . [239] Dewan Sri Pinang and Penangpac within Straits Quay are two of the major performing venues in the city. [ citation needed ]

Street art Edit

In 2012, as part of the George Town Festival, Lithuanian artist Ernest Zacharevic created a series of 6 wall paintings depicting local culture, inhabitants and lifestyles. [240] In addition, several wrought iron caricatures have been installed within George Town, with each caricature detailing the city's history and the daily lives of its inhabitants. [241] In recent years, the street art scene has also begun to grow out of the city, in areas such as Balik Pulau and Butterworth. [242] [243]

In addition, art exhibitions are frequently held at cultural centres within George Town, such as the Hin Bus Depot. [244]

Museums Edit

The Penang State Museum and Art Gallery in George Town is the state's primary public museum it houses relics, photographs, maps, and other artefacts that document the history and culture of Penang. [245]

Other museums in the city focus on religious and cultural aspects, as well as famous personalities, including the Penang Islamic Museum, Sun Yat-sen Museum, Batik Painting Museum, and Universiti Sains Malaysia Museum and Gallery. [246] Besides that, the birthplace of Malaysia's legendary singer-actor, P. Ramlee, has been restored and turned into a museum [247]

In recent years, private-run museums have sprung up throughout the city, such as the Camera Museum and the Penang Toy Museum. A handful of newer 3D visual and interactive museums have also been established, such as the Made-in-Penang Interactive Museum and the Penang Time Tunnel. [248] [249]

Architecture Edit

Penang is home to a relatively wide variety of architectures, both historical and modern. The historical core of George Town has been inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site due to its unique architectural and cultural townscape without parallel anywhere in East and Southeast Asia. [95]

Fort Cornwallis, in George Town, was the first structure built by the British in Penang. The city's UNESCO World Heritage Site also covers several important landmarks, including the City Hall, the Penang High Court, St. George's Church, the Eastern & Oriental Hotel and the Central Business District at Beach Street. Aside from European architecture, a huge assortment of Asian architectural styles also exists throughout George Town, exemplified by buildings like the Kong Hock Keong Temple, Cheong Fatt Tze Mansion, the Pinang Peranakan Mansion, Khoo Kongsi, Snake Temple, Kapitan Keling Mosque and Sri Mahamariamman Temple. Meanwhile, the Siamese and the Burmese have also left a visible impact on certain landmarks within the city, such as Wat Chaiyamangkalaram, Dhammikarama Burmese Temple and Kek Lok Si. [ citation needed ]

Aside from the colonial era architecture, Penang Island contains most of the skyscrapers within Penang, with the state's tallest buildings all located within the island. The tallest skyscrapers in George Town, and by extension, Penang, include the Komtar Tower, Setia V, Gurney Paragon and Arte S. [ citation needed ]

Cuisine Edit

George Town, popularly regarded as the food capital of Malaysia, is renowned for its good and varied cuisine which incorporates Malay, Chinese, Indian, Peranakan, Thai and European influences. [250] The city has been recognised by various publications, such as Time Magazine, CNN and Lonely Planet, as one of the Asian cities with the best street cuisine. [225] [251] [252] According to Time Magazine in 2004, "nowhere else can such great tasting food be so cheap," whilst Robin Barton of the Lonely Planet described George Town as the culinary epicentre of the many cultures that arrived after it was set up as a trading port in 1786, from Malays to Indians, Acehenese to Chinese, Burmese to Thais. [251] [252]

The various street dishes and delicacies of Penang include (but not limited to) asam laksa, char kway teow, curry mee, Hokkien mee, nasi kandar, oh chien (fried oyster omelette), lor bak, rojak, pasembur, chendol, ais kacang, and tau sar pneah (bean paste biscuit). [253] [201]

In Literature Edit

In her poem Pulo Penang., Letitia Elizabeth Landon compares the beauties of the island with those of the speaker's beloved.

Penang's literacy rate stood at 98.2% as of 2010 [update] , whilst specifically, the literacy rate of Penang's youth between 15 and 24 years of age rose to 99.5% in 2014, after Selangor and Kuala Lumpur. [17] [254] Correspondingly, Penang has the third highest Human Development Index within Malaysia. [16]

As of 2017 [update] , Penang, including both the mainland and the island contains a total of 48 tertiary institutions (including universities, colleges, medical colleges, industrial training institutes and teaching schools), 12 international schools, 110 secondary schools, 271 primary schools and 602 kindergartens. [255] [256] [257]

In particular, George Town is home to some of Malaysia's oldest schools. Established in 1816, Penang Free School is the oldest English school in Southeast Asia, while the numerous missionary schools within the city include St. Xavier's Institution, St. George's Girls' School and Methodist Boys' School. In addition, the city is a pioneer in Chinese education within the region following the establishment of Chung Hwa Confucian High School in 1904, several prominent Chinese schools were built, such as Chung Ling High School, Penang Chinese Girls' High School, Heng Ee High School, Jit Sin High School and Phor Tay High School. [ citation needed ]

As a popular destination for expatriates, George Town contains a number of international schools as well, such as Uplands International School, Dalat International School, Tenby International School and Hua Xia International School. [258] These schools offer primary and secondary education up to A Levels and International Baccalaureate. [258] A few of these schools, such as Penang Japanese School and Chinese Taipei School, cater to expatriates of specific nationalities. [256] [259]

Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) is the premier public university within Penang. Established in 1969 as Malaysia's second university, it was originally named Universiti Pulau Pinang (University of Penang). [260] The main campus is situated at Gelugor, while an engineering campus has been built in Nibong Tebal. As of 2018 [update] , it was ranked 207th in the QS World University Rankings, the fourth highest within the country. [261]

RCSI & UCD Malaysia Campus is a medical university in George Town, with teaching hospitals in Penang and Perak. Founded as a private medical school in 1996, RUMC gained university status in 2018 and is the only Irish university branch campus in Malaysia. Graduates of RUMC are conferred degrees awarded and recognised by the National University of Ireland.

Other tertiary institutions within Penang include Wawasan Open University, Han Chiang University College of Communication, DISTED College, Sentral College, SEGi College, KDU College, INTI International College, Equator Academy of Arts, Penang Skills and Development Centre and Lam Wah Ee Nursing College. [255] Aside from these institutions, RECSAM, a research and training facility aimed at the enhancement of the science and mathematics education in Southeast Asia, is sited within Penang as well.

The state also contains 107 libraries, including the Penang State Library and the Penang Digital Library. [262] The latter, launched by the Penang state government in 2016, is the first digital library in Malaysia. [263]

Health care in Penang is adequately provided by the numerous public and private hospitals throughout the state. These hospitals have also helped Penang to emerge as the centre of Medical tourism in Malaysia. The Penang General Hospital, administered and funded by the Malaysian Ministry of Health, is the main tertiary referral hospital within northern Malaysia. It is supported by five other public hospitals within Penang, all of which also come under the administration of the country's Ministry of Health. [264]

Aside from public hospitals, Penang is home to 15 private hospitals, including Penang Adventist Hospital, Lam Wah Ee Hospital, Mount Miriam Cancer Hospital, Gleneagles Medical Centre, Island Hospital, Loh Guan Lye Specialists Centre and Pantai Hospital. [265] These hospitals cater not only to the local population, but also to patients from other states and foreign health tourists. [199] [266]

Infant mortality rate within Penang dropped by 85% between 1970 and 2000 to 5.7 per 1,000 live births, while neonatal mortality rate also decreased by 84.7% within this corresponding period to 4.1 per 1,000 live births. [88] As of 2017 [update] , Penang's life expectancy at birth stood at 72.5 years for men and 77.7 years for women. [15]

Print Edit

George Town was once the nucleus of Malaysia's print press. The nation's first newspaper was founded in the city – the Prince of Wales Island Gazette in 1806. [267] The Star, currently one of Malaysia's top dailies, has its origins as a regional newspaper founded in George Town in the 1970s, while the country's oldest Chinese newspaper, Kwong Wah Yit Poh, was also established in the city in 1910. [267]

In 2011, the then Chief Minister of Penang, Lim Guan Eng, launched the Penang edition of Time Out. [268] This version of the international listings magazine is published in three versions - a yearly guide, a website and a mobile app. [269]

The Penang state government also publishes its own multi-lingual newspaper, Buletin Mutiara, which is distributed for free every fortnight. [270] The Penang-centric newspaper focuses on the current issues within Penang. [270]

Film and Television Edit

Due to its well-preserved colonial-era cityscape, a number of movies have been filmed within George Town, such as Crazy Rich Asians, Anna and the King, Lust, Caution and You Mean the World to Me, the latter of which is the first movie to be filmed entirely in Penang Hokkien. [271] Singaporean drama series, The Little Nyonya and The Journey: Tumultuous Times, were also filmed within the city's UNESCO World Heritage Site. In addition, the city became one of the pit-stops of The Amazing Race 16, The Amazing Race Asia 4 and The Amazing Race Asia 5. [ citation needed ]

Radio Edit

The available FM radio stations in Penang, both government (including Penang-based Mutiara FM) and commercial, are as listed below. [272]

Frequency Station Operator Language
87.8 One FM Media Prima Mandarin, Cantonese
88.2 Hot FM Media Prima Malay
89.9 Fly FM Media Prima English
90.2 Kool FM Media Prima Malay
91.0 Mix FM Astro Radio English
92.8 Hitz FM Astro Radio English
94.5 988 FM Star RFM Radio Mandarin, Cantonese
94.9 Klasik FM RTM Malay
95.7 Mutiara FM RTM Malay
96.7 Minnal FM RTM Tamil
97.1 Sinar FM Astro Radio Malay
98.7 TraXX FM RTM English
99.3 THR Raaga Astro Radio Tamil
99.7 My FM Astro Radio Mandarin, Cantonese
101.3 Ai FM RTM Mandarin, Cantonese, Hokkien
103.6 Era FM Astro Radio Malay
104.4 Lite FM Astro Radio English
106.5 Melody Astro Radio Mandarin, Cantonese
106.9 Suria FM Star RFM Radio Malay
107.6 GoXuan Astro Radio Mandarin, Cantonese

Land Edit

Penang Island is connected to the mainland by two bridges. The 13.5 km (8.4 mi) Penang Bridge, completed in 1985, spans the Penang Strait between Gelugor on the island and Perai on the mainland. Spanning 24 km (15 mi), the Second Penang Bridge is located further south, linking Batu Maung on the island to Batu Kawan on the mainland. The latter was opened to the public in 2014 and is currently the longest bridge in Southeast Asia. [ citation needed ]

The North–South Expressway, a 966 km-long (600 mi) expressway along the western part of Peninsular Malaysia, passes through Seberang Perai. In addition, about 34.9 km (21.7 mi) of the Malayan Railway's West Coast Line also lies within Seberang Perai, with the Butterworth railway station serving as the main railway station within northern Malaysia. Aside from the regular Malayan Railway services, the Butterworth railway station is the southernmost terminus of the State Railway of Thailand's Southern Line and the International Express from Bangkok. Notably, the train station is also one of the main stops of the Eastern and Oriental Express service between Bangkok and Singapore. [ citation needed ]

On Penang Island, the Tun Dr Lim Chong Eu Expressway is a vital coastal highway that runs along the island's eastern seaboard, connecting George Town with the Penang Bridge, the Bayan Lepas Free Industrial Zone, the Penang International Airport and the Second Penang Bridge. The Federal Route 6 is a pan-island trunk road, while the two major ring roads within George Town are the George Town Inner Ring Road and the Penang Middle Ring Road.

