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Experts say Mohenjodaro may disappear in 20 years

Experts say Mohenjodaro may disappear in 20 years



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When the ancient ruins of Mohenjo Daro (which means Mound of the Dead) were first uncovered in Pakistan in 1922, its significance was not fully realised. Dating back 5,000 years, Mohenjo Daro is the world’s only surviving Bronze Age metropolis and it gave the first clue to the existence of a civilization in the Indus Valley to rival those known in Egypt and Mesopotamia. But now, the most important site of the Indus civilisation is at great risk of destruction .

What archaeologists discovered was unprecedented in the region – the city demonstrated an exceptional level of civic planning and amenities. The houses were furnished with brick-built bathrooms and many had toilets. Wastewater from these was led into well-built brick sewers that ran along the centre of the streets, covered with bricks or stone slabs. Cisterns and wells finely constructed of wedge-shaped bricks held public supplies of drinking water. Mohenjo Daro also boasted a Great Bath on the high mound (citadel) overlooking the residential area of the city. Back in its day, the city would have been home to around 40,000 inhabitants.

More than 40,000 artefacts recovered from the excavations have helped researchers piece together the lives of the Mohenjodarans. They include a celebrated bronze statue of a semi-naked dancing girl, perfectly shaped clay urns, platters, ovens and stone weights and measures. A set of carved seals hints at a revenue collection system, while hand-carved figures such as chess pieces and clay toy animals reveal the city’s more playful side.

Peculiar findings , such as high radiation readings, the discovery of more than 40 sprawled skeletons seemingly frozen in time, and sections of wall that appear fused or melted as though they were exposed to a massive blast, have fuelled speculation that a strange event led to the destruction of the city and the disappearance of its people.

Such findings make the preservation of the city even more important. However, the once lost city is in danger of disappearing again, a victim of government neglect, lack of funding, public indifference and environmental degradation. The site is suffering under the area’s hostile elements including summer temperatures which reach 51C, winter frosts, torrential monsoon rains and humid air, all of which combine to leave the clay bricks with a coating of salt crystals which is rapidly corroding them away. It is estimated that at its current rate of degradation, the UNESCO World Heritage listed site could be gone within 20 years.

International experts and Pakistani officials met in Karachi to draw up a plan to save the site, stabilise its funding and promote awareness of a wonder of the ancient world. They now plan to undertake an intensive conservation programme, a survey to establish how much of the ancient city is still underground and a plan to rebury those sections of the recovered ruins most under threat.

There is no time for government red tape here; according to experts, there is a need to act fast to save this valuable historical city from being lost forever.


    No balance of power lasts forever. Just a century ago, London was the centre of the world. Britain bestrode the world like a colossus and only those with strong nerves (or weak judgment) dared challenge the Pax Britannica.

    That, of course, is all history, but the Pax Americana that has taken shape since 1989 is just as vulnerable to historical change. In the 1910s, the rising power and wealth of Germany and America splintered the Pax Britannica in the 2010s, east Asia will do the same to the Pax Americana.

    The 21st century will see technological change on an astonishing scale. It may even transform what it means to be human. But in the short term – the next 20 years – the world will still be dominated by the doings of nation-states and the central issue will be the rise of the east.

    By 2030, the world will be more complicated, divided between a broad American sphere of influence in Europe, the Middle East and south Asia, and a Chinese sphere in east Asia and Africa. Even within its own sphere, the US will face new challenges from former peripheries. The large, educated populations of Poland, Turkey, Brazil and their neighbours will come into their own and Russia will continue its revival.

    Nevertheless, America will probably remain the world's major power. The critics who wrote off the US during the depression of the 1930s and the stagflation of the 1970s lived to see it bounce back to defeat the Nazis in the 1940s and the Soviets in the 1980s. America's financial problems will surely deepen through the 2010s, but the 2020s could bring another Roosevelt or Reagan.

    A hundred years ago, as Britain's dominance eroded, rivals, particularly Germany, were emboldened to take ever-greater risks. The same will happen as American power erodes in the 2010s-20s. In 1999, for instance, Russia would never have dared attack a neighbour such as Georgia but in 2009 it took just such a chance.

    The danger of such an adventure sparking a great power war in the 2010s is probably low in the 2020s, it will be much greater.

    The most serious threats will arise in the vortex of instability that stretches from Africa to central Asia. Most of the world's poorest people live here climate change is wreaking its worst damage here nuclear weapons are proliferating fastest here and even in 2030, the great powers will still seek much of their energy here.

    Here, the risk of Sino-American conflict will be greatest and here the balance of power will be decided.

    Ian Morris, professor of history at Stanford University and the author of Why the West Rules – For Now (Profile Books)


    Saving Pakistan's lost city of Mohenjo Daro

    Archeologists warn that if nothing is done to protect Pakistan's Mohenjo Daro ruins—already neglected and worn by time—it will fade to dust and obscurity, never taking its rightful place in history.

    The centre of a powerful ancient civilisation, Mohenjo Daro was one of the world's earliest cities—a Bronze Age metropolis boasting flush toilets and a water and waste system to rival many in modern Pakistan.

    Some 5,000 years on archaeologists believe the ruins could unlock the secrets of the Indus Valley people, who flourished around 3,000 BC in what is now India and Pakistan before mysteriously disappearing.

    But they warn, if nothing is done to protect the ruins—already neglected and worn by time—it will fade to dust and obscurity, never taking its rightful place in history.

    "Everybody knows Egypt, nobody knows Mohenjo Daro, this has to be changed," says Dr Michael Jansen, a German researcher working at the sun-baked site on the banks of the Indus river in Pakistan's southern Sindh province.

    Jansen is at the forefront of a new effort to promote the site internationally while finding ways to protect what is left.

    In summer temperatures can soar above 46 degrees Celsius (115 Fahrenheit). "There is enormous thermo-stress," says Jansen, adding that salt from the underground water table is also damaging the ruins.

    But it's more than just the weather and time. Pakistan's bloody fight against militancy has also raised the spectre of destruction by an Islamist group, much like Islamic State destroyed the ruins in Syria's Palmyra.

    Most horrifying, however, is the wanton disregard for Mohenjo Daro—or "mound of the dead"—by ordinary citizens.

    Archaeologists believe the Mohenjo Daro ruins could unlock the secrets of the Indus Valley people, who flourished around 3,000 BC in what is now India and Pakistan before mysteriously disappearing.

    In 2014 police stood atop the main stupa as hundreds of people swarmed the site to, ironically, commemorate Pakistan's cultural heritage—complete with scaffolding, dancing, fireworks, heavy spotlights and lasers.

    Sardar Ali Shah, cultural minister in Sindh province, vowed never to let such a thing happen again.

    "It's like you are jumping on the bed bed of a 5,000-year-old ailing patient," he tells AFP.

    Yet today curious visitors still roam the remains with impunity, many leaving rubbish in the once pristine-streets and wells.

    'Foreigners are afraid'

    Jansen and his Friends of Mohenjo Daro society aim to promote the site internationally, with plans to recruit Pakistanis around the world for conferences, seminars and debates.

    Dr Kaleem Lashari, chief consultant to the Pakistani government over Mohenjo Daro, said they will also digitally archive the Indus script—which has never been deciphered—in hopes that making it accessible will increase the site's profile.

