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Relief of Khonsu, Deir el-Hagar

Relief of Khonsu, Deir el-Hagar



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File:Deir el-Haggar, Entrance Relief (XI) (4566138968).jpg

AWIB-ISAW: Deir el-Haggar, Entrance Relief (XI) A relief at the entrance to the temple at Deir el-Haggar, depicting a Roman emperor as pharaoh making offerings to Isis and Osiris. by NYU Excavations at Amheida Staff (2006) copyright: 2006 NYU Excavations at Amheida (used with permission) photographed place: (Deir el-Haggar) atlantides.org/batlas/sioua-79-inset authority: Image published on the authority of the Amheida Project Director, Roger Bagnall

Published by the Institute for the Study of the Ancient World as part of the Ancient World Image Bank (AWIB). Further information: www.nyu.edu/isaw/awib.htm.


A Newly Restored Deir El Hagar Temple

When Deir El Hagar Temple was first discovered, some of it had fallen down. The entry court, which is made from mud brick, had collapsed, and the columns had fallen in.

However, since that time, restoration work has taken place at the temple. All of the restorations have been done using the same skills that would have been used when the Deir El Hagar Temple was first erected. No modern technology has been used on the restoration.

The name, Deir El Haggar, translates to “Manastery of Stone” which is depicted in hieroglyphs on the temple walls. The hieroglyphs are still viewable when you tour the Deir El Hagar Temple . This temple was built during the reign of the Roman Emperor, Nero.


Outer Sarcophagus of Khonsu

This wooden coffin bears decoration related to Chapter 17 of the Book of the Dead on its long sides. On one side Anubis can be seen mummifying the body of Osiris (with whom the deceased is now identified), while Isis and Nephthys kneel at either side. Khonsu and his wife observe in the form of human-headed birds. Two lions can be seen above, with the sun-disc rising over the horizon between them.

On the opposite side of the coffin, a black-skinned god represents the fertility of the Nile Valley, while Khonsu and his wife sit within a booth in the register below. At either end of the coffin the goddesses Isis, Nephthys, Serket and Neith can be seen. This coffin was found in the Tomb of Sennedjem (TT1), Khonsu&rsquos father, at Deir el-Medina. New Kingdom, 19th Dynasty, ca. 1292-1189 BC. Now in the Egyptian Museum, Cairo. JE 27302

Photo: Sandro Vannini


Relief, Temple dedicated to Amun, Mut and Khonsu

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Reliefs, Temple dedicated to Amun, Dakhla Oasis

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Dakhla Oasis

Location
Dakhla Oasis (Egyptian Arabic: Al Wāḩāt ad Dākhilah ), also spelt Dakhleh and translates to the inner oasis, is one of the seven oases of Egypt’s Western Desert (part of the Libyan Desert). Dakhla Oasis lies in the New Valley Governorate, 350 km from the Nile and between the oases of Farafra and Kharga.

. It measures approximately 80 km (50 mi) from east to west and 25 km (16 mi) from north to south. It is above sea level and is well supplied with water from over 500 springs and pools. With pink cliffs to the north and lush green gardens, this is a truly picturesque spot. One of the best views of the oasis can be had from beside the pool at the Badawiya Dakhla Hotel in Dakhla Oasis.

As well as dates and figs, mulberries and citrus fruits are grown in Dakhla. It is thought that up until only about 7000 years ago there was a large lake at Dakhla which provided grazing for elephants, ostriches and buffaloes until it dried up and the sands moved in.

In contradiction to the other oases in Egypt, more than 50% of the lands of El Dakhla are actually cultivated. This is because the Dakhla Oasis is rich with a large number of water springs like that “Bir Talata”, Well number three, “Bir El Gabal”, the Well of the Mountain.

These fresh water springs have become among the most popular touristic attractions in the Dakhla Oasis because of their wonderful warm water and its relaxing atmosphere.

History
Prehistory
The human history of this oasis started during the Pleistocene, when nomadic tribes settled sometimes there, in a time when the Sahara climate was wetter and where humans could have access to lakes and marshes. But about 6 000 years ago, the entire Sahara became drier, changing progressively into a hyper-arid desert (with less than 50 mm of rain per year). However, specialists think that nomadic hunter-gatherers began to settle almost permanently in the oasis of Dakhleh in the period of the Holocene (about 12 000 years ago), during new, but rare episodes of wetter times.

In fact, the drier climate didn’t mean that there was more water than today in what is now known as the Western Desert. The south of the Libyan Desert has the most important supply of subterranean water in the world through the Nubian Aquifer, and the first inhabitants of the Dakhla Oasis had access to surface water sources.

Pharaonic Period
Little is known about Dakhla during Pharaonic times. A single stela from the Twenty-second Dynasty, which mentions a water dispute, was found near Mut by the british H.G.Lyons, in 1894. The first contacts between the pharaonic power and the oases started around 2550 BCE.

