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Was Ezra Pound a descendent of Jews?

Was Ezra Pound a descendent of Jews?



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I've tried to search the internet for poet's Ezra Pound genealogy, but I only find extreme-right sites…

A person with the name Ezra seems to have some relationship to Jewish culture/religion. Furthermore, Pound seems like one of those names that were created during the Holy Inquisition in Europe, by the New-Christians (Converted Jews).

Am I correct?


Your question reminds me of the persistent Soviet/Russian folk legends that Isaak Newton and Abraham Lincoln were Jews ;-)

There is no reason to think that Ezra Pound had any connection to Jews. He is a descendant of Puritans and Quakers.


I only find extreme-right sites

That's probably because he is known to have been

a fascist collaborator in Italy during World War II

and

wrote for publications owned by the British fascist Sir Oswald Mosley, embraced Benito Mussolini's fascism, and expressed support for Adolf Hitler. During World War II and the Holocaust in Italy, he made hundreds of antisemitic, paid radio broadcasts for the Italian government, including in German-occupied Italy, attacking the United States, Franklin D. Roosevelt and, above all, Jews, as a result of which he was arrested in 1945 by American forces in Italy on charges of treason.

- Wikipedia: Ezra Pound.

More to the point,

Calling himself "Dr Ezra Pound" (he did not have a doctorate), Pound referred to Jews as "filth". He praised Adolf Hitler's Mein Kampf, recommended eugenics to "conserve the BEST of the race", and said the melting pot in America was "lost". He complained about "Mr. Churchill and that brute Rosefield [President Franklin Roosevelt] and their kike postal spies and obstructors". When he learned that the Nazis in Italy were rounding up Jews, he suggested that book stores showcase The Protocols of the Elders of Zion (1903), a hoax document purporting to be a Jewish plan to dominate the world. He wrote: "The arrest of Jews will create a wave of useless mercy; thus the need to disseminate the Protocols."

- Wikipedia: Ezra Pound's radio broadcasts (1941-45).


A person with the name Ezra seems to have some relationship to Jewish culture/religion.

Obviously ! As a (cultural) Christian, his (nominal) religion is ultimately a descendant of Judaism; to state matters more clearly, within Protestant Christianity, specifically, biblical names are usually preferred over those of Christian saints, since praying to the latter and/or venerating their images or statuettes (a fairly common Roman Catholic devotion) is seen as a forbidden practice by many denominations descending from the Reformation.


Pound seems like one of those names that were created during the Holy Inquisition in Europe, by the New-Christians (Converted Jews).

Why ? Because it happens to have monetary connotations ? Apparently, Pound

is an English medieval surname. It may be locational and as such describes a person who lived by a pound, or came from a place called Pound, of which there are several examples around the country. The origin is the Olde English pre 7th century 'pund', the later pound. This was a walled enclosure, usually round with one entrance, and of which a number of fine examples still exist, where stray animals were 'impounded' until collected by their owners, who then had to pay a fine to the Pounder, a job descriptive surname. An alternative occupational origin which will certainly apply to some nameholders, is that the name describes a skilled iron worker, one who was responsible for manufacturing the ancient weights and measures known as 'pounds'. The derivation being again from a word spelt 'pund', although obviously the meaning is quite different.

- Surname Database: Pound.


Ezra Pound wrote the world’s single greatest poem, but is it wrong to love a fascist?

N othing in this life is certain aside from death, taxes and English literature graduates writing in the Guardian and spoiling your enjoyment of things you had previously thought were fine. While the meme of the problematic fave may be five years old, the enduring agony and ecstasy of having one tells us a lot about the way popular culture shapes our entire sense of self.

The problematic fave has its origins in that crucible of millennial woke culture, Tumblr. A modern-day Domesday Book called Your Fave Is Problematic catalogued examples of transphobic, misogynist and white-supremacist behaviour from supposedly liberal heroes (RuPaul using the slur “tranny”, for example). As such, the problematic fave should not be confused with its insipid country cousin, the guilty pleasure. We’re not talking about harmless indulgences such as scoffing a whole tube of Pringles before bedtime, or autoerotic asphyxiation. We’re talking about cultural phenomena where not only the artist, but also our own pleasure in the artist, is politically and ethically dubious.