In Seberang Perai, the major ring roads and expressways include the Butterworth Outer Ring Road (BORR) and the Butterworth–Kulim Expressway. [ citation needed ]

Public transportation Edit

Under British rule, George Town served as a pioneer in public transportation within British Malaya. The city's first tram system, originally powered by steam, began operations in the 1880s. [273] [274] Although the tram lines have since been disused, another colonial legacy, the trishaw, still plies the city's streets, albeit catering primarily for tourists. [275]

Buses now form the backbone of public transportation within Penang. Public bus services are mainly provided by Rapid Penang, which operates 56 routes within Greater Penang, including interstate routes into Kedah and Perak. Among the routes are free-of-charge transit services such as the Central Area Transit, the Congestion Alleviation Transport and the Pulau Tikus Loop. [276] In addition, the Hop-On Hop-Off bus service, which utilises open-topped double decker buses, has been introduced for tourists within George Town. [277]

Meanwhile, the only rail-based transportation system within Penang is the Penang Hill Railway, a funicular railway to the peak of Penang Hill. Opened in 1923, it is also the sole funicular railway system in Malaysia. [ citation needed ] The Penang state government has recently drawn up plans to bring in more rail-based transport systems throughout Penang, as part of the Penang Transport Master Plan. [90] [122] What are purposed are a Light Rail Transit line between George Town and Bayan Lepas, two monorail lines that connect George Town with Air Itam, Paya Terubong and Tanjung Tokong, [278] [279] a tram line limited to within George Town's UNESCO World Heritage Site [280] and a cross-strait cable car line linking Komtar in George Town and Penang Sentral in Butterworth [281] Currently, the Light Rapid Transit line between George Town and the Penang International Airport, also known as the Bayan Lepas LRT line, is being allocated the top priority by the Penang state government. [282] [283] [284] On April 2019, the LRT project was received conditional approval from the federal government. Construction is expected to start in June 2020. [285]


Efforts are also being undertaken to promote pedestrianisation and the use of bicycles as an environmentally friendly mode of transportation. [286] [287] Dedicated cycling lanes have been paved throughout the city and in 2016, George Town became the first Malaysian city to operate a public bicycle-sharing service, with the inauguration of LinkBike. [288] [289] [290]

The Penang Sentral in Butterworth is the main rapid transit hub within Penang. Penang Sentral's location, adjacent to the Sultan Abdul Halim Ferry Terminal and the Butterworth railway station, allows it to function as a termini for public and interstate buses, ferry and train services. [ citation needed ]

Air Edit

Penang International Airport (PEN) is located in Bayan Lepas at the southeast of Penang Island, 16 km (9.9 mi) south of George Town. It serves as the main airport for northern Malaysia, with frequent links to major regional cities such as Kuala Lumpur, Singapore, Bangkok, Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Taipei, Hong Kong, Guangzhou and Doha. Penang International Airport is Malaysia's second busiest in terms of cargo traffic and recorded the third highest passenger traffic of all Malaysian airports as of 2013 [update] . [291]

The airport is also a hub for two Malaysian low-cost carriers - AirAsia and Firefly. [292] Among the international carriers that operate out of the airport are Scoot, Jetstar Asia Airways, China Airlines, China Southern Airlines, Thai Smile and Qatar Airways. [ citation needed ]

Sea Edit

The Port of Penang, the main harbour in northern Malaysia, is operated by the Penang Port Commission. The Port consists of seven facilities, with six of them in Butterworth and Perai on the mainland, including the North Butterworth Container Terminal, Butterworth Deep Water Wharves and the Prai Bulk Cargo Terminal. The Port of Penang, the third busiest seaport in Malaysia, handled more than 1.52 million TEUs of cargo in 2017. [226]

Meanwhile, Swettenham Pier, situated in the heart of George Town, is the sole Port facility on Penang Island. The pier now accommodates cruise ships, making it one of the major entry points into Penang. As of 2017 [update] , Swettenham Pier recorded 1.35 million tourist arrivals, thereby surpassing Port Klang as the busiest cruise shipping terminal in Malaysia the pier has also attracted some of the world's largest cruise liners, such as the RMS Queen Mary 2. [293] [294] [218] The pier also serves as a homeport for regional-based cruise ships. [293]

Occasionally, the Port of Penang hosts warships as well, including those from Singapore, the United States and most recently, China. [295] [296] [297]

The cross-strait Rapid Ferry service connects George Town and Butterworth, and was formerly the only transportation link between Penang Island and the mainland until the completion of the Penang Bridge in 1985. At the time of writing, six ferries ply the Penang Strait between George Town and Butterworth daily. [298]

Penang has a relatively well-developed sporting infrastructure. The Penang State Stadium in Batu Kawan is the main stadium within the state, whereas the City Stadium in George Town is the sole stadium within the city. Both stadia function as the home ground of the Penang FA. [ citation needed ]

The SPICE Arena in Bayan Baru is another major sporting venue within Penang, consisting of an indoor arena and an aquatics centre. [ citation needed ]

The Nicol David International Squash Centre at Gelugor is one of the major squash training facilities in Malaysia and was reportedly where squash legend Nicol David first trained during her childhood years. [299] George Town is also home to Malaysia's oldest equestrian centre, the Penang Turf Club, which was established in 1864. In addition, Penang contains a total of three golf courses, one of which is on Penang Island. [300]

The major annual sporting events within Penang include the Penang International Dragon Boat Festival and the Penang Bridge International Marathon. The former, held every December in Teluk Bahang, is a dragon boat race that has attracted several international teams, including those from Singapore, Thailand, Brunei, China, South Korea and Australia. [301] The latter is a marathon which includes the Penang Bridge as its route. Held every November, it attracted a record 35,000 participants from 85 countries in 2017. [302]

Among the national and international sporting events that were hosted within Penang include the 2000 Sukma Games, the 2001 Southeast Asian Games and the 2013 Women's World Open Squash Championship. Penang has also hosted the 2018 Asia Pacific Masters Games, the first edition of a Masters Games within Asia. [303]

Water supply, which comes under the jurisdiction of the Penang state government, is wholly managed by the Penang Water Supply Corporation (PBAPP). The state enjoys the lowest domestic water tariff in Malaysia, at RM0.32 per 1,000 litres. [304] Penang's water supply is obtained from several sources, namely the Air Itam Dam, Teluk Bahang Dam, Mengkuang Dam, Bukit Panchor Dam, Berapit Dam, Cherok Tok Kun Dam, the Guillemard Reservoir, the Penang Botanic Gardens and the Muda River. [305] The latter, which forms Penang's northern border with Kedah, provides up to 80% of Penang's water supply. [306]

In 1904, George Town became the first city within British Malaya to be supplied with electricity, upon the completion of a hydroelectric scheme. [307] Currently, electricity for industrial and domestic consumption is provided by Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB), which operates a 398MW oil-powered power plant at Gelugor. [308]

As of 2014 [update] , Penang had a recorded broadband penetration rate of 80.3%, the highest among all Malaysian states. [309] Penang is also the first Malaysian state to provide its citizens with free internet connection. [310] Penang Free Wi-Fi, launched by the Penang state government in 2008, aims to boost internet penetration throughout Penang and is provided free-of-charge. [310] Its bandwidth speeds within the George Town city centre were increased to 3Mbit/s, while 1,560 hotspots have been installed throughout the state. [311]


Sample DE-1048 - History

1969 SHIP'S HISTORY NARRATIVE

During the first month of 1969, final preparations were made for KING's upcoming deployment with the U. S. SEVENTH Fleet in the Western Pacific. An extended upkeep period in her homeport of San Diego insured ail phases of KING's sophisticated weapons system and Naval Tactical Data System were ready for the six month deployment in the combat zone commencing in early February. A final missile and conventional ordnance loadout was conducted at the Seal Beach Naval Weapons Station on 22 January. The underway transit time in the Southern California operations area allowed final adjustments to various equipment. Families and close friends of KINGSMEN were entertained on a dependents cruise on 24 January which included helicopter operations off San Diego Harbor:

A delay in the date of deployment from the first week of February to 24 February allowed further improvement of personnel and material readiness, In accordance with Commander U. S. FIRST Fleet Quarterly Employment Schedule, KING left San Diego on 24 February bound for Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, with Captain L. D. CUMMINGS, Commander Destroyer Squadron FIFTEEN embarked. The transit time was utilized for exercises at General Quarters particularly in the ECM, communications and conventional gunnery areas. Arriving in Pearl Harbor on 2 March for four days, the ship received final Western Pacific operations plans and equipment and was soon enroute to Midway Island in company with the USS RADFORD (DD4-66). During the Pearl Harbor stay, Admiral John McCAIN personally witnessed and commended KING for the exemplary appearance of her ship and personnel upon arrival, A short fueling stop at Midway Island on 8 March provided a brief exercise period for the crew before the next leg of the transit to Yokosuka, Japan.