Islamic Period
The fortified Islamic town of Al Qasr was built at Dakhla Oasis in the 12th century probably on the remains of a Roman era settlement by the Ayyubid kings of Egypt. After 1800

The first European traveller to find the Dakhla Oasis was Sir Archibald Edmonstone, in the year 1819. He was succeeded by several other early travellers, but it was not until 1908 that the first egyptologist, Herbert Winlock, visited Dakhla Oasis and noted its monuments in some systematic manner. In the 1950s, detailed studies began, first by Dr. Ahmed Fakhry, and in the late 1970s, an expedition of the Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale and the Dakhla Oasis Project each began detailed studies in the oasis.

What to visit in Dakhla ?

The Village of Mut
Among the sixteen villages in the Dakhla Oasis, the Village of Mut is the largest and the most important, with more than 100,000 inhabitants living in village, which was transformed gradually into becoming more of a city other than a village today.

The name of the Village of Mut was derived from the ancient Egyptian goddess, Mut, the wife of the famous god Amun and the most important deity among the gods of Thebes.

The same as many oases of Egypt, like the Siwa Oasis, Mut has an old city which is situated on the highest point of the town and featured with its mud bricks walls and narrow lanes.

Located to the South East of Mut, there is “Mut El Kharab”, or the ruined section of Mut, which is a badly preserved Roman settlement that was inhabited until the beginning of the 20th century.

The most important touristic attraction in the city of Mut is the spa of the Bir Talata, or Well number Two, located about two kilometers away from the center of the town.

The water of Bir Talata is rich with iron and sulfur which helps in curing many illnesses and they come from a depth that reaches 1000 meters from the underground.

An artificial lake is located three kilometers to the North of Bir Talata and it was formed with the drainage of the irrigation water to become one of the largest artificial lakes in the region.

This lake was established to become a fish farm but the substances like pesticides and fertilizers that come from the cultivated land mad the Egyptian authorities abandon the whole project.

Deir El Hagar
This Temple was constructed during the ruling period of Nero in the middle of the 1st century AD and it was dedicated to the Holy Theban Triad, the gods Mut, Amun Re, and Khonsu.

Deir El Hagar was renovated afterwards, during the reigns of the Roman Emperors Vespasian, Titus, and Domitian as they enlarged the complex and added many finely carved bass relieves.

The Temple was visited by a number of travelers of the 19th century and some of them carved their names on its walls as a sign that they have been here.

Deir El Hagar, which was surrounded by large mud brick walls 16 meters long and 7 meters wide, has a two columns portico and a small hypostyle hall with four pillars and a sanctuary at the end of the complex.

The Village of Al Qasr
Situated 20 kilometers to the North of Mut, Al Qasr is among the most interesting villages in the Dakhla Oasis because it hosts a number of remarkable monuments.

The narrow lanes of Al Qasr have some of the ancient Islamic houses with doors decorated with acacia wood with the name of the owner or the constructor of the house being carved.

Occupying the center of the Village of Al Qasr, there is the minaret of Sheikh Nasr El Din Mosque. Dating to the Ayyubid period, during the 11th and the 12th centuries, nothing remains of this valuable monument except for its 21 meters height minaret.

The Village of Bashandi
The Village of Bashandi

The Village of Bashindi is a quaint and finely preserved historical village situated 40 kilometers to the East of the city of Mut and it was inhabited during the 11th and the 12th centuries.

The Village of Bashindi is featured with its mud brick houses that are finely decorated and colorfully ornamented the fact that made it among the touristic attractions of El Dakhla Oasis.

There is an Islamic cemetery inside the Village of Bashindi and it is dominated by the impressive mausoleum of Sheikh Bashindi, the founder of the village, and there is also a necropolis dating back to the Roman ruling period.

The Mausoleum of Bashindi was constructed by placing a large mud brick structure with a dome over the Roman necropolis, which has some wonderfully decorated tombs like this of Kitines, painted in the Pharaonic style.

The Village of Balat
The Village of Balat is located to the Northeast of Bashindi and its medieval district is of significant importance from the historical and architectural aspects.

The village of Balat is famous the most for hosting two of the most important archeological sites in the Western Desert the Qila El Dabba Necropolis and Ain Asil, the capital of the Oases in the Old Kingdom of ancient Egypt.

These both important historical sites were excavated and studied by the French Institute of Oriental Archeology with the collaboration of the Egyptian Supreme Council of Antiquities.

In the Qila El Dabba Necropolis, archeologists were able to unearth some Mastaba style tombs constructed with mud bricks and which belonged to the rulers of the Oases and their families in the 6th dynasty.