I’ve probably got more problematic faves than defensible ones. I cannot stand art that is trying to improve me in any way I love Kanye West despite everything and ya Allah, if you place an emotionally repressed white boy in my path, I will date him (admittedly some of these bad habits are more egregious than others).

My first problematic fave is an advocate of skin bleaching, a homophobe and a convicted murderer. Yes, stand up all you remorseful fans of Vybz Kartel. Catch me whining, shamefaced, at a house party near you. With every stream or album purchase, I know I’m funding a set of values I find abhorrent in every way. It is just about possible to confect a state of blissful ignorance regarding the dancehall artist when Clarks (a panegyric to the shoe shop) drops. But Romping Shop, with its gratuitous condemnation of same-sex relationships in the opening bars? I think of my LGBT family and friends, persecuted for the mere fact of who they love of Dexter Pottinger, Jamaica’s “Face of Pride”, who was murdered last year. Nothing embodies my privilege as a straight woman more than the game of self-deception I play when I hear that juddering beat, singing along to every obscene word – apart from the ones that force queer people to remain closeted. It’s morally unjustifiable. And yet.

The Simpsons has shaped my psychology to a degree one would usually attribute to a parent, or a particularly devout upbringing. I am a zealot. Mention the words “dental plan” to me at the pub, and I’ll take that as an invitation to launch into raptures about Matt Groening’s latent communism. Bart’s throwaway campness is more endearing to me than the prospect of my own future offspring. I love fictional Springfield more than real-life Britain. And yet.

The problem with Apu was analysed in great detail in Hari Kondabolu’s 2017 documentary of the same name. In the absence of any other form of pop-cultural representation, Groening’s Kwik-E-Mart clerk Apu Nahasapeemapetilon became a simulacrum of all South Asians in Britain and America what’s more, he’s voiced by Hank Azaria, a white guy. Dana Gould, sometime co-executive producer of the series, has been unapologetic: “There are some accents that by their nature, to white Americans, sound funny. Period.” There are no plans to recast Apu, or write the character out of the show.

This grotesque caricature has gone beyond the 2D confines of animation to shape the real-life experiences of desis. South Asian actors have described the humiliation of being told to adopt Kwik-E-Mart diction at auditions and the Apu accent – clickedy-clack cadence, tongue glued to the palate – has pursued me through playgrounds and then pubs, mostly via white people who love The Simpsons as much as I do.

In the age of Decolonising The Curriculum and Rhodes Must Fall, we’ve seen the legacies of Winston Churchill and Rudyard Kipling robustly contested. I support both these movements. I am also profoundly mortified by the politics of one of my favourite poets.

Ezra Pound was a pioneer of the most exciting aesthetic movement of the 20th century. He implored artists to “make it new” his editing transformed TS Eliot’s lumpen and exposition-laden verse into The Waste Land, which thrills to this day and, in just two lines, he composed what I consider to be the single greatest poem ever written, In A Station Of The Metro. He was also a fascist. A vituperative antisemite. The mind that produced the sparse beauty of that poem wanted to annihilate the political and social groups that he deemed at odds with his cause. Not only did he court private audiences with Mussolini, he delivered pro-axis and anti-Jew broadcasts four times a week between 1941 and 1943, on Italian radio.

With Pound, it’s impossible to separate the art from the artist. He considered himself a propagandist. Canto XLV, one of his many attacks on financiers, is suffused with antisemitic language and imagery. Nor are these just the concerns of the past: the coding of Jews as illicitly wealthy and conspiring against democracy is again a feature of European politics.