During this particular part of the voyage KING experienced particularly rough seas causing minor damage on the weather decks and a general uncomfortable feeling for a large part of the crew, CYN3 Robert J. CRAWFORD who would have been twenty five years old, missed his birthday when 10 March was eliminated due to crossing the International Date Line. The crew welcomed the arrival in Yokosuka on 14 March. The four day stopover allowed KING sailors to tour to nearby Tokyo, Yokohama, and other Japanese attractions. Vice Admiral W. F. BRINGLE, Commander U. S. SEVENTH Fleet visited the ship on 17 March. Underway again on 18 March with RADFORD as an element of TU 71.1.2, KING conducted special operations in the Sea of Japan until 23 March. For these actions KING was awarded the Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal (Korea) proudly worn by her crew for the remainder of the cruise.

KING sailed to Sasebo, Japan on 23 March for a one week visit which combined an upkeep period with sight seeing opportunities for the crew. A short cruise along the southern coast of Japan brought KING to the bustling Japanese port of Kobe on 1 April where the frigate was the only United States Naval Ship present in the Harbor. During the four day visit the U. S. sailors were welcomed throughout this thriving city and nearby Kyoto and Osaka. KING hosted a number of tours by such organizations as the Kobe Newspaper Reporters Guild, Kobe Rotary Club, Kobe Businessmens' Association, Tkuta Police Force, Boys' Town Orphanage, and a number of school groups.

Leaving Kobe on 5 April, KING sailed south for Subic Bay Naval Base, Philippine Islands. Enroute, a surface to air TERRIER missile firing was conducted at the Okinawa test range on the eastern side of the island. Arriving in Subic on 9 April, the ship spent four days in upkeep and installed special equipment peculiar to the forthcoming mission as Strike Support Ship (SSS) and Search and Rescue (SAR) control ship in the Gulf of Tonkin off Vietnam. A UH2 helicopter and crew was brought aboard at this time.

The ship departed Subic on 12 April for the Gulf of Tonkin via Danang, Republic of Vietnam, for briefings and anti-PT boat training. On 16 April KING relieved USS STANDLEY (DLG-32) as GTU 77.0.2 on Positive Identification Radar Advisory Zone (PIRAZ) Station in the northern Gulf of Tonkin, The frigate continued on this station for thirteen days utilizing her Naval Tactical Data System (NTDS) facility to support the U. S. Navy and Air Force strike efforts over Vietnam, The computerized command and control system allowed KING air controllers to actively follow strike aircraft over the target area, issue MIG warnings, provide navigational assistance, exercise positive control of Navy CAP,jet fighters and provide assistance to aircraft requiring emergency in-flight instructions.

During this period KING was continuously accompanied in her critical mission on station by a "shot gun" destroyer providing added conventional firepower. The shot guns were successively the USS HOPEWELL (DD-681), USS CHEVALIER (DD-805), USS LEARY (DD-879) and USS DOUGLAS H. FOX (DD-779). A vital role in maintaining this PIRAZ station was played by underway replenishment (UNREP) of fuel and supplies from various support ships to KING. Seven UNREPS were successfully completed during this first line period. The welcome supporting ships were USS NAVASOTA (A0-106), USS ALUDRA (AF-55), and USS PASSUMPSIC (A0-107).

On 28 April the ship received as emergency squawk from an A-7 jet aircraft losing engine power ten miles away. KING's helicopter rescued the downed pilot, LTJG Morris E. MANSELL of VF-53 who was treated by ship's medical corpsman and quickly air-lifted back to his squadron.

KING was relieved on 2 May by her sister ship USS MAHAN (DLG-1l) and directly returned to Subic on 4 May for a brief upkeep period alongside the destroyer repair ship USS KLONDIKE (AR-22). Underway again on 9 May, the ship joined the CTG 77.5 screen operating with the aircraft carrier BON HOMME RICHARD (CVA-31) on YANKEE Station in the Gulf of Tonkin. The NTDS capability enabled KING to act as Force Anti-Air Warfare Commander as well as Screen Commander for KING, USS CHEVALIER (DD-805) and USS SCHOFIELD (DEG-3). This mission continued for six days during which underway replenishment was conducted twice with the USS NAVASOTA (A0-106). This was the only time that other than a Carrier Division Commander acted in the capacity of Force Anti-Air Warfare Commander and was the result of not having an NTDS aircraft carrier available in the Gulf,

On 16 May KING relieved STANDLEY on the South Search and Rescue (SAR) station. Captain J. S. KERN, Destroyer Division 142, embarked as Surface-Subsurface Surveillance Coordinator (SSSC) (CTG 77.9). In company with her shot gun USS SAMPLE (DE-1048), the frigate remained on South SAR for one week receiving replenishment support from the USS PONCHATOULA (A0-148) and USS SACRAMENTO (AOE-1), the latter utilizing the vertical replenishment (VERTREP) helicopter technique with great success.

On the afternoon of Friday 23 May, the Honorable John H. CHAFEE, Secretary of the Navy, visited KING on the South SAR Station, arriving and departing by special helicopter from YANKEE Station. He was accompanied on his tour by Vice Admiral W. F. BRINGLE, Commander of the United States SEVENTH Fleet.

Late in the evening of 23 May, a flexible oil line in the after fireroom ruptured, causing an extensive Class B fire in that space. Damage control parties brought the fire under control smothering the blaze with foam. Timely aid was provided by SAMPLE in the form of fire fighting equipment and communication support. KING sustained four fatal casualties, all Boiler Technicians on watch in the after fireroom when the fire broke out.

The next day found KING returning to Subic. Arriving on 27 May KING commenced a repair period at the Ship Repair Facility, Subic Bay Naval Base. During this in port period extensive work was performed to renew the after fireroom and repair all other fire damage. Rear Admiral T. J. RUDDEN Jr., Commander Cruiser-Destroyer Group SEVENTH Fleet, visited KING on 10 June. The crew was actively engaged during this time in various activities. As part of a People to People project KINGSMEN spent weekends painting a schoolhouse in the neighboring Philippine barrio of Sexmoan, Pampanga. Athletic teams in basketball, softball, bowling and pistol found good competition including exciting contests with the Australian crewmen of HMAS PARRAMATTA. Professor Parker PhD. and Professor Harvey PhD. of San Diego State College conducted numerous psychology and mathematics classes as part of the Navy PACE (Program for Afloat College Education) educational program,

On 2 July, KING was again on her way back to the line relieving MAHAN as CTU 77.0.2 on 7 July. Two UNREPS with NAVASOTA quickly followed.

KING's patrolling on PIRAZ station with USS HERBERT J. THOMAS (DD-833) was interrupted on 10 July when all U. S. Naval ships were ordered out of the shallow Gulf of Tonkin to the open waters of the South China Sea to avoid Typhoon TESS. Returning to PIRAZ the frigate was involved in an UNREP with USS SACRAMENTO (AOE-1) and USS TAPPAHANNOCK (A0-43).

Back on PIRAZ KING hosted a visit on 13 July by Admiral FENG, Chi-Chung, Commander in Chief of the Chinese Nationalist Navy Vice Admiral J. L. CHEW, Commander United States Taiwan Defense Command and Vice Admiral W. F. BRINGLE, Commander United States SEVENTH Fleet.

Continuing on the PIRAZ station until 20 July, KING was accompanied successively by USS PERRY (DD-844), USS HERBERT J. THOMAS (DD-833) and USS PERKINS (DD-877) with whom she conducted various maneuvering and communication exercises. UNREPS with the veteran oilers USS GUADALUPE (A0-32) and USS KENNEBEC (A0-36) were a welcome change of routine and the USS STERETT (DLG-31) relieved KING on 20 July as CTU 77.0.2.

The following days were spent speeding toward the liberty port of Hong Kong, British Crown Colony, while all ears were listening to news of the United States Astronauts landing on the moon. KING moored alongside USS BUCHANAN (DDG-14) in Hong Kong harbor on 22 July for six fascinating days of liberty in this oriental city. Typhoon VIOLA shortened the ships visit by one day as storm warnings cleared traffic from the busy harbor. KING spent two rough days at sea evading the typhoon enroute to Subic for an overnight stopover.

On 1 August, KING relieved STERETT on PIRAZ station with USS GURKE (DD-783) as shot gun. The following day a U. S. Navy Crusader jet from VF-53 on BON HOME RICHARD ditched within 1000 yards of the ship. KING's small boat effected the rescue of the pilot LT George L. WELLS, USN, who was quickly returned by helicopter to his squadron.

During the remainder of the line period, together with GURKE, USS WILTSIE (DD-716), and USS EPPERSON (DD-719), the ship conducted successful UNREPS with USS KAWISHIWI (A0-146), USS GRAFFIAS (AF-29) and SACRAMENTO. Vice Admiral M. F. WEISNER, Commander Task Force 77 visited on 11 August and commended KING as the most responsive ship that had been on PIRAZ station during his tenure as CTF 77. KING was relieved for the final time on 15 August by USS CHICAGO (CG-11) and moved south to plane guard for USS KITTY HAWK (CVA-63) on YANKEE Station. Completing flight operations on 16 August KITTY HAWK with KING and GURKE returned to Subic for a short layover before leaving for San Diego on 21 August. KING conducted a surface to surface missile shoot that morning at the Subic missile range before rejoining GURKE in the screen of KITTY HAWK enroute CONUS. The unexpected decommissioning plans of USS KEARSARGE (CVS-33) allowed that anti-submarine carrier to join the formation in transit on 23 August.

The voyage back to San Diego was well utilized for various drills and exercises particularly in inter-ship communications and gunnery. Commanding Officer, USS KING acted as Screen Commander for this transit. Every three days the frigate refueled underway directly from KITTY HAWK, and half way across the Pacific from the USS CAMDEN (AOE-2) beginning her WESTPAC deployment. A large crowd of families and friends greeted KING's arrival in the homeport of San Diego on the morning of 4 September.

This arrival marked the beginning of an in port period lasting almost two months. Preparations for the upcoming Regular Overhaul provided most of the work for this time. The Annual Supply Inspection was conducted on 9 September with KING being highly commended for achieving the greatest percentage increase in the yearly grade for any ship in the fleet. In September KING acted as host ship for the Portuguese frigate ALMIRANTE MAGALHES CORREIA (F-474) visiting San Diego to participate in the city's 200th birthday celebration. During the week of 29 September KING acted as school ship for the DATC 1200 pound plant engineering course at the Naval Station.