    At the site itself, he said, technical reviews are being held to examine the water logging issue and other ways to shore up the ruins, while exploring new, modern technology that allows researchers to ascertain what lies beneath the surface in the portions of the city not yet excavated.

    A Buddhist stupa at the UNESCO World Heritage archeological site of Mohenjo Daro in Pakistan, which experts believe was the centre of a the ancient, powerful Indus Valley civilisation

    But, Lashari says, perhaps the biggest challenge remains Pakistan's international image, tarnished by extremism, corruption, poverty, and insecurity.

    "Foreigners are afraid to visit Pakistan and the site because of the chronic issue of law and order," he warns.

    All roads lead to equality?

    The issues he cites underscore unsettling differences between modern day Pakistan and the civilisation found among the ruins.

    At their peak during the Bronze Age, the Indus Valley people are believed to have numbered up to five million, with Mohenjo Daro their largest and most advanced settlement.

    Clay and metallic seals, coins, standardised weighing stones, gold and bronze ornaments, toys and whistles—the bric-a-brac of ancient lives have revealed volumes about thriving Indus trade and commerce.

    The layout of the city itself suggests an egalitarian people more concerned with cleanliness than hierarchy, says Dr Jonathan Mark Kenoyer of the University of Wisconsin.

    "In Mesopotamia, the streets went from the city to the palace . whereas in (Indus) cities all the streets were organised to allow access to the whole city," he says.

    At their peak during the Bronze Age, the Indus Valley people are believed to have numbered up to five million, with Mohenjo Daro—in modern day Pakistan—their largest and most advanced settlement.

    Mohenjo Daro had a complex water and waste management system which observers have wryly noted was better than in many parts of Pakistan today.

    Only a small portion of the site has been excavated properly, but the most important building appears not to have been a palace or a place of worship, but a massive public bath.

    Houses had tiled bathrooms and their own cylindrical brick wells, sometimes raised to the second floor to allow for a flush system.

    None of this, however,has yet explained why such a powerful, advanced and flourishing civilisation disappeared so abruptly around 1900 BC.

    Currently, there is no bid to excavate further among the plans being laid by Lashari and Jansen. "It is actually preserved when it is buried," explains Harvard University's Dr Richard Meadow.

    Despite their access to new technologies, that puts researchers in a quandary, especially as they try to understand what happened to the Indus people. As Jansen says, the "best way to learn information is to excavate".

    But mysteries take time to solve: for now, the researchers say, they will settle for ensuring that Mohenjo Daro endures for a few centuries more.


    Survey Analysis

    The survey responses are clear: over the next twenty years, climate phenomena will present severe and catastrophic levels of security risk. The increase in severity that expert respondents anticipate over the next two decades is stark. Whether because continued warming means that climate impacts will increase in severity and frequency over time, or due to a pessimism about society’s ability to handle the compound effects of these impacts at once, these responses suggest that climate security risks will become more dangerous in the years to come.

    Though respondents perceive climate security threats as generally low-to-moderate now (2021), they see those risks quickly growing in severity over the next decade. As soon as ten years from now, a majority of climate phenomena will pose high-to-catastrophic levels of risk to security. Twenty years from now, respondents expect very high levels of risk along nearly every type of climate security impact.

    Particularly concerning in the short-term will be direct environmental impacts, including precipitation changes, sea-level rise, and more severe natural disasters, as well as the subsequent effects that those impacts will pose to agricultural, economic, and healthcare systems worldwide. This suggests that nations should prioritize investment in disaster-relief and insurance systems, while focusing on bolstering critical infrastructure against increasing vulnerabilities.

    Respondents found a variety of different climate security phenomena to pose risks, depending on the time period in question. A few risks were consistently deemed more severe than others, specifically Increased Natural Disasters, Infectious Diseases, Forced Displacement, Precipitation Change, Increased Inequality, and Population Center Disruptions.

    Interestingly, this surveyed group of defense and security experts were far less worried about the risks posed to military installations, missions, and institutions than the risks posed to society as a whole. Even by 2041, risks to the “military security” category of threats, including military over-reliance, mission failures, and the degradation of key alliances, were ranked as less severe than those to other human security categories, such as food, water, economics, and infrastructure. This suggests that the most pressing threats to security come from the disruption of social systems, rather than from traditional military threats. This consideration should be understood alongside the finding that “instability within nations” was ranked consistently more severe, across all time periods, than “instability between nations.” These findings suggest that to prepare security establishments to confront climate security risks effectively, training and planning operations will need to adjust to account for a broader understanding of threats to society, rather than simply to traditional national security considerations.

    Importantly, survey responses also suggest that currently under-studied and novel risks to security stemming from climate change require more attention. Though they may not pose significant threats at present, respondents saw the severity of threats, such as the unilateral deployment of geoengineering technologies and the potential for cascading climate-induced disasters increasingly sharply over the next two decades. This poses problems, since the level of understanding and preparation for such threats is exceedingly low within security services, and suggests that nations may not be in a place to confront such novel threats when they arise. To build resilience to such threats, policymakers and defense leaders must collaborate closely with natural and social scientists to forecast how new risks might evolve, and work to build capacity within their institutions to address them.

    Finally, these results also offer a new understanding about the intersection of a wide range of risks and the inevitability of their impact on each other. When considering how climate security risks will interact with each other to pose compound threats, the group of respondents detailed relationships among nearly all categories of phenomena. The most interconnected categories of risk were water security, ecosystem security, economic security, and health security.

    The COVID-19 pandemic has demonstrated the swiftness with which one risk can infiltrate all other aspects of society, impacting the stability of a multitude of societal components. The data gathered here predicts that climate threats will manifest in a similar, compounding manner. An example of this is the nexus between food, water, and ecosystem security. To address food security, greater water and land availability are needed for agricultural production, limiting both the amount of available water for human consumption and the amount of available land for biodiversity conservation. Any limitations on one of these systems has the potential to impact the others and overlapping stressors could prove disastrous. An acute awareness of this interconnectivity must be integrated into the design process when curating any climate policy, security policy, or other policy.

    Taken together, the forecasts identified by this survey represent a critical input to planning efforts needed to address climate security threats into the future. While the most severe near-term risks do not always mirror those that will be most severe in the coming years, all will become increasingly pressing security concerns for world leaders to address. They will require deliberate and informed efforts to pivot planning toward increasing ability to withstand these growing threats, while also confronting the climate challenge head-on to minimize warming to levels safe for humanity.

    The 2021 Climate Risk Perception Survey was administered by Kate Guy, Deputy Director of the International Military Council on Climate and Security (IMCCS), with assistance from Leah Emmanuel. The survey and its analysis were edited by Erin Sikorsky and Francesco Femia (IMCCS/Council on Strategic Risks), and will be published in the forthcoming IMCCS Expert Group’s World Climate Security Report 2021. Data visualizations were designed with Flourish.


    Mohenjo Daro: Could this ancient city be lost forever?

    Pakistani officials say they are doing their best to save one of the most important archaeological sites in south Asia, Mohenjo Daro. But some experts fear the Bronze Age site could be lost unless radical steps are taken.

    It is awe-inspiring to walk through a home built 4,500 years ago.

    Especially one still very much recognisable as a house today, with front and back entrances, interconnecting rooms, neat fired brick walls - even a basic toilet and sewage outlet.