So what are we to do with our problematic faves? History shows that any attempt to bend culture to the will of a rigid ideology is itself politically abominable (Mao, I’m looking at you). And yet we can’t absolve ourselves of the political and social consequences of problematic art (or, in my case at least, gum up our ears to its siren call). For me, the biggest lesson is that studying English literature at university is a recipe for misery. If this is being woke, I cry to dream again


Ezra the Scribe

Ezra (480&ndash440 BCE), also called Ezra the Scribe (Ezra ha-Sofer) and Ezra the Priest in the Book of Ezra, was a Jewish scribe and a priest. According to the Hebrew Bible he was a descendant of Seraiah (Ezra 7:1) the last high priest to serve in the first temple (kings 2 25:18), and a close relative of Joshua the first High Priest of the second temple (chronicles 1 5:40-41. see also Ezra 3:2). He returned from the Babylonian exile and reintroduced the Torah in Jerusalem (Ezra 7&ndash10 and Neh 8). According to 1 Esdras, a Greek translation of the Book of Ezra still in use in Eastern Orthodoxy, he was also a high priest. Rabbinic tradition holds that he was only a common priest.

Several traditions have developed over his place of burial. One tradition says that he is buried in al-Uzayr near Basra (Iraq), while another tradition alleges that he is buried in Tadif near Aleppo, in northern Syria.

His name may be an abbreviation of Azaryahu, "God-helps".

The Book of Ezra describes how he led a group of Judean exiles living in Babylon to their home city of Jerusalem (Ezra 8.2-14) where he is said to have enforced observance of the Torah. He was described as exhorting the Israelite people to be sure to follow the Torah Law so as not to intermarry with people of particular different religions, a set of commandments described in the Pentateuch.

Ezra, known as "Ezra the scribe" in Chazalic literature, is a highly respected figure in Judaism.

The books of Ezra&ndashNehemiah were originally one scroll. (Nehemiah 3:32, footnote) Later the Jews divided this scroll and called it First and Second Ezra. Modern Hebrew Bibles call the two books Ezra and Nehemiah, as do other modern Bible translations. A few parts of the Book of Ezra (4:8 to 6:18 and 7:12-26) were written in Aramaic, and the majority in Hebrew, Ezra himself being skilled in both languages. Ezra, a descendant of Seraiah the high priest, was living in Babylon when in the seventh year (c. 457 BCE) of Artaxerxes, king of Persia, the king sent him to Jerusalem to teach the laws of God to any who did not know them. Ezra led a large body of exiles back to Jerusalem, where he discovered that Jewish men had been marrying non-Jewish women. He tore his garments in despair and confessed the sins of Israel before God, then braved the opposition of some of his own countrymen to purify the community by enforcing the dissolution of the sinful marriages. Some years later Artaxerxes sent Nehemiah (a Jewish noble in his personal service) to Jerusalem as governor with the task of rebuilding the city walls. Once this task was completed Nehemiah had Ezra read the Law of Moses (the Torah) to the assembled Israelites, and the people and priests entered into a covenant to keep the law and separate themselves from all other peoples.

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EZRA THE SCRIBE ( />).

A descendant of Seraiah the high priest (Neh. viii. 13 Ezra vii. 1 et seq. II Kings xxv. 18-21) a member of the priestly order, and therefore known also as Ezra the Priest ( />: Ezra vii. 11 x. 10, 16). The name, probably an abbreviation of "Azaryahu" (God helps), appears in Greek (LXX., Apocrypha, Josephus) and in Latin (Vulgate) as "Esdras." Though Ezra was one of the most important personages of his day, and of far-reaching influence upon the development of Judaism, his biography has to be reconstructed from scanty material, furnished in part by fragments from his own memoirs (see Ezra, Book of). The first definite mention of him is in connection with a royal firman granting him permission to lead a band of exiles back to Jerusalem (Ezra vii. 12-26). This edict was issued in the seventh year of King Artaxerxes, corresponding to 458 B.C. There is no reason to doubt the authenticity of the document as incorporated in Aramaic in the Book of Ezra, though Jewish coloring may be admitted. The arguments advanced for the opposite view (Cornill, "Einleitung in das Alte Testament," p. 264 Driver, "Introduction to the Literature of the Old Testament," 10th ed., p. 550) at their utmost reflect on the verbal, not the virtual, accuracy of the decree. Nor is there any ground for holding that the king in question was any other than Artaxerxes Longimanus. A. van Hoonacker's contention ("Néhémie et Esdras," etc., Paris, 1890) that Ezra came to Jerusalem in the seventh year of Artaxerxes II. (397 B.C. comp. Winckler, "Altorientalische Forschungen," ii. 2 Cheyne, in "Biblical World," Oct., 1899), is untenable (see Guthe, "Gesch. des Volkes Israel," p. 252 Piepenbring, "Histoire du Peuple d'Israel," p. 537 Kuenen, "Gesammelte Abhandlungen zur Bibl. Wissenschaft," ed. Budde, pp. 239 et seq.).