On 1 October administrative control of KING was shifted from Commander Destroyer Squadron FIFTEEN to Commander Destroyer Squadron FIVE. Commodore J. C. BERRIMAN, COMDESRON FIVE broke his flag on KING for the month of October. KING departed San Diego on 27 October enroute to the San Francisco Bay Naval Shipyard for the scheduled four month Regular Overhaul period. An overnight stay at Seal Beach Naval Weapons Station allowed all ordnance, both missile and conventional, to be off loaded as a safety precaution. Passing under the Golden Gate Bridge on the morning of 29 October, KING was soon moored at the Naval Shipyard at Hunters Point, south of the city of San Francisco.

The shipyard period is being used to revitalize the engineering plant and add the latest in equipment and alterations to KING's advanced weapons and NTDS systems. Extensive off ship schooling is being provided for the officers and men in preparation for Refresher Training and subsequent deployment.

The Commanding Officer of KING held two awards ceremonies at the shipyard location honoring the fine efforts of the crew during the Western Pacific deployment. Five officers and men were awarded the Navy Commendation Medal and sixteen others were awarded the Navy Achievement Medal, all resulting from extraordinary performance during 1969. Also during November KING acted as host ship for HMS ARETHUSA during her visit to the port of San Francisco.

A well exec uted shift into Dry Dock #3 has allowed necessary work on the sonar, hull, shaft and propellers. New Years Day 1970 found KING resting on keel blocks in the Hunters Point drydock expecting to finish all shipyard work early in March.

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This website is owned and funded under the bylaws of the Association, a Non-profit Organization.

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USS Bradley (FF 1041)

USS BRADLEY was the second ship in the GARCIA - class of Frigates. Commissioned as a Destroyer Escort, the BRADLEY was redesignated as FF 1041 on June 30, 1975. Decommissioned on September 9, 1988, the BRADLEY was leased to Brazil on April 15, 1989. There, the ship was recommissioned as PERNAMBUCO. On January 24, 2001, Brazil officially purchased the BRADLEY and the ship was stricken from the Navy list.

General Characteristics: Awarded: June 22, 1961
Keel laid: January 17, 1963
Launched: March 26, 1964
Commissioned: May 15, 1965
Decommissioned: September 30, 1988
Builder: Bethlehem Steel, San Francisco, Calif.
Propulsion system: 2 Foster-Wheeler boilers 1 Westinghouse geared turbine 35,000shp 1 shaft
Length: 414.4 feet (126.3 meters)
Beam: 44.3 feet (13.5 meters)
Draft: 25.9 feet (7.9 meters)
Displacement: approx. 3,500 tons full load
Speed: 27 knots
Armament: one Mk-16 missile launcher for ASROC missiles, two Mk-30 5-inch/38 caliber guns, Mk-46 torpedoes from two Mk-32 triple tube mounts
Aircraft: one SH-2F (LAMPS I) helicopter
Crew: 16 officers, 231 enlisted

This section contains the names of sailors who served aboard USS BRADLEY. It is no official listing but contains the names of sailors who submitted their information.

Accidents aboard USS BRADLEY:

USS BRADLEY was built at San Francisco, California, and commissioned in May 1965. Her first deployment to the Westen Pacific between July and December 1966 included four months of gunfire support along the coast of South Vietnam and carrier escort duty in the Gulf of Tonkin. In February 1967 BRADLEY received the prototype destroyer installation of the Sea Sparrow Basic Point Defense Missile System (BPDMS). After intensive trials between May and September, the system was removed in September.

BRADLEY commenced her second deployment to Southeast Asia in December 1967 but was diverted to the Sea of Japan in response to the North Korean capture of USS PUEBLO (AGER 2). In March she resumed carrier escort and gunfire support duties off South Vietnam. After a final tour on the gun line in June, during which she fired 3,247 rounds in 10 days from her two 5"/38 guns, she returned to San Diego in July 1968. Her first regular overhaul between October 1968 and May 1969 featured a major upgrade to her SQS-26 sonar and extensive work on her two tempermental pressure-fired boilers. BRADLEY's third deployment featured a gun line tour in January 1970, surveillance of the Soviet Navy's worldwide "Okean" exercise in April, and more carrier escort and gunfire support duty lasting into June. During the next five years BRADLEY conducted three additional deployments to Southeast Asia, interrupted by a second regular overhaul in 1971-72.

In June 1975 BRADLEY began a year-long overhaul which included the enlargement of her helicopter hangar. In July 1975 she was reclassifed from escort ship (DE) to frigate (FF). After trials in mid 1976, BRADLEY conducted two more deployments, each of which included lengthy operations in the Indian Ocean, before entering the shipyard in mid-1979 for another one year overhaul. Repeating this pattern, she conducted another two deployments, this time ranging between Korea and Malaysia, before starting another year-long overhaul in mid-1983, primarily to remedy boiler problems. The ship made one more Western Pacific deployment between mid-1986 and January 1987 and a Northern Pacific cruise in May-June 1988 before decommissioning in September 1988.

In September 1989 BRADLEY was leased to Brazil at San Diego and became the destroyer PERNAMBUCO (D 30). She was stricken from the U. S. Navy and sold outright to Brazil in January 2001.


Sample DE-1048 - History

1969 SHIP'S HISTORY NARRATIVE

During the first month of 1969, final preparations were made for KING's upcoming deployment with the U. S. SEVENTH Fleet in the Western Pacific. An extended upkeep period in her homeport of San Diego insured ail phases of KING's sophisticated weapons system and Naval Tactical Data System were ready for the six month deployment in the combat zone commencing in early February. A final missile and conventional ordnance loadout was conducted at the Seal Beach Naval Weapons Station on 22 January. The underway transit time in the Southern California operations area allowed final adjustments to various equipment. Families and close friends of KINGSMEN were entertained on a dependents cruise on 24 January which included helicopter operations off San Diego Harbor:

A delay in the date of deployment from the first week of February to 24 February allowed further improvement of personnel and material readiness, In accordance with Commander U. S. FIRST Fleet Quarterly Employment Schedule, KING left San Diego on 24 February bound for Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, with Captain L. D. CUMMINGS, Commander Destroyer Squadron FIFTEEN embarked. The transit time was utilized for exercises at General Quarters particularly in the ECM, communications and conventional gunnery areas. Arriving in Pearl Harbor on 2 March for four days, the ship received final Western Pacific operations plans and equipment and was soon enroute to Midway Island in company with the USS RADFORD (DD4-66). During the Pearl Harbor stay, Admiral John McCAIN personally witnessed and commended KING for the exemplary appearance of her ship and personnel upon arrival, A short fueling stop at Midway Island on 8 March provided a brief exercise period for the crew before the next leg of the transit to Yokosuka, Japan.

During this particular part of the voyage KING experienced particularly rough seas causing minor damage on the weather decks and a general uncomfortable feeling for a large part of the crew, CYN3 Robert J. CRAWFORD who would have been twenty five years old, missed his birthday when 10 March was eliminated due to crossing the International Date Line. The crew welcomed the arrival in Yokosuka on 14 March. The four day stopover allowed KING sailors to tour to nearby Tokyo, Yokohama, and other Japanese attractions. Vice Admiral W. F. BRINGLE, Commander U. S. SEVENTH Fleet visited the ship on 17 March. Underway again on 18 March with RADFORD as an element of TU 71.1.2, KING conducted special operations in the Sea of Japan until 23 March. For these actions KING was awarded the Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal (Korea) proudly worn by her crew for the remainder of the cruise.

KING sailed to Sasebo, Japan on 23 March for a one week visit which combined an upkeep period with sight seeing opportunities for the crew. A short cruise along the southern coast of Japan brought KING to the bustling Japanese port of Kobe on 1 April where the frigate was the only United States Naval Ship present in the Harbor. During the four day visit the U. S. sailors were welcomed throughout this thriving city and nearby Kyoto and Osaka. KING hosted a number of tours by such organizations as the Kobe Newspaper Reporters Guild, Kobe Rotary Club, Kobe Businessmens' Association, Tkuta Police Force, Boys' Town Orphanage, and a number of school groups.

Leaving Kobe on 5 April, KING sailed south for Subic Bay Naval Base, Philippine Islands. Enroute, a surface to air TERRIER missile firing was conducted at the Okinawa test range on the eastern side of the island. Arriving in Subic on 9 April, the ship spent four days in upkeep and installed special equipment peculiar to the forthcoming mission as Strike Support Ship (SSS) and Search and Rescue (SAR) control ship in the Gulf of Tonkin off Vietnam. A UH2 helicopter and crew was brought aboard at this time.

The ship departed Subic on 12 April for the Gulf of Tonkin via Danang, Republic of Vietnam, for briefings and anti-PT boat training. On 16 April KING relieved USS STANDLEY (DLG-32) as GTU 77.0.2 on Positive Identification Radar Advisory Zone (PIRAZ) Station in the northern Gulf of Tonkin, The frigate continued on this station for thirteen days utilizing her Naval Tactical Data System (NTDS) facility to support the U. S. Navy and Air Force strike efforts over Vietnam, The computerized command and control system allowed KING air controllers to actively follow strike aircraft over the target area, issue MIG warnings, provide navigational assistance, exercise positive control of Navy CAP,jet fighters and provide assistance to aircraft requiring emergency in-flight instructions.

During this period KING was continuously accompanied in her critical mission on station by a "shot gun" destroyer providing added conventional firepower. The shot guns were successively the USS HOPEWELL (DD-681), USS CHEVALIER (DD-805), USS LEARY (DD-879) and USS DOUGLAS H. FOX (DD-779). A vital role in maintaining this PIRAZ station was played by underway replenishment (UNREP) of fuel and supplies from various support ships to KING. Seven UNREPS were successfully completed during this first line period. The welcome supporting ships were USS NAVASOTA (A0-106), USS ALUDRA (AF-55), and USS PASSUMPSIC (A0-107).

On 28 April the ship received as emergency squawk from an A-7 jet aircraft losing engine power ten miles away. KING's helicopter rescued the downed pilot, LTJG Morris E. MANSELL of VF-53 who was treated by ship's medical corpsman and quickly air-lifted back to his squadron.