    Astonishingly, given its age, the home in question was also built on two storeys.

    But it is even more impressive to walk outside into a real Bronze Age street, and see all of the other homes lining it.

    And to walk the length of it, seeing the precise lanes running off it before reaching a grand, ancient marketplace.

    This is the marvel of Mohenjo Daro, one of the earliest cities in the world.

    In its day, about 2600 BC, its complex planning, incredible architecture, and complex water and sewage systems made it one of the most advanced urban settings anywhere. It was a city thought to have housed up to 35,000 inhabitants of the great Indus civilisation.

    While I was overwhelmed by the scale and wonderment of it all, my eminent guide to the site was almost in tears of despair.

    "Every time I come here, I feel worse than the previous time," says Dr Asma Ibrahim, one of Pakistan's most accomplished archaeologists.

    "I haven't been back for two or three years," she says. "The losses since then are so immense and it breaks my heart."

    Dr Ibrahim starts to point out signs of major decay.

    In the lower town of Mohenjo Daro, where the middle and working classes once lived, the walls are crumbling from the base upwards. This is new damage.

    The salt content of the ground water is eating away at the bricks that, before excavation, had survived thousands of years.

    As we move to the upper town where the elite of the Indus civilization would have lived, and where some of the signature sites like the large public bath lie, it appears even worse.

    Some walls have collapsed completely, others seem to be close to doing so.

    "It is definitely a complicated site to protect, given the problems of salinity, humidity and rainfall," says Dr Ibrahim. "But most of the attempts at conservation by the authorities have been so bad and so amateur they have only accelerated the damage."

    One method used has been to cover all the brickwork across the vast site with mud slurry, in the hope the mud will absorb the salt and moisture.

    But where the mud has dried and crumbled, it has taken with it fragments of ancient brick, and the decay goes on underneath.

    There are even parts of the site where millennia-old bricks have been replaced with brand new ones.

    "In a way, it is testament to Mohenjo Daro that it is still standing, given everything that has been thrown at it in the last few decades in the name of conservation," says Dr Ibrahim.

    Even the Mohenjo Daro museum has been looted, with many of its famous seals (thought to have been used by traders) among the artefacts that were stolen. They have not been recovered.

    A guide at the site says he too has seen the dramatic changes in its condition and upkeep.

    And while Pakistani visitors do still come on public holidays, he says very few foreign tourists visit Mohenjo Daro now. He suggests that might be because of Pakistan's security problems.

    Given the damage being done to this World Heritage Site, a poor tourism strategy has become the least of its troubles.

    It was the government of Pakistan that was in charge of Mohenjo Daro for decades, but recently responsibility was handed over to the provincial authorities in Sindh. They have now set up a technical committee to rescue the site.

    "We need urgently to listen to experts from all fields to save Mohenjo Daro," says Dr Ibrahim.

    "Yes, there is salinity, but local farmers have worked out how to overcome that problem so why can't we? But we have to do something soon, because if things carry on like this, in my assessment, the site will not last more than 20 years."

    One saving grace may be that some of the city remains unexcavated and so remains protected.

    Some experts have gone so far as to suggest the entire site should be buried again to halt its decline.

    It is a sign of the desperation of those who love Mohenjo Daro, and who are pained to see a city that once rivalled sites of its contemporary civilisations in Egypt, Mesopotamia and China, losing its glory in this undignified way.


    EXCLSUIVE: Is Mohenjo Daro Awaits Palmyra Fate?

    Likely attempt at destruction from Islamic State-affiliated militant groups has emerged as the latest threat to the ancient site of Mohenjo Daro in Pakistan.

    This comes in retaliation to the belated, even half-hearted, fight by the Pakistan Army against the militant outfits, most of which it nurtured over long years, but have since gone beyond their control.

    “Pakistan’s bloody fight against militancy has raised the spectre of destruction by an Islamist group, much like Islamic State destroyed the ruins in Syria’s Palmyra,” says a report by French news agency, AFP.

    The centre of a powerful ancient civilisation, Mohenjo Daro was one of the world’s earliest cities — a Bronze Age metropolis boasting flush toilets and a water and waste system to rival many in modern Pakistan

    Also Read

    Pakistan has in its neighbourhood the gory example of the Buddha statues in Bamiyan in Afghanistan. Restored by Indian archaeologists in 1975 under a UNESCO project, they were hit with mortars and destroyed in the year 2000 by the Taliban.

    Palmyra theater

    Militants in Pakistan have increasingly attacked Sufi shrines, mosques where minority Muslim sects of Shia and Hazaras pray, churches of the Chtistians, Sikh Gurdwaras and Hindu temples, killing and maiming thousands.

    Targets are many, but the non-Muslim ones are especially at risk. And pre-Islamic Mohenjo Daro, located in the present-day Larkana district in Sindh and Harappa in Sahiwal districts of Punjab have joined that list.

    The list swells even as the two sites, facing neglect over the years, face erosion from neglect and possibly, eventual destruction. Amidst neglect by authorities, there are no plans at further excavation.

    It is a boon in that since what is visible is neglected, why excavate more and make it face vagaries of nature, neglect and now terror? Let us stay buried, experts say.

    If nothing is done to protect the ruins — already neglected and worn by time — they will fade into dust and obscurity, the report warns.

    The centre of a powerful ancient civilisation, Mohenjo Daro was one of the world’s earliest cities — a Bronze Age metropolis boasting flush toilets and a water and waste system to rival many in modern Pakistan. Some 5,000 years on archaeologists believe the ruins could unlock the secrets of the Indus Valley people, who flourished around 3,000 BC in what is now India and Pakistan before mysteriously disappearing.

    But they warn, if nothing is done to protect the ruins — already neglected and worn by time — they will fade to dust and obscurity, never taking their rightful place in history.

    Hadrians Gate – Palmyra, Syria

    “Everybody knows Egypt, nobody knows Mohenjo Daro, this has to be changed,” says Dr Michael Jansen, a German researcher working at the sun-baked site on the banks of the Indus River in Pakistan’s southern Sindh province.

    Jansen is at the forefront of a new effort to promote the site internationally while finding ways to protect what is left. In summer, temperatures can soar above 46°C.

    “There is enormous thermo-stress,” says Jansen, adding that salt from the underground water table is also damaging the ruins. But it’s more than just the weather and time. Most horrifying, however, is the wanton disregard for Mohenjo Daro — or “mound of the dead” — by ordinary citizens.

    In 2014 police stood atop the main stupa as hundreds of people swarmed the site to, ironically, commemorate Pakistan’s cultural heritage — complete with scaffolding, dancing, fireworks, heavy spotlights and lasers.

    Sardar Ali Shah, cultural minister in Sindh province, vowed never to let such a thing happen again. “It’s like you are jumping on the bed of a 5,000-year-old ailing patient,” he tells AFP.

    Yet today curious visitors still roam the remains with impunity, many leaving rubbish in the once pristine-streets and wells.

    Jansen heads Friends of Mohenjo Daro Society. They are working to promote the site internationally, with plans to recruit Pakistanis around the world for conferences, seminars and debates.

    Dr Kaleem Lashari, chief consultant to the Pakistani government over Mohenjo Daro, said they will also digitally archive the Indus script — which has never been deciphered — in hopes that making it accessible will increase the site’s profile.