Though received with greater favor, the assumption of Kosters (in "Het Herstel van Israel," German ed. by Basedow, pp. 103 et seq.) that Ezra arrived in Jerusalem only during the second visit of Nehemiah (433 B.C. ), can not be maintained (see Ed. Meyer, "Die Entstehung des Judenthums," 1896, pp. 60, 89, 199 et seq. Wellhausen, "Die Rückkehr der Juden," pp. 3 et seq.). Probably the reputation he enjoyed for learning (hence "the ready scribe": Ezra vii. 6) stood him in good stead with the king, who in the firman appears to have conferred upon him extensive authority to carry his intention into effect. To the number of about 1, 500, mostly from the tribes of Judah and Benjamin (Ezra viii. 1-14), not counting the women and children, the companions of Ezra assembled at the river flowing toward Ahava. But no Levite being among them, Ezra induced 38 Levites and 220 Nethinim to join his expedition. After observing a day of public fasting and prayer, on the twelfth day of the first month (Nisan = April), without military escort but with due precaution for the safeguarding of the rich gifts and treasures in their keeping, they set out on their journey, and arrived without mishap at Jerusalem in the fifth month (Ab = August).

Soon after his arrival Ezra was compelled to take strenuous measures against marriage with non-Hebrew women (which had become common even among men of high standing), and he insisted in a very dramatic manner upon the dismissal of such wives (Ezra ix. and x.) but it was only after the arrival of Nehemiah (444 B.C. comp. Neh. viii. 1 et seq.) that he published the "book of the law of Moses" which he had brought with him from Babylon, and made the colony solemnly recognize it as the basis of their religious and civil code. Ezra is further mentioned as the leader or one of the two choirs singing hymns of thanksgiving at the dedication of the wall (Neh. xii. 36 et seq.), but this note is suspected of being a gloss of questionable historical value.

Ezra marks the springtime in the national history of Judaism. "The flowers appear on the earth" (Cant. ii. 12) refers to Ezra and Nehemiah (Midr. Cant. ad loc.). Ezra was worthy of being the vehicle of the Law, had it not been already given through Moses (Sanh.21b). It was forgotten, but Ezra restored it (Suk. 20a). But for its sins, Israel in the time of Ezra would have witnessed miracles as in the time of Joshua (Ber. 4a). Ezra was the disciple of Baruch ben Neriah (Cant. R.) his studies prevented him from joining the first party returning to Jerusalem in the reign of Cyrus, the study of the Law being of greater importance than the reconstruction of the Temple. According to another opinion, Ezra remained behind so as not to compete, even involuntarily, with Jeshua ben Jozadak for the office of chief priest. Ezra reestablished the text of the Pentateuch, introducing therein the Assyrian or square characters, apparently as a polemical measure against the Samaritans (Sanh. 21b). He showed his doubts concerning the correctness of some words of the text by placing points over them. Should Elijah, said he, approve the text, the points will be disregarded should he disapprove, the doubtful words will be removed from the text (Ab. R. N. xxxiv.). Ezra wrote the Book of Chronicles and the book bearing his name (B. B. 16a).