KING was relieved on 2 May by her sister ship USS MAHAN (DLG-1l) and directly returned to Subic on 4 May for a brief upkeep period alongside the destroyer repair ship USS KLONDIKE (AR-22). Underway again on 9 May, the ship joined the CTG 77.5 screen operating with the aircraft carrier BON HOMME RICHARD (CVA-31) on YANKEE Station in the Gulf of Tonkin. The NTDS capability enabled KING to act as Force Anti-Air Warfare Commander as well as Screen Commander for KING, USS CHEVALIER (DD-805) and USS SCHOFIELD (DEG-3). This mission continued for six days during which underway replenishment was conducted twice with the USS NAVASOTA (A0-106). This was the only time that other than a Carrier Division Commander acted in the capacity of Force Anti-Air Warfare Commander and was the result of not having an NTDS aircraft carrier available in the Gulf,

On 16 May KING relieved STANDLEY on the South Search and Rescue (SAR) station. Captain J. S. KERN, Destroyer Division 142, embarked as Surface-Subsurface Surveillance Coordinator (SSSC) (CTG 77.9). In company with her shot gun USS SAMPLE (DE-1048), the frigate remained on South SAR for one week receiving replenishment support from the USS PONCHATOULA (A0-148) and USS SACRAMENTO (AOE-1), the latter utilizing the vertical replenishment (VERTREP) helicopter technique with great success.

On the afternoon of Friday 23 May, the Honorable John H. CHAFEE, Secretary of the Navy, visited KING on the South SAR Station, arriving and departing by special helicopter from YANKEE Station. He was accompanied on his tour by Vice Admiral W. F. BRINGLE, Commander of the United States SEVENTH Fleet.

Late in the evening of 23 May, a flexible oil line in the after fireroom ruptured, causing an extensive Class B fire in that space. Damage control parties brought the fire under control smothering the blaze with foam. Timely aid was provided by SAMPLE in the form of fire fighting equipment and communication support. KING sustained four fatal casualties, all Boiler Technicians on watch in the after fireroom when the fire broke out.

The next day found KING returning to Subic. Arriving on 27 May KING commenced a repair period at the Ship Repair Facility, Subic Bay Naval Base. During this in port period extensive work was performed to renew the after fireroom and repair all other fire damage. Rear Admiral T. J. RUDDEN Jr., Commander Cruiser-Destroyer Group SEVENTH Fleet, visited KING on 10 June. The crew was actively engaged during this time in various activities. As part of a People to People project KINGSMEN spent weekends painting a schoolhouse in the neighboring Philippine barrio of Sexmoan, Pampanga. Athletic teams in basketball, softball, bowling and pistol found good competition including exciting contests with the Australian crewmen of HMAS PARRAMATTA. Professor Parker PhD. and Professor Harvey PhD. of San Diego State College conducted numerous psychology and mathematics classes as part of the Navy PACE (Program for Afloat College Education) educational program,

On 2 July, KING was again on her way back to the line relieving MAHAN as CTU 77.0.2 on 7 July. Two UNREPS with NAVASOTA quickly followed.

KING's patrolling on PIRAZ station with USS HERBERT J. THOMAS (DD-833) was interrupted on 10 July when all U. S. Naval ships were ordered out of the shallow Gulf of Tonkin to the open waters of the South China Sea to avoid Typhoon TESS. Returning to PIRAZ the frigate was involved in an UNREP with USS SACRAMENTO (AOE-1) and USS TAPPAHANNOCK (A0-43).

Back on PIRAZ KING hosted a visit on 13 July by Admiral FENG, Chi-Chung, Commander in Chief of the Chinese Nationalist Navy Vice Admiral J. L. CHEW, Commander United States Taiwan Defense Command and Vice Admiral W. F. BRINGLE, Commander United States SEVENTH Fleet.

Continuing on the PIRAZ station until 20 July, KING was accompanied successively by USS PERRY (DD-844), USS HERBERT J. THOMAS (DD-833) and USS PERKINS (DD-877) with whom she conducted various maneuvering and communication exercises. UNREPS with the veteran oilers USS GUADALUPE (A0-32) and USS KENNEBEC (A0-36) were a welcome change of routine and the USS STERETT (DLG-31) relieved KING on 20 July as CTU 77.0.2.

The following days were spent speeding toward the liberty port of Hong Kong, British Crown Colony, while all ears were listening to news of the United States Astronauts landing on the moon. KING moored alongside USS BUCHANAN (DDG-14) in Hong Kong harbor on 22 July for six fascinating days of liberty in this oriental city. Typhoon VIOLA shortened the ships visit by one day as storm warnings cleared traffic from the busy harbor. KING spent two rough days at sea evading the typhoon enroute to Subic for an overnight stopover.

On 1 August, KING relieved STERETT on PIRAZ station with USS GURKE (DD-783) as shot gun. The following day a U. S. Navy Crusader jet from VF-53 on BON HOME RICHARD ditched within 1000 yards of the ship. KING's small boat effected the rescue of the pilot LT George L. WELLS, USN, who was quickly returned by helicopter to his squadron.

During the remainder of the line period, together with GURKE, USS WILTSIE (DD-716), and USS EPPERSON (DD-719), the ship conducted successful UNREPS with USS KAWISHIWI (A0-146), USS GRAFFIAS (AF-29) and SACRAMENTO. Vice Admiral M. F. WEISNER, Commander Task Force 77 visited on 11 August and commended KING as the most responsive ship that had been on PIRAZ station during his tenure as CTF 77. KING was relieved for the final time on 15 August by USS CHICAGO (CG-11) and moved south to plane guard for USS KITTY HAWK (CVA-63) on YANKEE Station. Completing flight operations on 16 August KITTY HAWK with KING and GURKE returned to Subic for a short layover before leaving for San Diego on 21 August. KING conducted a surface to surface missile shoot that morning at the Subic missile range before rejoining GURKE in the screen of KITTY HAWK enroute CONUS. The unexpected decommissioning plans of USS KEARSARGE (CVS-33) allowed that anti-submarine carrier to join the formation in transit on 23 August.

The voyage back to San Diego was well utilized for various drills and exercises particularly in inter-ship communications and gunnery. Commanding Officer, USS KING acted as Screen Commander for this transit. Every three days the frigate refueled underway directly from KITTY HAWK, and half way across the Pacific from the USS CAMDEN (AOE-2) beginning her WESTPAC deployment. A large crowd of families and friends greeted KING's arrival in the homeport of San Diego on the morning of 4 September.

This arrival marked the beginning of an in port period lasting almost two months. Preparations for the upcoming Regular Overhaul provided most of the work for this time. The Annual Supply Inspection was conducted on 9 September with KING being highly commended for achieving the greatest percentage increase in the yearly grade for any ship in the fleet. In September KING acted as host ship for the Portuguese frigate ALMIRANTE MAGALHES CORREIA (F-474) visiting San Diego to participate in the city's 200th birthday celebration. During the week of 29 September KING acted as school ship for the DATC 1200 pound plant engineering course at the Naval Station.

On 1 October administrative control of KING was shifted from Commander Destroyer Squadron FIFTEEN to Commander Destroyer Squadron FIVE. Commodore J. C. BERRIMAN, COMDESRON FIVE broke his flag on KING for the month of October. KING departed San Diego on 27 October enroute to the San Francisco Bay Naval Shipyard for the scheduled four month Regular Overhaul period. An overnight stay at Seal Beach Naval Weapons Station allowed all ordnance, both missile and conventional, to be off loaded as a safety precaution. Passing under the Golden Gate Bridge on the morning of 29 October, KING was soon moored at the Naval Shipyard at Hunters Point, south of the city of San Francisco.

The shipyard period is being used to revitalize the engineering plant and add the latest in equipment and alterations to KING's advanced weapons and NTDS systems. Extensive off ship schooling is being provided for the officers and men in preparation for Refresher Training and subsequent deployment.

The Commanding Officer of KING held two awards ceremonies at the shipyard location honoring the fine efforts of the crew during the Western Pacific deployment. Five officers and men were awarded the Navy Commendation Medal and sixteen others were awarded the Navy Achievement Medal, all resulting from extraordinary performance during 1969. Also during November KING acted as host ship for HMS ARETHUSA during her visit to the port of San Francisco.

A well exec uted shift into Dry Dock #3 has allowed necessary work on the sonar, hull, shaft and propellers. New Years Day 1970 found KING resting on keel blocks in the Hunters Point drydock expecting to finish all shipyard work early in March.

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Reproduction of any sort is prohibited without express written consent.

The USS King (DLG-10/DDG-41) Association herein after referred to as Association, hereby disclaims all responsibility for any and all claims arising from the misuse, misappropriation, or misrepresentation by others of intellectual property found on this site. All trademarks and servicemarks are the property of their respective owners. Thank you for respecting the rights of copyright holders and of the Association.

© USS King (DLG-10/DDG-41) Association 1999 - 2017 All Rights Reserved
This website is owned and funded under the bylaws of the Association, a Non-profit Organization.

For questions, contact the webmaster


Captain William D. Sample (Rear Admiral USN) – May 19, 1944 – May 30, 1944

William D. Sample was born in Buffalo, NY, on March 9, 1898. He entered the U.S. Naval Academy in 1915, and was graduated with the class of 1919. He subsequently advanced in rank to that of Rear Admiral in August 1944.

After graduation from the Naval Academy, during World War I, he served until August of that year on board the USS Henderson. During the remaining period of the war he served on the destroyers Dixie, Trippe and Wiles, based on Queenstown, Ireland.

He began flight training at the Naval Air Station, Pensacola, FL in January 1923, and later that year was designated a Naval Aviator.

From June 1931 to June 1932 he was General Inspector of Aircraft, Central District, Wright Field, Dayton, OH. In June 1934 he assumed command of Fighting Squadron FIVE of the USS Lexington.

He served as Navigator of the USS Ranger from June 1938 until April 1939. In July 1940 he returned again to Pensacola, where he served as Superintendent of Aviation Training until March 1941, and as Executive Officer of the Naval Air Station until June 1942.

On April 19, 1944, he assumed command of the Intrepid,and on May 29 th transferred to command of the USS Hornet,a unit of Task Group 58.3. In the latter command he participated in operations in the Marianas Islands, in the Battle of the Philippine Sea, strikes against Iwo Jima, Guam and Rota.