    At the site itself, he said, technical reviews are being held to examine the water logging issue and other ways to shore up the ruins, while exploring new, modern technology that allows researchers to ascertain what lies beneath the surface in the portions of the city not yet excavated. But, Lashari says, perhaps the biggest challenge remains Pakistan’s international image, tarnished by extremism, corruption, poverty, and insecurity.

    “Foreigners are afraid to visit Pakistan and the site because of the chronic issue of law and order,” he warns. The issues he cites underscore unsettling differences between modern day Pakistan and the civilisation found among the ruins.

    At their peak during the Bronze Age, the Indus Valley people are believed to have numbered up to five million, with Mohenjo Daro their largest and most advanced settlement.

    Clay and metallic seals, coins, standardised weighing stones, gold and bronze ornaments, toys and whistles — the bric-a-brac of ancient lives have revealed volumes about thriving Indus trade and commerce.

    Photo taken on March 31, 2016 shows the partially damaged ancient columns at the National Museum in the city of Palmyra

    The layout of the city itself suggests an egalitarian people more concerned with cleanliness than hierarchy, says Dr Jonathan Mark Kenoyer of the University of Wisconsin.

    “In Mesopotamia, the streets went from the city to the palace … whereas in (Indus) cities all the streets were organised to allow access to the whole city,” he says. Mohenjo Daro had a complex water and waste management system which observers have wryly noted was better than in many parts of Pakistan today.

    Only a small portion of the site has been excavated properly, but the most important building appears not to have been a palace or a place of worship, but a massive public bath.

    Houses had tiled bathrooms and their own cylindrical brick wells, sometimes raised to the second floor to allow for a flush system. None of this, however, has yet explained why such a powerful, advanced and flourishing civilisation disappeared so abruptly around 1900 BC.

    Currently, there is no bid to excavate further among the plans being laid by Lashari and Jansen. “It is actually preserved when it is buried,” explains Harvard University’s Dr Richard Meadow.

    Despite their access to new technologies, that puts researchers in a quandary, especially as they try to understand what happened to the Indus people. As Jansen says, the “best way to learn information is to excavate.” But mysteries take time to solve: for now, the researchers say, they will settle for ensuring that Mohenjo Daro endures for a few centuries more.

    Palmyra theater


    Contents

    The film opens in 2016 BCE with Sarman (Hrithik Roshan), a young man from the village of Amri, who lost his parents at a young age. Sarman kills a crocodile that has been terrorizing his village's fishermen and is hailed as a hero. He asks his uncle, Durjan (Nitish Bharadwaj), to allow him to go to Mohenjo Daro to trade their family's goods, but his uncle refuses. Sarman attempts to sneak away to the city at night with his friend Hojo (Umang Vyas), but is caught by Durjan, who relents and allows both friends to go. He gives Sarman a seal that contains an inscription of a unicorn that Sarman often sees in his dreams, suggesting he use it only once in a life or death situation.

    Arriving in Mohenjo Daro, Sarman learns that the city is ruled by the tyrannical Senate Chief Maham (Kabir Bedi) and his wicked son Moonja (Arunoday Singh). He also learns that the unicorn he sees in his dreams is the symbol of the city, and feels as if the city is oddly familiar to him. While Sarman is trading, Maham proposes to impose an additional tax on the farmers so that the city may grow, but Sarman leads the farmers to oppose the taxes so that their families don't starve to death. Sarman gains access to the upper city by showing his uncle's amulet and meets Chaani (Pooja Hegde), the elegant and gorgeous daughter of the head priest (Manish Choudhary) Mohenjo Daro. Sarman is enchanted by Chaani's heavenly beauty and charm and falls in love with her. Upon meeting, the head priest strangely appears to recognize Sarman. Chaani reveals that she has been forcibly betrothed to Moonja, Sarman's enemy, who is cruel and ruthless. Maham discovers Sarman and Chaani love each other and that Sarman is the leader of the tax revolt, and so he challenges Sarman to fight Bakar and Zokhar, his two champions. Sarman proposes that if he wins, Chaani will be released from her engagement, and Maham accepts the terms.

    The head priest reveals to Sarman how Maham was expelled from Harappa for illegal trade with the Sumerians. Maham entered Mohenjo Daro as a trader and quickly rose to become the trade chief. Maham had discovered that the mighty Sindhu River held vast gold deposits, so he decided to place a dam on the river and divert its course to mine the gold. The wise Senate Chief Srujan (Sharad Kelkar), who is revealed to be Sarman's father, opposed this, but Maham won the vote to build the dam. He had Srujan framed and arrested for hoarding gold. Chaani's father and Durjan – Sarman's uncle – were coerced by Maham to betray Srujan, and the latter was killed. Maham then took Srujan's place as the new Senate Chief. It is now up to Sarman to defeat the evil Maham and avenge for his father.

    In the arena outside the city, Sarman faces the ferocious Tajik mountain cannibals Bakar and Zokhar. After a vicious battle, he kills one of the cannibals but spares the other, and the people of Mohenjo Daro surge even stronger behind him. Enraged, Maham urges Moonja to finish off Chaani and the priest. Moonja kills the priest, but Sarman saves Chaani and kills Moonja.

    Chaani exposes Maham's plan to use the gold from the Sindhu to enrich himself and to smuggle in weapons from the Sumerians. All the chiefs now stand against Maham. The people elect Sarman as the new chief, but Sarman suggests Mohenjo Daro needs a people's government, not a chief. With the arrival of a heavy thunderstorm, Sarman realizes that the dam will burst and the Sindhu River will flood the city. He rallies the people to lash boats together and form a floating bridge. They evacuate Mohenjo Daro and cross to the other side of the river. The dam collapses, and Maham, chained in the city square, is drowned. The once renowned Mohenjo Daro is no more. The survivors migrate to another river, where Sarman sees the unicorn of his dreams and names the river Ganga.

      as Sarman, Chaani's love interest [21] as Chaani, the Priest's daughter and Sarman's love interest [21] as Maham Ramani, the Senate chief [22] as Moonja, Maham's son [23] as Laashi, Maham's wife as Durjan, Sarman's uncle [24] as Bima, Sarman's aunt [25] as Srujan, Sarman's father [26] as Rami, Srujan's wife, and Sarman's mother as the Priest, Chaani's father [27] as Jakhiro, the Madman [28] as Kulka
    • Tufail Khan Rigoo as Ishme Dagan, the Sumerian as Lothar, The Guard [29][30]
    • Naina Trivedi as Junu, Chaani's friend
    • Shyraa Roy as Mohini
    • Umang Vyas as Hojo, Sarman's friend as Bakar [31] as Zokar

    Development Edit

    Director Ashutosh Gowariker was first inspired to make a film set in the ancient Indus Valley civilization when he was in Bhuj, Gujarat, scouting locations for his then-upcoming Lagaan (2001), and stumbled across the massive excavations in progress at the ruins of Dholavira: "I thought, My God! This is incredible! What happened to this civilization, who were the people, how did they live?" [32]

    Several other films projects later, Gowariker announced the film Mohenjo Daro officially in February 2014 with A. R. Rahman composing the film score.