He is regarded and quoted as the type of person most competent and learned in the Law (Ber. R. xxxvi.). The Rabbis associate his name with several important institutions. It was he who ordained that three men should read ten verses from the Torah on the second and fifth days of the week and during the afternoon ("Minḥah") service on Sabbath (B. Ḳ. 82a) that the "curses" in Leviticus should be read before Shabu'ot, and those in Deuteronomy before Rosh ha-Shanah (Meg. 31b see Bloch, "Die Institutionen des Judenthums," i. 1, pp. 112 et seq., Vienna, 1879). He ordained also that courts be in session on Mondays and Thursdays that garments be washed on these days that garlic be eaten on the eve of Sabbath that the wife should rise early and bake bread in the morning that women should wear a girdle (B. K. 82a Yer. Meg. iv. 75a) that women should bathe (B. Ḳ. 82a) that pedlers be permitted to visit cities where merchants were established (B. Ḳ. 82a see Bloch, l.c. p. 127) that under certain contingencies men should take a ritual bath that the reading at the conclusion of the benedictions should be "min ha-'olam we-'ad ha'olam" (from eternity to eternity: against the Sadducees see Bloch, l.c. p. 137). His name is also associated with the work of the Great Synagogue (Meg.17b). He is said to have pronounced the Divine Name ( Yhwh ) according to its proper sounds (Yoma 69b), and the beginnings of the Jewish calendar are traced back to him (Beẓah 6a Rashi, ad loc.).

According to tradition, Ezra died at the age of 120 in Babylonia. Benjamin of Tudela was shown his grave on the Shaṭṭ al-'Arab, near the point where the Tigris flows into the Euphrates ("Itinerary," i. 73). According to another legend, he was at the time of his death in Babylon, as a courtier in the retinue of Artaxerxes (see Vigouroux, "Dictionnaire de la Bible," ii. 1931). Josephus, however, relates that Ezra died at Jerusalem, where he was buried ("Ant." xi. 5, § 5). In the seliḥah />for the 10th of Ṭebet the date of Ezra's death is given as the 9th of Ṭebet (see Shulḥan 'Aruk, Oraḥ Ḥayyim, 580).

The historical character of the Biblical data regarding Ezra the Scribe (after Ed. Meyer, "Die Entstehung des Judenthums," p. 321) is generally conceded. But the zeal of Ezra to carry out his theory that Israel should be a holy seed ( />), and therefore of absolutely pure Hebrew stock, was not altogether effective that his views met with opposition is indicated in the books of Ruth and Jonah. The "book of the law" which he proclaimed at the public assembly (Neh. viii.-x.) is substantially identified with the Priestly Code (P), which, though containing older priestly ordinances ("torot"), came to be recognized as the constitutional law of the congregation (Judaism) only after Ezra's time and largely through his and Nehemiah's influence and authority.


The First Wave: Zerubbabel

The first wave of returnees, whose story is told in Ezra chapters 1-6, consisted of about 40,000 individuals (Ezra 2:64), led by Zerubabbel, a descendant of King David, and Joshua son of Jozadak the high priest. Fired by the vision of restoring the glory of the age of David and Solomon, the returnees sought to re-establish the Temple, and to run the community in a way that would elicit divine approval.

As the first Sukkot festival in the land of Israel approached, the returnees reinstated the sacrificial offerings at the site of the Temple, and then began rebuilding the Temple itself (Ezra chapter 3). But the returnees were not the only group to see themselves as heirs of ancient Israel. When the returnees came back to the land of Israel, they found another group already living there, viz. the inhabitants of Samaria and central Transjordan (ancient Ammon).

These Samaritans were, in the view of leadership of those returning from Babylonia, merely the descendants of people brought to the Land of Israel by the Assyrian kings at the end of the eighth century in place of the Israelites they deported. The Samaritans, on the other hand, had Israelite names in some cases, and saw themselves as heirs of the Northern Kingdom of Israel. They objected to the returnees&rsquo building the Temple on their own and demanded a part in the project.