Among the most impressive tombs is the Chapel of Khentikau- Pepi the ruler of the oasis during the reign of King Pepi II, in the period from 2246 till 2152 BC.

There is also the Mastaba tomb of Khentika, the ruler of the oases during the ruling period of King Pepi I in the period from the year 2289 till the year 2255 with the mortuary chamber being decorated with wonderful bright colors.

The excavation works that were carried out in 1986 revealed that the mortuary chambers had four tombs one of them was reserved for the deceased, while the other three were for the members of his family.

Archeologists were able to find wonderful treasures inside these tombs that included copper items, terracotta pottery, and copper jewelry. These remarkable items are now put on display in the Kharga Archeological Museum.

The Necropolis of Al Muzwaqa
The Necropolis of Al Muzwaqa means, in the Arabic Language, the wonderfully decorated tombs and it is located to the North of Mut near the Temple of Deir El Hagar.

This important historical necropolis was discovered in 1908 by the American archeologist, Herbert Winlock during his excavation missions in the Western Desert of Egypt.

This necropolis consists of around 300 rock hewn tombs with most of them not yet unearthed or studied. The Necropolis of Muzwaqa is mostly famous for two tombs the tomb of Petosiris and the tomb of Petubastis and both tombs have finely preserved wall paintings.

Dating from the 1st and 2nd centuries, the two tombs contain all the components of the traditional tombs of ancient Egypt. This includes offerings to the deceased, funerary procession, and the gods watching the deceased entering the afterlife.


Relief of Khonsu, Deir el-Hagar - History

Ancient Egyptian Temples were believed to be the dwelling places of the Egyptian Gods. Only the Pharaoh and the Priests were allowed inside the temples and the priests would undergo ritual purification in a deep stone pool before they entered the Inner Sanctum of the Temples. This not only cleansed them but also gave them contact with the primeval moisture of life. Ordinary Egyptians were only allowed to come to the gates, or forecourt, of the temples to pay homage and offer gifts to the Gods. The Priests would collect the gifts and say prayers on behalf of the person in the confines of the temples.

The priests would conduct ceremonies, sacrifices and chant magical incantations, sometimes referred to as spells. The temples would consist of heavy gates which accessed a massive hall with great stone columns, and then a series of many other rooms through which processions of priests would pass. These rooms, or chambers, were lit by candles and incense would be burnt to purify the air of the Temples. The chambers gradually decreased in size, the lighting in the temples was deliberately and significantly reduced to create an atmosphere of deepening mystery until the priests reached the chapel and the shrine which contained the Naos. The Naos was the stone tabernacle inside the shrine which housed a great statue to the god to whom the temple was dedicated.

Famous Ancient Egyptian Temples
The most famous Ancient Egyptian Temples include the following:

  • Luxor - The Temple of Luxor built by Amenhotep III and Ramses II dedicated to the gods Amun Ra and Horus
  • West bank of Luxor - the temple at Deir el Bahari - The mortuary temple of Hatshepsut was built by the Great Steward of Amun who was called Sennemut dedicated to the god Amun
  • Karnak - The most famous temple at Karnak is the Temple of Amun. Originally the temples at Karnak and Luxor were connected with a two-mile avenue of sphinxes
  • Abu Simbel - The most famous temples at Abu Simbel are the Temples of Ramses and Nefertiti
  • Agilika Island - Temples of Philae built by the Ptolemaic pharaohs
    Edfu - The Temple of Horus built by the Ptolemaic pharaohs and dedicated to the god Horus
  • Kom-Ombo - The Temple of Kom-Ombo built by Ptolemy VI dedicated to the god Sobek

List of Famous Ancient Egyptian Temples
The following list of Ancient Egyptian Temples contains details of the temple, the Pharaoh builders and the gods who were worshipped at them.


Contents

Set is the son of Geb, the Earth, and Nut, the Sky his siblings are Osiris, Isis, and Nephthys. He married Nephthys and fathered Anubis and in some accounts, he had relationships with the foreign goddesses Anat and Astarte. [7] From these relationships is said to be born a crocodile deity called Maga. [1]

The meaning of the name Set is unknown but it is thought to have been originally pronounced *sūtiẖ [ˈsuw.tixʲ] based on spellings of his name in Egyptian hieroglyphs as stẖ and swtẖ. [8] The Late Egyptian spelling stš reflects the palatalization of while the eventual loss of the final consonant is recorded in spellings like swtj. [9] The Coptic form of the name, ⲥⲏⲧ Sēt, is the basis for the English vocalization. [8] [10]