    On taking up the project, in an interview, Gowariker stated that there was meagre and superficial information available about the people in that civilisation, particularly about their lifestyle, food, and feelings. The lack of information about the period troubled Gowariker, and he decided that whenever he would get a story to tell, it will be depicted circa 2500 BC at Mohenjo-daro [33] which, despite being the largest city yet discovered from that ancient civilization, is today known only by the name—which translates as "Mound of the Dead" in English—ascribed by the Sindhi locals to the site when its ruins were discovered in 1922. [10] "Mohenjo Daro" is not only the official name associated with that ancient city by the United Nations (as a World Heritage site since 1980), [10] but also the only name associated with it by archaeologists and historians around the world, as well as the general public. [34] [35] Thus, regardless of the literal translation of the words, "Mohenjo Daro" was the only possible title for an audience to identify with the actual reference point despite the fact that the city could have not been so named in ancient times. [34] [35]

    On the film's plot, he was quoted as saying, "While the plot will follow Mohenjo-daro and the culture and the vibe of the ancient civilization, it will largely centre on a love story." [33] It took Gowariker three years to piece together a plot of the entire civilisation through various cities and weave a love story into it. [33]

    The challenges of adapting for cinema a story based on one of the greatest ancient civilisations of the world whose written language has not yet been deciphered have proved unique. Because modern science can not yet read anything the Indus Valley peoples wrote about themselves, any aspect about their civilization has to be conjectured from what relics survive to discovery by archaeologists working at their various ruins. As The Indian Express pointed out, "whatever we do know about Mohenjo-daro is perhaps as much an imagination of the historian as that of a filmmaker who depicts it in visual terms." [36]

    During Ashutosh Gowariker's research, he met as many as seven archaeologists who are closely involved in excavating sites and studying the Indus Valley Civilization. [33] After much reading of published archaeological reports on his own, he brought in the American archaeologist Jonathan Mark Kenoyer of the University of Wisconsin–Madison, [37] considered one of the world's leading experts on the ancient Indus Valley civilization, who has worked at the ruins of Mohenjo-Daro over 35 years. [38] He brought together Kenoyer to round-table with five other expert archaeologists who have also been working on this topic for many years—P. Ajit Prasad, [37] V. N. Prabakhar, [37] K. Krishnan, [37] Vasant Shinde, [37] and R. S. Bisht, [37] "who are all from the Archaeological Survey of India, Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda and other institutions, all with expertise in different aspects of the same civilization." [39] Gowariker had also personally revisited the archaeological dig at Dholavira in Gujarat. [33]

    Kenoyer later visited Bhuj to inspect and approve the sets and props built by the filmmakers. [40]

    The symbol ultimately selected for the film Mohenjo Daro recalls one of the earliest discovered artifacts from the initial archaeological excavations at the ruins of the ancient city itself: 'Another [seal] shows six animal heads—"unicorn", bison, antelope, tiger, the remaining two broken—radiating from a ring, and recalling a whorl on another seal from the same site with a single "unicorn" and five featureless lobes', [41] the "unicorn" being one of the 'most frequently represented' animals [42] portrayed among the 'over 1,200 of them [seals] [which] have been found at Mohenjo-daro alone'. [43] The filmmaker has chosen to identify the "unicorn" with his central character. [44] [45]

    The broadest artistic license required in bringing the Indus Valley civilization to the cinema, inevitably, would be costuming. Because although "undisputed traces of cotton cloth have survived at Mohenjo-Daro" and the Indus culture is believed by archaeologists to have pioneered the cultivation of cotton for clothmaking in the ancient world, [46] no actual samples of finished clothing or other organic matter have survived over these four thousand years, due to the "damp alkalkine soil" prevailing at the Indus sites. [46] Thus, the only reference material is the relative handful (compared with the broad abundance of seals found, or commercial items such as weights and measures) of terracotta humanoid figurines or small stone statues found at various excavations, which are mostly only partially intact and of mostly unknown purpose—but male or female, are mostly naked. [47] [48] Some of the female figures, for instance, wear elaborate headdresses and jewellery but little else. [49] Explained the director in an interview, "I cannot make a movie with so much nudity, obviously. So I had to create and imagine a costume which will be away from all the different styles that we have seen in other movies, and yet be special for this civilization." [50]

    With the film being set in a certain period, the whole site had to be recreated in a film studio. He was involved in working out the logistics during June 2014. [33] The film's stunts were choreographed by Glenn Boswell [51] and the costumes were designed by April Ferry [52] and Neeta Lulla. [53] U.K. based trainer Joshua Kyle Baker was roped in to train Roshan for his character in the film. He described the three-month training so as to allow Roshan to appear 'lithe' and 'agile' rather than muscular. [54] Relating the natural environment required for Mohenjo Daro, Gowariker was impressed with the calamitous VFX seen in the films The Day After Tomorrow and 10,000 BC that were designed by Karen Goulekas. In September 2014, as a visual effects supervisor, Goulekas was brought on board for the film. [55] Gowariker revisited Bhuj in December 2014 to begin production. [56]

    Casting Edit

    In August 2014, Hrithik Roshan, who had starred in Ashutosh Gowariker's critically and commercially successful Jodhaa Akbar in 2008, was confirmed to play the male lead role again for Mohenjo Daro. He reportedly demanded ₹ 500 million (US$7.0 million). [57] Said the director, "I wouldn't have made the film, without Hrithik." [58] "[T]his is a different world, and I thought only Hrithik would blend in perfectly." [59]

    Telugu and Tamil cinema actress Pooja Hegde was signed as the female lead, and makes her Hindi film debut with Mohenjo Daro. [60] "While scripting the film, I was thinking that I needed someone with innocence and someone who did not have stardom baggage [to be received by the audience only as this character]. I thus began looking for a fresh face when Sunita (Gowariker) spotted Pooja in a commercial and suggested that we call her. She called Pooja and I auditioned her. And that was it!" [59]

    Veteran actor Kabir Bedi was signed as the primary villain, [22] backed by Arunoday Singh as the younger villain. [61]

    For supporting roles, casting director, Nalini Rathnam wanted to bring in newer and fresh faces, even from non-Hindi speaking regions. [59] As the director explained this process, "All kinds of actors, including seasoned actors, never get a chance to come to Mumbai or they don't want to as they are happy in their own space. So there is a different kind of freshness there to get them on board. I did this in Lagaan and Jodhaa Akbar. In this film too, I wanted to get some fresh actors, so I have Diganta Hazarika, who is a well-known Assamese actor. It is a time-consuming process but the payoff big." [59]

    Since action, as well as romance, are key to his story, perfectionist director Ashutosh Gowariker went to great lengths in casting to ensure his vision reaches the screen.