The returnees did not see the Samaritans as legitimate heirs of ancient Israel, and felt they should take no part in the rebuilding, especially since the Samaritans had no connection with Jerusalem. Angered by the returnees&rsquo refusal to include them in building the Temple, the Samaritans lobbied the Persian empire to stop the project the story of their correspondence with the Persian administration is recorded in Ezra 4. This episode illustrates another aspect of the recurring problem of defining the boundaries of Israelite identity.


Ezra in rabbinic literature

The return from exile is depicted in this woodcut for Die Bibel in Bildern, 1860, by Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld.

Traditionally Judaism credits Ezra with establishing the Great Assembly of scholars and prophets, the forerunner of the Sanhedrin, as the authority on matters of religious law. The Great Assembly is credited with establishing numerous features of contemporary traditional Judaism in something like their present form, including Torah reading, the Amidah, and celebration of the feast of Purim. [14]

In Rabbinic traditions, Ezra is metaphorically referred to as the “flowers that appear on the earth” signifying the springtime in the national history of Judaism. A disciple of Baruch ben Neriah, he favored study of the Law over the reconstruction of the Temple and thus because of his studies, he did not join the first party returning to Jerusalem in the reign of Cyrus. According to another opinion, he did not join the first party so as not to compete, even involuntarily, with Jeshua ben Jozadak for the office of chief priest. [14]

According to Jewish tradition, Ezra was the writer of the Books of Chronicles, [14] [15] and is the same prophet known also as Malachi. [16] There is a slight controversy within rabbinic sources as to whether or not Ezra had served as Kohen Gadol. [17]

According to the Babylonian Talmud, Ezra the scribe is said to have enacted ten standing laws and orders, [18] which are as follows: 1) That the public come together to read from the scroll of the Law on Sabbath days during the time of the afternoon oblation (Minchah), because of those travelling merchants who loiter in the closed shops in the street corners, and who may have missed the biblical lections that were read during the weekdays [19] 2) that the courts be opened throughout the Jewish townships on Mondays and Thursdays 3) that women do not wait beyond Thursday to launder their clothes, because of the honor due to the Sabbath day 4) that men would accustom themselves to eat [cooked] garlic on the eve of the Sabbath (believed to enhance love between a man and his wife) 5) that women would rise up early on Friday mornings to bake bread, so that a piece of bread will be available for the poor 6) that Jewish women in every place be girded with a wide belt (waist band), whether from the front or from behind, out of modesty 7) that Jewish women, during their menses, wash and comb their hair three days prior to their purification in a ritual bath 8) that the travelling merchants make regular rounds into the Jewish townships because of the honor due to the daughters of Israel 9) that Jewish women and/or girls, as a precautionary measure, be accustomed to conversing with one another while one of their party goes out to relieve herself in the outhouse 10) that men who may have suffered a seminal emission (especially after accompanying with their wives) be required to immerse themselves in a ritual bath before being permitted to read from the scroll of the Law.

In the Syrian village of Tedef, a synagogue said to be the place where Ezra stopped over has been venerated by Jews for centuries. Another tradition locates his tomb near Basra, Iraq.


Background to Ezra’s Call for Restoration

That faithfulness is clearly seen as we trace the history of the Jewish people through very difficult times. The Bible records the devastation wrought upon the kingdom of Judah and Jerusalem by the armies of King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon (2 Kings 24–25, 2 Chron. 36) in 586 BC. The Babylonians destroyed Solomon’s Temple and slaughtered a great multitude. After the destruction, hundreds of thousands of people—the cream of the crop of Jewish society—were taken into exile to Babylon, over 750 miles (1,207 km) to the east. Only poor Jewish peasants remained in the Land and were barely able to survive.

Yet well before the devastation, God revealed to Jeremiah that Babylon would come in judgment because of Judah’s wickedness. He recorded the prophecies to Judah concerning the threat in the book of Jeremiah. “And this whole land shall be a desolation and an astonishment, and these nations shall serve the king of Babylon seventy years” (25:11). Yet the distressing report was tempered with hope. “For thus says the LORD: After seventy years are completed at Babylon, I will visit you and perform My good word toward you, and cause you to return to this place” (29:10). One hundred and fifty years earlier, Isaiah had also prophesied concerning Judah’s future restoration, even naming the king whom God would use to restore the Jewish people to the Land to rebuild the Temple. “Who says of Cyrus, ‘He is My shepherd, and he shall perform all My pleasure, saying to Jerusalem, “You shall be built,” and to the temple, “Your foundation shall be laid””’ (Isa. 44:28).