Detached from the Horner on August 3, 1944, he became Commander Carrier Division 24, later Commander Carrier Division 27, in the rank of Rear Admiral. In February 1945 he was transferred to command of Carrier Division 22, in which command he was serving when reported “missing in action” on October 2, 1945, when the plane in which he was flying failed to return from a familiarization flight near Wakayama, Japan. He was officially declared dead a year and a day later, October 3, 1946.

The USS Sample (DE-1048) was named to honor Radm William D. Sample, USN. Her keel was laid on July 19, 1963, at Puget Sound Bridge and Dredging Company, Seattle, WA, and was launched on August 15, 1964.


Electronic Records Relating to the Vietnam War

This reference report provides an overview of the electronic data records in the custody of the National Archives that contain data related to military objectives and activities during the Vietnam War.

The National Archives holds a large body of electronic records that reflects the prolific use of computers by the military establishment in carrying out operations during the Vietnam War. Under the auspices of Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara, the military implemented an extensive data collection effort intended to improve the conduct of the conflict. The raw data documented details of casualties, military operations, military logistics, pacification programs, and other aspects of the war. With the data in electronic form, analysts performed statistical and quantitative analysis to assess and influence the direction of the conflict. After the conflict ended in the 1970's, various Department of Defense organizations, including the Office of the Secretary of Defense, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the Joint Commands, transferred the raw data files to the National Archives. Some of these records include documentary material that has not been transferred to the National Archives in any other format.

This reference report is organized by nine broad categories of Vietnam War data as listed above in the table of contents. For each category, the relevant electronic records series are listed along with information about the number of files, available output formats (see Output Formats for details), and technical documentation. Many of the series listed also have supplemental documentation. Since some series contain data applicable to more than one category, researchers may wish to review all potentially related categories and review the full descriptions for more details on the content of the records.

In several cases, different Department of Defense agencies used the same data systems, but may have modified the system to meet their needs. Therefore, NARA may have two versions or series of the same system. For example, both the Office of the Secretary of Defense (Record Group 330) and the Military Assistance Command, Vietnam (records found in Record Group 472) transferred files from the Hamlet Evaluation System (HES). In general, besides the fact that difference agencies transferred the files, the versions may differ in time coverage, format, and/or layout. While the different versions may contain some of the same records, there may be records in one version that are not in the other and vice versa.

Full descriptions of the series and data files listed in this report are in the National Archives Catalog. Users can search the Catalog by title, National Archives Identifier, type of archival material, or keyword.

NARA also has custody of textual (paper) records related to some of the Vietnam War data files described in this reference report. Some of these records may include outputs from the systems and reports based on the data. Users may wish to search the National Archives Catalog for descriptions of any related textual (paper) records.

Some of the series and files listed in this report are accessible online:

  • Download - This is a link for downloading the files and documentation from the Catalog. For more details on downloading files, please review the frequently asked questions (FAQs).
  • Search - This is a link for searching the records via the Access to Archival Databases (AAD) resource.

All of the files are also available for a cost-recovery fee. For more information see: Ordering Information for Electronic Records.

Please note that NARA makes public use versions available of records containing personal identifiers that if released may result in an unwarranted invasion of privacy. Such public use versions mask or delete these sensitive personal identifiers. In general, records of deceased casualties are released in full. The description and/or the technical documentation for a series outlines the information masked in the public use version.

Data about Military Operations, Incidents, and Activities

Record Group 218: Records of the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff

    Republic of Vietnam Incidents Files (INCDA), 1/26/1973 - 4/21/1975
    National Archives Identifier:601815
    Data Files: 4 (ASCII translated) (NIPS version also available)
    Technical Documentation: 56 pages
    Online Access: DownloadSearch

This series contains information on ceasefire violation combat incidents.

This series contains data on Viet Cong (VC) incidents against South Vietnam (SVN) indigenous civilian population plus damage or destruction of private or government property and /or installations. These files came from Headquarters, Pacific Command (PACOM) via the Survivability/Vurnerability Information Analysis Center (SURVIAC) [Wright-Paterson Air Force Base].

Record Group 330: Records of the Office of the Secretary of Defense

    Records About Combat Incidents in Cambodia During the Vietnam War [KHMER], 6/30/1970 - 6/12/1974
    National Archives Identifier:574517
    Data Files: 1 (ASCII translated) (NIPS version also available)
    Technical Documentation: 18 page, 4 electronic documentation files
    Online Access: DownloadSearch

This series contains information on incidents involving friendly and enemy military units operating in Cambodia during the Vietnam War and Cambodian War.

This series consists of records of Viet Cong and North Vietnamese initiated incidents of violence against the civilian population of South Vietnam during the Vietnam War. TIRSA is part of the Operations Analysis (OPSANAL) system.

This series provides select data on enemy initiated incidents during the Vietnam War. VCIIA is part of the Operations Analysis (OPSANAL) system.

Record Group 472: Records of the U.S. Forces in Southeast Asia

    Psychological Operations Information System (PSYOPSIS) Files, 3/1970 - 2/1973
    National Archives Identifier:23812710
    Data Files: 5 (ASCII Rendered) (NIPS version available)
    Technical Documentation: 90 pages
    Online Access: Download

This series contains records about aerial and surface psychological operations carried out by the U.S. military during the Vietnam War. This data served as input for the Psychological Operation Quarterly Analysis System (PSYOPQA).

This series contains aggregate data about psychological operations carried out by the U.S. military during the Vietnam War. The data from the Psychological Operations Information System (PSYOPSIS) served as input for this series. The data was linked with selected data from the Hamlet Evaluation System (HES).

This series contains data about incidents by the enemy against the civilian population, and public and private property. Incidents captured in the system include deaths, abductions, seizure of property, damage to property, and injuries, to name a few. This system was used as input for "Terrorist Incident Reporting System (TIRSA) Files, 10/1967 - 2/1973."

Data specific to Land Military Operations and Activities

Record Group 218: Records of the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff

    Records About the Ground Combat Operations by the Army During the Vietnam War, 5/20/1966 - 3/12/1973 (also known as Situation Report Army (SITRA))
    National Archives Identifier:604416
    Data Files: 4 (ASCII translated) (NIPS versions available)
    Technical Documentation: 49 pages, 2 electronic documentation files
    Online Access: DownloadSearch

This series contains records of ground combat operations in Southeast Asia during the Vietnam War, and includes but is not limited to information on the type of military operation, nationalities of armed forces, location, and dates.

This series includes statistical operations data about friendly initiated (FO) incidents and actions in Southeast Asia during the Vietnam War. It appears this series may conain data from the Republic of Vietnam Operational Statistics System (RVNOSS). These files came from Headquarters, Pacific Command (PACOM) via the Survivability/Vulnerability Information Analysis Center (SURVIAC) [Wright-Patterson Air Force Base].

This series includes operations data about enemy initiated (VC) incidents and actions in Southeast Asia during the Vietnam War. It appears this series may contain data from the Republic of Vietnam Operational Statistics System (RVNOSS). These files came from Headquarters, Pacific Command (PACOM) via the Survivability/Vulnerability Information Analysis Center (SURVIAC) [Wright-Patterson Air Force Base].

Record Group 330: Records of the Office of the Secretary of Defense

    Enemy Base Area File (BASFA), 7/1/1967 - 6/1/1971
    National Archives Identifier:600139
    Data Files: 1 (ASCII translated) (NIPS version available)
    Technical Documentation: 40 pages
    Online Access: DownloadSearch

This series contains data that define enemy base area locations in South Vietnam, North Vietnam, and Cambodia on a monthly basis. BASFA is part of the Operations Analysis (OPSANAL) system.

This series contains information on the identity and location of American, South Vietnamese, and Allied maneuver battalions (infantry, armored, cavalry, airborne, and air mobile) deployed in Southeast Asia during the Vietnam War. SEAFA is part of the Operations Analysis (OPSANAL) system.

This series contains data on ground combat operations, whether enemy or friendly initiated, in South Vietnam during the Vietnam War. VNDBA is part of the Operations Analysis (OPSANAL) system.

Record Group 335: Records of the Office of the Secretary of the Army

    Battalion Tracking Study Files, 10/1/1966 - 3/31/1969
    National Archives Identifier:644345
    Data Files: 55 (ASCII)
    Technical Documentation: 61 pages
    Online Access: Download

This series contains data for 48 U.S. Army ground combat battalions that were located in III Corps during the Vietnamese Conflict. The data was compiled as part of a study on the exposure of U.S. Army personnel to Agent Orange. It was created in conjunction with the series "Vietnam Experience Study Files, 1967 - 1968" (see Data about U.S. Military Personnel).

Record Group 338: Records of U.S. Army Operational, Tactical, and Support Organizations

    Records About Combat Operations by Army Units and Their Use and Loss of Military Supplies During the Vietnam War (COLED-V), 7/1/1967 - 6/30/1970
    National Archives Identifier:572881
    Data Files: 6 (ASCII)
    Technical Documentation: 32 pages
    Online Access: DownloadSearch

These records contain information about the use and the loss of military supplies, such as ammunition and equipment, by unit and by type of combat activity during the Vietnam War.

Record Group 472: Records of the U.S. Forces in Southeast Asia

    Ground Operations Reporting System (GORS) Files for the Army of the Republic of South Vietnam, 1967 - 3/29/1973
    National Archives Identifier:609200
    Data Files: 80 (ASCII Rendered) (NIPS version available)
    Technical Documentation: 262 pages and 5 electronic layout files
    Online Access:Download

This series contains information on ground combat missions involving military units of the Army of the Republic of South Vietnam during the Vietnam War.

Data specific to Air Military Operations and Activities

Record Group 218: Records of the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff

    Combat Air Activities Files (CACTA), 10/1965 - 12/1970
    National Archives Identifier:634496
    Data Files: 32 (ASCII Translated) (NIPS version available)
    Technical Documentation: 160 pages and 2 electronic layout files
    Online Access: DownloadSearch

This series contains bimonthly data on air combat missions flown in Southeast Asia by U.S. and allied forces during the first part of the Vietnam War. It is the predecessor to the series "Records About Air Sorties Flown in Southeast Asia, 1/1970 - 6/1975." These CACTA files contain two months of data, with some gaps. There is some duplication between these CACTA files and those in Record Group 529 and there are some records in one version that are not in the other and vice versa.