    For example, for one specific action sequence, the director auditioned nearly 300 candidates before finally casting the two giant barbarian fighters who are more than 7 feet tall, in order to make the sequence thrilling and visually appealing when presented to the audience opposite his 6-foot-tall hero. [62] [63]

    To populate his recreation of the ancient city, for Mohenjo Daro director, Ashutosh Gowariker naturally required a huge number of non-actors as extras. With the full cooperation of the Bhuj panchayat or community council, the filmmakers hosted full-fledged auditions for all the local residents. Many of those seen on-screen in cityscapes and group scenes throughout Mohenjo Daro are in their real-life local citizens of Bhuj. [64]

    Pre-production Edit

    Construction of the primary outdoor sets to be used in recreating the ancient city duly commenced in Bhuj, Gujarat, near where director Ashutosh Gowariker had shot his early film, Lagaan (2001). [65]

    As AGPPL producer Sunita Gowariker recounted their initial dialogue when Ashutosh Gowariker decided Mohenjo Daro as his next project, her immediate response was that the city does not exist any more, how would they shoot the film. To which Ashutosh responded: "We put up the whole city!" [65] The film sets ultimately built to recreate the ancient city of Mohenjo-Daro spanned more than 25 acres. [66]

    Painstaking effort was made to ensure precise accuracy of the city's film set construction, matching its proportions and architecture to the actual archaeological ruins. The famous Great Bath, for instance, is built exactly to scale, [66] as are the houses in the film. [66] To quote lead actress Pooja Hegde, "The sets were so detailed that once we stepped onto them, you were enveloped by the ambience. Ashu sir's detailing is so great that if there's a mashal, the wall behind it would be blackened to resemble soot. Whenever I stepped onto the sets, I automatically got into the mood . Ashu sir made you feel like you were already there." [67]

    However, construction was delayed in mid-September 2014, when workers belonging to Allied Mazdoor Union and Film Studio Setting refused to complete the pre-production work, alleging non-payment of their regular expenses and remuneration. To this stalled situation, Gowariker took a legal route and lodged a complaint with the 'Indian Film and Television Producers Council' accusing the members of stalling work that would result in losses to the company. Lawrence D'Souza, the executive producer of the film, maintained that though their payments were ready, the remote filming locations of Bhuj delayed the reception of the same. [68]

    Ayananka Bose had originally been signed as the cinematographer. Still, when the film was delayed, he took up other projects as he was paid on a project-to-project basis. Bose failed to join the discussions prior to filming and requested Gowariker to be allowed to join the set directly after he was done with his other commitments. A displeased Gowariker replaced Bose with C. K. Muraleedharan. [69]

    The initial outdoor schedule of principal photography had been projected to begin in November 2014. However, the further delay occurred when lead actor Hrithik Roshan ripped apart his shoulder during training in late October 2014. Because Mohenjo Daro was a physically demanding film with challenging action sequences that were to be shot starting with the very first schedule, and no body doubles were to be used, producer-director Ashutosh Gowariker postponed the shoot six weeks until January 2015. Confirming this delay, producer Sunita Gowariker of AGPPL stated, "Ashutosh and I want Hrithik to recuperate fully before beginning the film, since we plan to start with action sequences. Now we will start shooting in the first week of January. It is important to us that Hrithik is 100% fit, and shifting the shooting dates by a few weeks makes a lot of sense." [70]

    Filming Edit

    Principal photography commenced in Bhuj on 27 January 2015. [71] But the demanding action sequences needed by the film took a hard physical toll on the cast which resulted in delays due to injury, especially when an accident involved the lead actor, Hrithik Roshan, who was required for the maximum number of scenes. For instance, shooting was delayed for several days in March 2015, when Hrithik sprained his neck during a fight sequence. [72] The first schedule of 101 days nonetheless wrapped up in Bhuj by 23 May 2015. [73] In June 2015, Hrithik started training to fight with tigers in one of the sequences of the film. [74] [75] A second, shorter outdoor schedule resumed in Bhuj in late summer and was completed by October 2015. [76] [77]

    Another outdoor schedule of filming began in Jabalpur on 2 November 2015, where a fight sequence with crocodiles was completed on the banks of river Narmada at Bhedaghat. [78] [79]

    In December 2015, the next schedule began at Film City in Mumbai, where most interior sets used for the film had been constructed. [80] Unfortunately, however, an on-set accident during an action sequence in January 2016 tore two ligaments and severely sprained the ankle of lead actor Hrithik Roshan, which kept him home on crutches and doctor-ordered bed rest for two whole months before primary photography could resume in late March. [81]

    On 4 April 2016, the crew filmed the climax of the film at China Creek in Thane. [82] Principal photography of Mohenjo Daro finally wrapped on 8 April 2016. [ citation needed ] [83]

    Post-production Edit

    Post-production of Mohenjo Daro was supervised by director Ashutosh Gowariker in conjunction with editor Sandeep Francis. Sound re-recording was performed at Futureworks by Justin Jose K. according to the sound design by Parikshit Lalwani and Kunal Mehta. Digital intermediate was done by Prime Focus, colorist Makarand Surte. Visual effects were completed by the firm Drishyam VFX under the guidance of VFX consultant Karen Goulekas in conjunction with VFX supervisor Govardhan Vigraham. [84]

    On 3 August 2016, the Bombay High Court not only rejected into allegations by Akashaditya Lama that Mohenjo Daro (2016) film director Ashutosh Gowariker had stolen his script, but also ". imposed exemplary and punitive costs of Rs. 150,000 against Lama for putting false allegations and harassing makers of the film. The court has also slammed Lama for giving interviews, media articles and related material put on social media to harass the director and other stars of the film." [85] Gowariker donated the entire fine received (approx. $2,246) to the Naam Foundation, a charity to benefit Maharashtra's drought-hit farmers. [86] [87]

    India's mandatory Central Board of Film Certification cleared Mohenjo Daro for release without any cuts, awarding it a "U/A" certificate. [88] [89]

    The music for the film was composed by A. R. Rahman while the lyrics were penned by Javed Akhtar. The music rights were acquired by T-Series. The song album of the film was released on 6 July 2016. [90]

    Mohenjo Daro (Original Motion Picture Soundtrack)
    No. TitleSinger(s)Length
    1."Mohenjo Mohenjo"A. R. Rahman, Arijit Singh, Bela Shende, Sanah Moidutty6:22
    2."Sindhu Ma"A. R. Rahman, Sanah Moidutty5:47
    3."Sarsariya"Shashwat Singh, Shashaa Tirupati6:10
    4."Tu Hai"A. R. Rahman, Sanah Moidutty3:59
    5."Whispers of the Mind"Arjun Chandy4:16
    6."Whispers of the Heart"Arjun Chandy3:51
    7."The Shimmer of Sindhu"Keba Jeremiah, Kareem Kamalakar3:21
    8."Lakh Lakh Thora"Tapas Roy, Naveen Kumar3:01
    Total length: 36:47

    Mohenjo Daro released in 2600–2700 screens in India. [91] [92] [93] [94] Disney India announced in September 2016, that the company would end production of Bollywood films and instead would shift focus on releasing Disney films produced in the United States. [95]

    Locarno International Film Festival Edit

    Even before the film's theatrical release to the public, Mohenjo Daro had been honoured by selection as the Closing Film of the 69th Locarno International Film Festival in Switzerland. Thus on 13 August 2016, Mohenjo Daro was screened at the Piazza Grande, immediately before Locarno's award ceremony. [96] [97] [98]

    Special screenings Edit

    Mohenjo Daro was screened at the 45th Annual Conference on South Asia in Madison, Wisconsin (United States) on 23 October 2016. [99] [100] A special screening of the film was also arranged for the officials of the Information and Broadcasting Ministry in New Delhi on 18 September 2016. [101] [102] [103]

    Critical reception Edit

    Critical response was generally mixed to negative. On the review aggregation website Rotten Tomatoes the film has a rating of 43%, based on 7 reviews, with an average rating of 5/10. [17] Metacritic, which uses a normalised rating, gives the film a score of 39 out of 100, based on 4 critics, indicating "generally unfavourable reviews". [18]