Room 55 of the British Museum in London, England is home to the “Cyrus Cylinder.” The baked clay cylinder dates back to the sixth century BC and bears a message written in the Akkadian cuneiform script. This ancient document was issued by Cyrus the Great of Persia in the year 539 BC after he captured the city of Babylon from Nabonidus, the king of Babylon and the father of Belshazzar, ending the Neo-Babylonian Empire (Daniel 5–6).

After the dust of conquest had settled, Cyrus extended liberties to the exiled Jews of Judah, decreeing their freedom in fulfillment of the prophecies of the God of Israel. The hope of the exiled Jews in His divine promises was made a reality after 70 years of exile. Matthew Barrett explains in None Greater: The Undomesticated Attributes of God that the fulfillment of the promise was based on God’s faithfulness, which is intrinsic to His nature. “He does not change in who He is (His essence) therefore He does not change in what He says and does (His will). He will not go back on His covenant promises to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob [see Mal. 3:6]. Yes, Israel has been unfaithful to the covenant, but the Lord has been and will remain faithful.”


Success Abroad

In 1909, Pound found the kind of success as a writer that he had wanted. Over the next year, he produced three books, Personae, Exultations and The Spirit of Romance, the last one based on the lectures he had given in London. All three books were warmly received. Wrote one reviewer that Pound "is that rare thing among modern poets, a scholar."

In addition, Pound wrote numerous reviews and critiques for a variety of publications, such as New Age, The Egoistਊnd Poetry. As his friend T.S. Eliot would later note, "During a crucial decade in the history of modern literature, approximately 1912�, Pound was the most influential and in some ways the best critic in England or America."

In 1912, Pound helped create a movement that he and others called "Imagism," which signaled a new literary direction for the poet. At the core of Imagism, was a push to set a more direct course with language, shedding the sentiment that had so wholly shaped Victorian and Romantic poetry.

Precision and economy were highly valued by Pound and the other proponents of the movement, which included F.S. Flint, William Carlos Williams, Amy Lowell, Richard Aldington and Hilda Doolittle. With its focus on the "thing" as the "thing," Imagism reflected the changes happening in other art forms, most notably painting and the Cubists.

Pound&aposs maxims included, "Do not retell in mediocre verse what has already been done in good prose" and "Use no superfluous word, no adjective which does not reveal something." But Pound&aposs connection to Imagism was short-lived. After just a few years, he stepped aside, frustrated when he couldn&apost secure total control of the movement from Lowell and the others.


Zerubbabel and Nehemiah both play a part in restoring God's Temple, while Zerubbabel takes charge over governing affairs, and Nehemiah rebuilds the Walls of Jerusalem. Ezra, a descendant of Aaron, arrives in Jerusalem later and instills God's laws to the post-Exile Jewish generation.

Note how the people received revelation and responded after they listened to the Word of God that was being taught to them. This response is remarkably similar to Jesus' teachings about God's Kingdom centuries later, and His often-repeated phrase, "He who has an ear, let him hear. " The takeaway? Whether it's ancient Israel or our worship today, we all must receive a new heart from God and listen to Him.


Ezra is a newcomer in the top spot, taking over from another boys’ name from the Bible, Asher. Hebrew for “help,” the Biblical Ezra led 1,500 Israelites out of slavery the name also has creative credibility via poet Ezra Pound and indie band Better Than Ezra.

First Book of Esdras, also called Greek Ezra, abbreviation I Esdras, apocryphal work that was included in the canon of the Septuagint (the Greek version of the Hebrew Bible) but is not part of any modern biblical canon it is called Greek Ezra by modern scholars to distinguish it from the Old Testament Book of Ezra


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