This series contains data on Fixed-Wing Aircraft Combat and Combat Support Sorties for U.S. and South Vietnam military forces. These files came from Headquarters, Pacific Command (PACOM) via the Survivability /Vulnerability Information Analysis Center (SURVIAC) [Wright-Patterson Air Force Base].

This series contains data on air warfare missions flown over Southeast Asia during the Vietnam War. NARA received three files from the U.S. Joint cheifs of Staff via the National Military Command Systems Support Center and nine files from Headquarters, Pacific Commaand (PACOM) via the Survivability/Vulnerability Information Analysis Center (SURVIAC) [Wright-Patterson Air Force Base]. There may be some duplication between the sets of files.

This series contains data on air combat missions flown in Southeast Asia by the Strategic Air Command (SAC) during the Vietnam War.

This series consists of files with records on air combat missions flown in Southeast Asia by U.S. and allied forces during the last part of the Vietnam War. It is the successor to the series "Combat Air Activities Files (CACTA), 10/1965 - 12/1970."

Record Group 330: Records of the Office of the Secretary of Defense

    Herbicide File, 1965 - 1971
    National Archives Identifier:623176
    Data Files: 4 versions: Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) de-NIPS'd version NARA de-NIPS'd version National Academy of Science (NAS) version and Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) Revised version
    Technical Documentation: 70 pages
    Online Access: Download

This series contains data on herbicide spraying missions, including the use of Agent Orange, during the Vietnam War.

Record Group 341: Records of Headquarters U.S. Air Force (Air Staff)

  • Airlift Operations Data Files, 10/1/1966 - 4/30/1972
    National Archives Identifier:630623
    Data Files: 140 (ASCII Rendered) for ALOREP 85 (ASCII Rendered) for MACAL (NIPS version available for ALOREP and MACAL)
    Technical Documentation: 18 pages and 2 electronic documentation files for ALOREP 14 pages and 3 electronic documentation files for MACAL
    Online Access:Download
    This series contains sortie-level data on the operational employment of airlift resources during the Vietnam War. The series includes the Airlift Operations Files (ALOREP) and Military Airlift Command Airlift Operations Report (MACAL) files.

Record Group 529: Records of U.S. Pacific Command

    Combat Air Activities Files (CACTA), 10/1/1965 - 1/31/1971
    National Archives Identifier:2123846
    Data Files: 50 (ASCII Translated) (NIPS version also available)
    Technical Documentation: 50 pages NARA prepared documentation, 1 electronic layout file (for agency documentation see CACTA RG 218)
    Online Access: Download

This series contains monthly data on air combat missions flown in Southeast Asia by U.S. and allied forces. These CACTA files are mostly by month, with some gaps. There is some duplication between these CACTA files and those in Record Group 218 and there are some records in one version that are not in the other and vice versa.

This series contains data identifying reconnaissance objectives, imagery requests, and imagery characteristics for imagery reconnaissance missions flown over Southeast Asia during the Vietnam War.

Data specific to Sea Military Operations and Activities

Record Group 38: Records of the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations

    Records About Hostile Fire Against U.S. and Australian Warships During the Vietnam War, 10/25/1966 - 4/5/1970 (also known as Hostile Fire File (HOSTA))
    National Archives Identifier:572877
    Data Files: 1 (ASCII)
    Technical Documentation: 23 pages (includes full printout of file)
    Online Access: Download

This series contains information about combat incidents of hostile fire directed at U.S. and Australian warships patrolling North and South Vietnamese waters in the South China Sea.

Record Group 218: Records of the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff

    Records About Naval Gunfire Support During the Vietnam War, 3/1966 - 1/1973 (also known as Combat Naval Gunfire Support File (CONGA))
    National Archives Identifier:572874
    Data Files: 1 (de-NIPS'd) (NIPS version available)
    Technical Documentation: 274 pages
    Online Access: DownloadSearch

This series contains data from daily and weekly Operations Summary Reports (OPREP-5) that document naval gunfire support missions.

This series contains data from two military operations during the Vietnamese Conflict, Operation Linebacker and Operation Pocket Money, which concerned all mining operations conducted against North Vietnamese interior waterways and harbors.

This series contains information on operation Market Time (surveillance of the coastline of South Vietnam) and operation Game Warden (patrolling South Vietnamese rivers).

Data specific to Tactical Military Intelligence

Record Group 472: Records of the U.S. Forces in Southeast Asia

    Small Unit Combat Actions Files, 1969 - 1970 (also known as Integrated Tactical Data File (ITDF))
    National Archives Identifier:610020
    Data Files: 3 (EBCDIC)
    Technical Documentation: 203 pages

This series contains records on small unit combat actions reported in the Corps Tactical Zone of the I field Force Vietnam (IFFV).

This series contains records of small unit combat actions reported in the Corps Tactical Zone of the Third Marine Amphibious Force (III MAP) during the Vietnam War.

Data about U.S. Military Personnel

Series containing data on U.S. military casualties are described in a separate reference report, Records of U.S. Military Casualties, Missing in Action, and Prisoners of War from the Era of the Vietnam War.

Record Group 335: Records of the Office of the Secretary of the Army

    Vietnam Experience Study Files, 1967 - 1968
    National Archives Identifier:648567
    Data Files: 8 (ASCII)
    Technical Documentation: 72 pages
    Online Access: Download

This series contains data on selected Army personnel who served in the Vietnamese conflict during 1967 and 1968 and were assigned to units tracked in the series "Battalion Tracking Study File, 10/1/1966 - 3/31/1969" (see Data specific to Land Military Operations and Activities). Public use versions of the files are available.

Record Group 472: Records of the U.S. Forces in Southeast Asia

    Records of Awards and Decorations of Honor During the Vietnam War (also known as Awards and Decorations System (AWADS))
    National Archives Identifier:604413
    Data Files: 1 (ASCII)
    Technical Documentation: 131 pages
    Online Access: DownloadSearch

This series contains information about some of the awards and decorations of honor awarded to U.S. military officers, soldiers, and sailors, and to allied foreign military personnel. A public use version is available.

Data about Vietnamese and Allied Military Forces

Record Group 218: Records of the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff

    Southeast Asia Casualty File (SEACA), 1/27/1973 - 4/20/1975
    National Archives Identifier:630221
    Data Files: 1 (NIPS)
    Technical Documentation: 16 pages
    Online Access:Download

This series contains counts of the number of war casualties during the ceasefire period. Casualty counts include South Vietnam civilians, Army of the Republic of Vietnam forces, North Vietnamese Army, and Viet Cong.

Record Group 330: Records of the Office of the Secretary of Defense

    Cambodian Friendly Units Files, 1/1970 - 3/1973
    National Archives Identifier:610063
    Data Files: 1 (ASCII Translated) (NIPS version available)
    Technical Documentation: 32 pages and 1 documentation (layout) file
    Online Access: DownloadSearch

This series contains data on over 900 military units in the Cambodian Armed Forces (Forces Armees Nationales Khmeres (FANK)) that were friendly to the allied side during the Cambodian War and the Vietnam War.

This series contains monthly data on the total number of policemen within the South Vietnamese National Police Force by both administrative unit and assigned police function.

Also known as the Army and Marine Forces Evaluation System Monthly Activity (AMFESMA), this series contains monthly activity data on the effectiveness of the armed forces of the Republic of South Vietnam. AMFESMA was part of the System to Evaluate the Effectiveness of the Republic of Vietnam Forces (SEER). There is an additional file, Army and Marine Forces Monthly Activity (AMFSA), that covers 1968.

This series contains information relating to personnel, training, unit deployment, military readiness, and operations of Vietnam Armed Forces. It is the predecessor to the series "Monthly Reports of Vietnamese Regional and Popular Forces, 4/1970 - 9/1972."

Record Group 472: Records of the U.S. Forces in Southeast Asia

    Monthly Reports of Vietnamese Regional and Popular Forces, 4/1970 - 9/1972
    National Archives Identifier:598773
    Data Files: 1 (EBCDIC) for TFES 1 (EBCDIC) for VNUS
    Technical Documentation: 66 pages
    Online Access: Download

This series consists of the Territorial Forces Evaluation System (TFES) and Vietnamese/United States System (VNUS). Both systems contain data on the combat effectiveness of regional and popular forces with South Vietnam. These systems were merged and expanded into the "Territorial Forces Analysis Reporting System (TFARS) Files, 9/1972 - 4/1974."

This series contains information on local defense forces, such as the number of people in combat training, the number and type of weapons in each hamlet, the number of friendly and enemy casualties, the training status of defense units, and if the defense unit engaged in combat, along with demographic information. The agency used the data to evaluate the progress and effectiveness of various components of local defense forces.

This series contains information about personnel with the Vietnamese (Republic of Vietnam) Air Force.

This series contains data on national police units and correction centers. It was used in conjunction with the National Police Infrastructure Analysis Subsystems (NPIASS).

Data related to Intelligence Gathering and Pacification Efforts

Record Group 330: Records of the Office of the Secretary of Defense

    Hamlet Evaluation System (HES) Files, 1967 - 1974
    National Archives Identifier:4616225
    Data Files: 98 (ASCII Rendered) (de-NIPS'd and NIPS version available)
    Technical Documentation: varies per file(s) (343 pages total, plus supplemental documentation)
    Online Access: Download

This series contains geopolitical and demographic information for South Vietnamese villages and hamlets, along with observation ratings relating to security conditions and socio-economic factors in each village and hamlet.

This series contains monthly public opinion poll responses from Vietnamese interviewees in both rural and urban areas about the Vietnamese Conflict, Cambodian War, Pacification Program, economic conditions, and other public issues. Interviewers memorized the survey questions, used indirect questioning techniques to obtain the responses, and then memorized the responses.

Record Group 472: Records of the U.S. Forces in Southeast Asia

    Hamlet Evaluation System (HES), 1969 - 1973
    National Archives Identifier:18556191
    Data Files: 1 (EBCDIC, variable-length records)
    Technical Documentation: none compiled

This series contains geopolitical and demographic information for South Vietnamese villages and hamlets, along with observation ratings relating to security conditions and socio-economic factors in each village and hamlet.