    Mohenjo Daro was criticized for historical inaccuracies, with historians and critics mentioning inaccuracies in the portrayal of several elements, such as the depiction of horses in the movie when no evidence for horses being part of Indus Valley culture is available. However, Gowariker defended his film by stating, "There was nothing about the Indus Valley Civilisation in a popular culture other than what was found during the excavations. And that gave me more liberty to create my characters and my story. For instance, we have seen pictures of an excavated figurine of a man playing the drums. That became the inspiration for Sarman, played by Hrithik Roshan. The figurine of a dancing girl from the site was my inspiration for Chaani, played by Pooja Hegde. I have taken plenty of artistic liberties with the looks of the characters – after all, I cannot show nudity for the sake of reality. But I did not take liberties with the architecture, the culture. You must realise that there is still a lot of speculation about the civilisation because we know so little. Scholars are still debating, trying to redevelop the era. There is a lot that is based on a hypothesis. But all this is the space for a scholarship. I have only made a film and at no point do I say that it is meant to be a part of academic discourse on the subject." [104]

    Mohenjo Daro grossed ₹ 1.03 billion (US$14 million) worldwide in its first 10 days. [105] [106] [107] The film grossed ₹ 590 million (US$8.3 million) worldwide in its opening weekend. [108] Its final worldwide gross was ₹ 1.08 billion (US$15 million), including ₹ 806 million (US$11 million) in India and ₹ 272 million (US$3.8 million) overseas. [3] In addition to its box office gross, the film also earned ₹ 600 million (US$8.4 million) from satellite rights ( ₹ 450 million) and music rights ( ₹ 150 million). [109]

    India Edit

    The film has a lifetime net of ₹ 537 million (US$7.5 million). [110]

    Overseas Edit

    Mohenjo Daro grossed US$3.9 million in first 10 days in overseas. [111] The film grossed $991,239 in North America. [112]


    There's an article here with details and reconstruction pictures like this one. Most of the site is small houses and you can see from photos many have not been reconstructed but there is still a lot that was done. A New York Times article on Mohenjo Daro says

    Much of the area has been reconstructed with newly made bricks, which preserves the look and feel of a city although it has created a controversy among some people who oppose such tinkering. The reconstruction is most striking at the site of the great bath, where one can easily imagine religious bathing rituals.

    There's a map here which shows locations of the gates, bath, main street and other important places.

    To the west of each was a ‘citadel’ mound built on a high podium of mud-brick and to the east was the town proper the main hub of the residential area. The citadel and the town was further surrounded by a massive brick wall. In fact careful planning of the town, fine drainage system, well arranged water supply system prove that all possible steps were carefully adopted to make the town ideal and comfortable for the citizenry.

    The street lights system, watch and ward arrangement at night to outwit the law breakers, specific places to throw rubbish and waste materials, public wells in every street, well in every house etc. revealed the high sense of engineering and town planning of the people. The main streets some as wide as 30 to 34 feet were laid out with great skill dividing the cities into blocks within which were networks of narrow lanes.

    The types of crops that the Indus Civilization had was wheat, barley, peas, lentils, linseed, and mustard. Experts say that they might have grown cotton in the summer. They did not grow rice because it didn't grow well where they lived, but they did find white rice and fed it to their animals. The silt that the river brought in when it flooded was the reason why they can grow this many crops. The nutrients that the plants needed was replenished every year when the annual floods came in.

    There are also some videos on youtube but I don't know how historical they are. Some look like computer game videos. I just searched mohenjo daro on youtube.


    For more than 50 years Climate Alarmists in the scientific community and environmental movement have not gotten even one prediction correct, but they do have a perfect record of getting 41 predictions wrong.

    In other words, on at least 41 occasions, these so-called experts have predicted some terrible environmental catastrophe was imminent … and it never happened.

    And not once — not even once! — have these alarmists had one of their predictions come true.

    Think about that… the so-called experts are 0-41 with their predictions, but those of us who are skeptical of “expert” prediction number 42, the one that says that if we don’t immediately convert to socialism and allow Alexandria Ocasio-Crazy to control and organize our lives, the planet will become uninhabitable.

    Why would any sane person listen to someone with a 0-41 record?

    Why would we completely restructure our economy and sacrifice our personal freedom for “experts” who are 0-41, who have never once gotten it right?

    If you had an investment counselor who steered you wrong 41times, would you hang in there for number 42?

    Of course not. You’d fire him after failed prediction two or three.

    And if that’s not crazy enough, the latest ploy is to trot out a 16-year-old girl to spread prediction number 42, because it is so much more credible that way.

    Sometimes you just have to sit back and laugh.

    Anyway, I want you to have the data, so go ahead and print this out in advance of Thanksgiving dinner with your obnoxious Millennial nephew.

    LIST OF DOOMSDAY PREDICTIONS CLIMATE ALARMIST GOT RIGHT

    LIST OF DOOMSDAY PREDICTIONS THE CLIMATE ALARMIST GOT WRONG

    Here is the source for numbers 1-27. As you will see, the individual sources are not crackpots, but scientific studies and media reports on “expert” predictions. The sources for numbers 28-41 are linked individually.

    1. 1967: Dire Famine Forecast By 1975
    2. 1969: Everyone Will Disappear In a Cloud Of Blue Steam By 1989 (1969)
    3. 1970: Ice Age By 2000
    4. 1970: America Subject to Water Rationing By 1974 and Food Rationing By 1980
    5. 1971: New Ice Age Coming By 2020 or 2030
    6. 1972: New Ice Age By 2070
    7. 1974: Space Satellites Show New Ice Age Coming Fast
    8. 1974: Another Ice Age?
    9. 1974: Ozone Depletion a ‘Great Peril to Life
    10. 1976: Scientific Consensus Planet Cooling, Famines imminent
    11. 1980: Acid Rain Kills Life In Lakes
    12. 1978: No End in Sight to 30-Year Cooling Trend
    13. 1988: Regional Droughts (that never happened) in 1990s
    14. 1988: Temperatures in DC Will Hit Record Highs
    15. 1988: Maldive Islands will Be Underwater by 2018 (they’re not)
    16. 1989: Rising Sea Levels will Obliterate Nations if Nothing Done by 2000
    17. 1989: New York City’s West Side Highway Underwater by 2019 (it’s not)
    18. 2000: Children Won’t Know what Snow Is
    19. 2002: Famine In 10 Years If We Don’t Give Up Eating Fish, Meat, and Dairy
    20. 2004: Britain will Be Siberia by 2024
    21. 2008: Arctic will Be Ice Free by 2018
    22. 2008: Climate Genius Al Gore Predicts Ice-Free Arctic by 2013
    23. 2009: Climate Genius Prince Charles Says we Have 96 Months to Save World
    24. 2009: UK Prime Minister Says 50 Days to ‘Save The Planet From Catastrophe’
    25. 2009: Climate Genius Al Gore Moves 2013 Prediction of Ice-Free Arctic to 2014
    26. 2013: Arctic Ice-Free by 2015
    27. 2014: Only 500 Days Before ‘Climate Chaos’ : Overpopulation Will Spread Worldwide : World Will Use Up All its Natural Resources : Oil Gone in Ten Years : Oil Depleted in 20 Years : Department of Energy Says Oil will Peak in 90s : Peak Oil In 2000 : Peak Oil in 2020 : Peak Oil in 2010 : Super Hurricanes! : Manhattan Underwater by 2015 : Urban Citizens Will Require Gas Masks by 1985 : Nitrogen buildup Will Make All Land Unusable : Decaying Pollution Will Kill all the Fish : Killer Bees!