This series contains two subsystems of the National Police Infrastructure Analysis Subsystems (NPIASS I and NPIASS II) that have information about Viet Cong (VC) infrastructure by position and name, and document by dossier suspected VC members and the countermeasures taken against each suspect. A public use version of NPIASS II is available.

This series also contains the following electronic documentation files:

  • Hamlet Evaluation System (HES) / Viet Cong Infrastructure (VCI) Gazetteer, 1971-1973
  • Hamlet Evaluation System (HES) Gazetteer Source File, 1971-1973
  • Hamlet Evaluation System (HES) Gazetteer, 1971-1973
  • Greenbook File

The gazetteer files include codes and names for the geographic levels of Province, District, Village, and/or Hamlet, along with codes for the Corps Region, population numbers, ratings, and Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) coordinates. The files may serve as the source for the meanings for the district, village, and hamlet codes used in Hamlet Evaluation System (HES) and other related Vietnam War data files. The Greenbook file contains a table of all Viet Cong Infrastructure (VCI) political position codes, position title, and reporting level indicators.

This series contains monthly public opinion poll responses from Vietnamese interviewees in both rural and urban areas about the Vietnamese Conflict, Cambodian War, Pacification Program, economic conditions and other public issues. Interviewers used memorized the survey questions, used indirect questioning techniques to obtain the responses, and then memorized the responses.

Also known as the Phung Hoang Management Information System (PHMIS), this file contains biographical data on all suspected or confirmed members of the Viet Cong. A public use version is available.

Data related to Logistics

Record Group 472: Records of the U.S. Forces in Southeast Asia

    Automated Movement Management System Files [MACAMMS], 1968 - 1972
    National Archives Identifier:609199
    Data Files: 9 (ASCII)
    Technical Documentation: 184 pages basic documentation (estimated 600 pages supplemental)
    Online Access:Download

This series contains records that broadly describe shipments of cargo within and away from South Vietnam.

This series contains information on supplies and requisitions for the Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces

Output Formats

Contact staff for more details about specific files

During the Vietnam War, the Department of Defense used an early data base management system called the National Military Command System (NMCS) Information Processing System 360 Formatted File System, commonly known as NIPS. The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) developed the system. NIPS allowed users the ability to structure files, generate and maintain files, revise and update data, select and retrieve data, and generate reports. In some ways, NIPS supported relational database functionality.

Department of Defense agencies transferred to NARA many of the data files created during the Vietnam War in the software-dependent NIPS format. Although most of the file contains data, the beginning of the file consists of supporting information used during file maintenance, data retrieval, and output processing. The data are composed of fixed, non-repeating data with repeating subsets (i.e. a one-to-many relationship). The data are organized into the following sets of elements or tables:

  • Control Set, containing the unique record identifier that links to the Fixed Set and Periodic Sets
  • Fixed Set, containing non-repetitive data and
  • Periodic Sets, containing fields that can be repeated as needed there can be more than one type of Periodic Set.

For example, a record for a military mission in a NIPS file would include a control set that contains a unique identifier or fields that can be combined to create a unique identifier a fixed set with data about the mission as a whole a periodic set with data about the ordnance used in the mission that would be repeated for each type of ordnance used in the mission and a periodic set about the losses incurred in the mission repeated for each type of loss incurred. Therefore, a single mission record would consist of the control set, fixed set, none-to-many periodic sets per ordnance, and none-to-many periodic sets per loss.

In addition, NIPS files can include Variable Sets that appear only when data is present. These sets are usually "Comments" data in a free-text field of variable length. Data records in NIPS files are usually of varying length since the number of periodic sets vary for each record. NARA only provides exact copies of NIPS files.

De-NIPS'd

In the late 1970s and early 1980s, NARA staff "de-NIPS'd" or reformatted some of the files transferred in the NIPS format, outputting the data in a flat-file format using then-standard EBCDIC encoding. This was done in order to have a software-independent version of the data. However the "de-NIPSing" process output some numeric fields in a zoned decimal format these fields usually need to be reformatted before using with contemporary software.

In addition, the NIPS records have a control set, fixed set, and periodic set of fields. In the "de-NIPS'd" version, the control set or the fixed set of fields may appear in the first instance of the record, but may not appear in the subsequent instances with multiple periodic set fields for that record, which immediately follow the first instance. For example, the first instance of a record would be a row in the database containing the control set, fixed set, and the first periodic set. If there are multiple periodic sets for that record, the next row would only include the control set and the second periodic set, followed by another row with the control set and the third periodic set, and so forth for each periodic set. Therefore the records are preserved in a specific sequential order and need to be "read" by the computer in that order. "De-NIPS'd" files may contain fixed-length or variable-length records. NARA only provides exact copies of de-NIPS'd files.

ASCII Translated

In 2002, NARA staff and volunteers developed computer programs written in Common Business-Oriented Language (COBOL) to translated the NIPS files into ASCII, fixed-length records per each periodic set that contained the control set, fixed set, and periodic set fields. This format allows users to sort the records (i.e. the records are no longer in a sequential order).

ASCII Rendered

In 2007, NARA staff developed another software program, NIPSTRAN, to convert the NIPS files into more usable ASCII rendered tables. The program produces a table for the fixed set and tables for each periodic set. The tables function like a relational-database with one-to-many relationship (i.e. one fixed set record to many periodic set records). All the records in the tables include the corresponding control set fields to allow for linking between the fixed set table and periodic set table(s). The records in the tables are fixed-length and there may be versions of the tables where the records are field delimited.

EBCDIC and/or Binary

If not in the NIPS format, most of the other Vietnam War data files in NARA's custody are preserved in EBCDIC encoding. Some of these files may include binary characters, fields with zoned decimal data, variable-length records with binary counters, or other aspects that require the file be reformatted before using with contemporary software and may not properly auto-convert to ASCII. NARA can only offer exact copies of these files.

Selected Supplemental Documentation

Civil Operations and Rural Development Support (CORDS), Research and Analysis Directorate, Hamlet Evaluation System (HES) Command Manual, Document No. DAR R70-79 CM-01B, Military Assistance Command Vietnam, 1 September 1971. (RG 472 108 pages)

Civil Operations and Rural Development Support (CORDS), Research and Analysis Directorate, Hamlet Evaluation System (HES) Operations Manual, Document No. DAR R70 OM-01A, Military Assistance Command Vietnam, June 1972. (RG 472 150-200 pages)

Defense Communications Agency, Command and Control Technical Center, NMCS Information Processing System 306 Formatted File System (NIPS 360 FFS) General Description, Computer System Manual Number CSM GS 15-17, 1 September 1978. (41 pages)

Defense Communications Agency, Command and Control Technical Center, NMCS Information Processing System 306 Formatted File System (NIPS 360 FFS) Volume I Introduction to File Concepts, Computer System Manual Number CSM UM 15-78, 1 September 1978. (106 pages)

National Military Command System Support Center, The Operation Analysis System (OPSANAL) User's Manual (Revision A), Computer System Manual Number CSM UM63A-68, 30 September 1969. (405 pages)

Selected Additional Resources

Adams, Margaret O. "Vietnam Records in the National Archives: Electronic Records." Prologue 23 (Spring 1991): 76-84.

Carter, G. A., et al. An Interim Guide to Southeast Asia Combat Data. Prepared for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency by Rand (WN-8718-ARPA). Santa Monica, CA: Rand, June 1974.

Carter, G. A., et al. A User's Guide to Southeast Asia Combat Data. Prepared for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency by Rand (R-1815-ARPA). Santa Monica, CA: Rand, June 1976.

Eliot, Duong Van Mai. RAND in Southeast Asia: a history of the Vietnam War era. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2010.

Harrison, Donald F. "Machine-Readable Sources for the Study of the War in Vietnam." In Databases in the Humanities and Social Sciences-4: Proceedings of the International Conference on Databases in the Humanities and Social Sciences, July, 1987, ed. Lawrence J. McCrank. Medford, NJ: Learned Information, Inc, 1989.

Thayer, Thomas C., ed. A System Analysis View of the Vietnam War: 1965-1972, 12 volumes, 1975. These volumes contain articles printed in the "Southeast Asia Analysis Report" from January 1967 to January 1972. The volumes include:


Roger de Montgomery, seigneur of Montgomer, by Wikipedia

No near-contemporary source gives Roger's parentage. The younger Roger de Montgomery, actually son of this Roger, was instead said by chronicler Robert of Torigni to have been born to a Hugh de Montgomery by Josseline, niece of Gunnor, Duchess of Normandy. One possible interpretation of this clear misstatement is that a generation has been dropped, and that it was the elder Roger who was son of Hugh and Josseline, though others conclude that Josseline's husband was the elder Roger, the assignment of the name Hugh to her husband being the error. Though Robert de Torigni calls Josceline daughter of Wevia, sister of Gunnor, a letter from the reign of Henry I states she was daughter of another sister, Senfria.[1][2]

Roger held the lands of Saint-Germain-de-Montgommery and Sainte-Foy-de-Montgommery, both of which show traces of early castles.[3] He acquired the office of vicomte of the Hiémois probably about the time Robert I became Duke in 1027.[a][4] In c.�� he witnessed a charter to the abbey of St. Wandrille by Robert I, Duke of Normandy as vicomte.[5] Like Duke Robert, Roger began acquiring church properties, among these, c.��, half the town of Bernay.[6] He took over a wood at 'Crispus Fagidus' which belonged to Jumièges Abbey in the 1030s.[6] He suppressed a market held by the same abbey and transferred it into his own domain.[7] He later returned the market to the abbey and paid restitution for their losses.[7]

In 1035 at Robert I's death, his great uncle, Robert Archbishop of Rouen ruled Normandy as regent.[8] Roger seems to have lost favor with the young duke as well as his vicomte office as he signed an early charter of Duke William simply as Roger of Montgomery.[9] At the archbishop’s death in 1037, anarchy broke out in Normandy and among the rebels was Roger de Montgomery, formerly one of Duke Robert's closest companions, who, after being defeated in his own territory, fled to the court of Henry I of France.[10] Roger had been forced into exile by Osbern the Steward who was afterwards killed by William de Montgomery, Roger's son.[11] Roger died on February 7, 1055 in exile in Paris.[citation needed] In 1068 his wife was still holding lands at Bures and Saint-Pair.


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