    Sorry, Experts… Sorry, Scientific Consensus… Only a fool comes running for the 42nd cry of wolf.

    Don’t litter, be kind to animals, recycling’s for suckers (it’s all going to end up in the ground eventually), so stop feeling guilty… Go out there and embrace all the bounty that comes with being a 21st century American — you know, like Obama, who says he believes in Global Warming with his mouth but proves he doesn’t with the $15 million he just spent on oceanfront that we’re told is doomed to flooding.

    This piece has been updated to correct a duplicate posting and add another hoax prediction.

    Follow John Nolte on Twitter@NolteNC. Follow his Facebook Pagehere.


    50 years of failed doomsday, eco-pocalyptic predictions the so-called ‘experts’ are 0-50

    This week Myron Ebell (director of the Center for Energy and Environment at the Competitive Enterprise Institute) and Steven J. Milloy published a post on the Competitive Enterprise Institute (CEI) blog titled “Wrong Again: 50 Years of Failed Eco-pocalyptic Predictions:”

    Modern doomsayers have been predicting climate and environmental disaster since the 1960s. They continue to do so today. None of the apocalyptic predictions with due dates as of today have come true. What follows is a collection of notably wild predictions from notable people in government and science.

    More than merely spotlighting the failed predictions, this collection shows that the makers of failed apocalyptic predictions often are individuals holding respected positions in government and science. While such predictions have been and continue to be enthusiastically reported by a media eager for sensational headlines, the failures are typically not revisited.

    The first 27 failed alarmist predictions below are from the CEI post (many were previously collected and posted by Tony Heller on RealClimateScience, see Tony’s video below) and the additional 14 doomsday predictions the climate alarmists got wrong were added by John Nolte in a Breitbart post titled “Climate ‘Experts’ are 0-41 with Their Doomsday Predictions“:

    For more than 50 years Climate Alarmists in the scientific community and environmental movement have not gotten even one prediction correct, but they do have a perfect record of getting 41 predictions wrong. In other words, on at least 41 occasions, these so-called experts have predicted some terrible environmental catastrophe was imminent … and it never happened. And not once — not even once! — have these alarmists had one of their predictions come true.

    Think about that… the so-called experts are 0-41 with their predictions, but those of us who are skeptical of “expert” prediction number 42, the one that says that if we don’t immediately convert to socialism and allow Alexandria Ocasio-Crazy to control and organize our lives, the planet will become uninhabitable. Why would any sane person listen to someone with a 0-41 record? Why would we completely restructure our economy and sacrifice our personal freedom for “experts” who are 0-41, who have never once gotten it right? And if that’s not crazy enough, the latest ploy is to trot out a 16-year-old girl to spread prediction number 42, because it is so much more credible that way.

    Below are the 41 failed doomsday, eco-pocalyptic predictions (with links):

    1. 1967: Dire Famine Forecast By 1975
    2. 1969: Everyone Will Disappear In a Cloud Of Blue Steam By 1989 (1969)
    3. 1970: Ice Age By 2000
    4. 1970: America Subject to Water Rationing By 1974 and Food Rationing By 1980
    5. 1971: New Ice Age Coming By 2020 or 2030
    6. 1972: New Ice Age By 2070
    7. 1974: Space Satellites Show New Ice Age Coming Fast
    8. 1974: Another Ice Age?
    9. 1974: Ozone Depletion a ‘Great Peril to Life (data and graph)
    10. 1976: Scientific Consensus Planet Cooling, Famines imminent
    11. 1980: Acid Rain Kills Life In Lakes (additional link)
    12. 1978: No End in Sight to 30-Year Cooling Trend (additional link)
    13. 1988: Regional Droughts (that never happened) in 1990s
    14. 1988: Temperatures in DC Will Hit Record Highs
    15. 1988: Maldive Islands will Be Underwater by 2018 (they’re not)
    16. 1989: Rising Sea Levels will Obliterate Nations if Nothing Done by 2000
    17. 1989: New York City’s West Side Highway Underwater by 2019 (it’s not)
    18. 2000: Children Won’t Know what Snow Is
    19. 2002: Famine In 10 Years If We Don’t Give Up Eating Fish, Meat, and Dairy
    20. 2004: Britain will Be Siberia by 2024
    21. 2008: Arctic will Be Ice Free by 2018
    22. 2008: Climate Genius Al Gore Predicts Ice-Free Arctic by 2013
    23. 2009: Climate Genius Prince Charles Says we Have 96 Months to Save World
    24. 2009: UK Prime Minister Says 50 Days to ‘Save The Planet From Catastrophe’
    25. 2009: Climate Genius Al Gore Moves 2013 Prediction of Ice-Free Arctic to 2014
    26. 2013: Arctic Ice-Free by 2015 (additional link)
    27. 2014: Only 500 Days Before ‘Climate Chaos’
    28. 1968: Overpopulation Will Spread Worldwide
    29. 1970: World Will Use Up All its Natural Resources
    30. 1966: Oil Gone in Ten Years
    31. 1972: Oil Depleted in 20 Years
    32. 1977: Department of Energy Says Oil will Peak in 1990s
    33. 1980: Peak Oil In 2000
    34. 1996: Peak Oil in 2020
    35. 2002: Peak Oil in 2010
    36. 2006: Super Hurricanes!
    37. 2005 : Manhattan Underwater by 2015
    38. 1970: Urban Citizens Will Require Gas Masks by 1985
    39. 1970: Nitrogen buildup Will Make All Land Unusable
    40. 1970: Decaying Pollution Will Kill all the Fish
    41. 1970s: Killer Bees!

    Update: I’ve added 9 additional failed predictions (via Real Climate Science) below to make it an even 50 for the number of failed eco-pocalyptic doomsday predictions over the last 50 years.

    42. 1975: The Cooling World and a Drastic Decline in Food Production
    43. 1969: Worldwide Plague, Overwhelming Pollution, Ecological Catastrophe, Virtual Collapse of UK by End of 20th Century
    44. 1972: Pending Depletion and Shortages of Gold, Tin, Oil, Natural Gas, Copper, Aluminum
    45. 1970: Oceans Dead in a Decade, US Water Rationing by 1974, Food Rationing by 1980
    46. 1988: World’s Leading Climate Expert Predicts Lower Manhattan Underwater by 2018
    47. 2005: Fifty Million Climate Refugees by the Year 2020
    48. 2000: Snowfalls Are Now a Thing of the Past
    49.1989: UN Warns That Entire Nations Wiped Off the Face of the Earth by 2000 From Global Warming
    50. 2011: Washington Post Predicted Cherry Blossoms Blooming in Winter

    But somehow this time will be different, and the ‘experts’ and 16-year olds of today will suddenly be correct in their new predictions of eco-doom and eco-disaster? Not.

    Related: Bonus video below from Tony Heller titled “My Gift To Climate Alarmists,” which he describes as “my most concise exposé of climate fraud.”


    Watch the video: In Search of Meluhha: The Story of Mohenjodaro (August 2022).