In art, Set is usually depicted as an enigmatic creature referred to by Egyptologists as the Set animal, a beast resembling no known creature, although it could be seen as a composite of an aardvark, a donkey, a jackal, or a fennec fox. The animal has a curved snout, long rectangular ears, a thin forked tail and canine body, with sprouted fur tufts in an inverted arrow shape sometimes, Set is depicted as a human with the distinctive head. Some early Egyptologists proposed that it was a stylised representation of the giraffe, owing to the large flat-topped "horns" which correspond to a giraffe's ossicones. The Egyptians themselves, however, made a distinction between the giraffe and the Set animal. During the Late Period, Set is depicted as a donkey or as having a donkey's head. [11]

The earliest representations of what might be the Set animal comes from a tomb dating to the Amratian culture ("Naqada I") of prehistoric Egypt (3790–3500 BCE), though this identification is uncertain. If these are ruled out, then the earliest Set animal appears on a ceremonial macehead of Scorpion II, a ruler of the Naqada III phase. The head and the forked tail of the Set animal are clearly present. [12]

In the Book of the Faiyum, he is depicted with a flamingo head. [13]

An important element of Set's mythology was his conflict with his brother or nephew, Horus, for the throne of Egypt. The contest between them is often violent but is also described as a legal judgment before the Ennead, an assembled group of Egyptian deities, to decide who should inherit the kingship. The judge in this trial may be Geb, who, as the father of Osiris and Set, held the throne before they did, or it may be the creator gods Ra or Atum, the originators of kingship. [14] Other deities also take important roles: Thoth frequently acts as a conciliator in the dispute [15] or as an assistant to the divine judge, and in "Contendings", Isis uses her cunning and magical power to aid her son. [16]

The rivalry of Horus and Set is portrayed in two contrasting ways. Both perspectives appear as early as the Pyramid Texts, the earliest source of the myth. In some spells from these texts, Horus is the son of Osiris and nephew of Set, and the murder of Osiris is the major impetus for the conflict. The other tradition depicts Horus and Set as brothers. [17] This incongruity persists in many of the subsequent sources, where the two gods may be called brothers or uncle and nephew at different points in the same text. [18]

The divine struggle involves many episodes. "Contendings" describes the two gods appealing to various other deities to arbitrate the dispute and competing in different types of contests, such as racing in boats or fighting each other in the form of hippopotami, to determine a victor. In this account, Horus repeatedly defeats Set and is supported by most of the other deities. [19] Yet the dispute drags on for eighty years, largely because the judge, the creator god, favors Set. [20] In late ritual texts, the conflict is characterized as a great battle involving the two deities' assembled followers. [21] The strife in the divine realm extends beyond the two combatants. At one point Isis attempts to harpoon Set as he is locked in combat with her son, but she strikes Horus instead, who then cuts off her head in a fit of rage. [22] Thoth replaces Isis's head with that of a cow the story gives a mythical origin for the cow-horn headdress that Isis commonly wears. [23]

In a key episode in the conflict, Set sexually abuses Horus. Set's violation is partly meant to degrade his rival, but it also involves homosexual desire, in keeping with one of Set's major characteristics, his forceful, potent, and indiscriminate sexuality. [24] In the earliest account of this episode, in a fragmentary Middle Kingdom papyrus, the sexual encounter begins when Set asks to have sex with Horus, who agrees on the condition that Set will give Horus some of his strength. [25] The encounter puts Horus in danger, because in Egyptian tradition semen is a potent and dangerous substance, akin to poison. According to some texts, Set's semen enters Horus's body and makes him ill, but in "Contendings", Horus thwarts Set by catching Set's semen in his hands. Isis retaliates by putting Horus's semen on lettuce-leaves that Set eats. Set's defeat becomes apparent when this semen appears on his forehead as a golden disk. He has been impregnated with his rival's seed and as a result "gives birth" to the disk. In "Contendings", Thoth takes the disk and places it on his own head in earlier accounts, it is Thoth who is produced by this anomalous birth. [26]

Another important episode concerns mutilations that the combatants inflict upon each other: Horus injures or steals Set's testicles and Set damages or tears out one, or occasionally both, of Horus's eyes. Sometimes the eye is torn into pieces. [27] Set's mutilation signifies a loss of virility and strength. [28] The removal of Horus's eye is even more important, for this stolen eye of Horus represents a wide variety of concepts in Egyptian religion. One of Horus's major roles is as a sky deity, and for this reason his right eye was said to be the sun and his left eye the moon. The theft or destruction of the eye of Horus is therefore equated with the darkening of the moon in the course of its cycle of phases, or during eclipses. Horus may take back his lost Eye, or other deities, including Isis, Thoth, and Hathor, may retrieve or heal it for him. [27] Egyptologist Herman te Velde argues that the tradition about the lost testicles is a late variation on Set's loss of semen to Horus, and that the moon-like disk that emerges from Set's head after his impregnation is the Eye of Horus. If so, the episodes of mutilation and sexual abuse would form a single story, in which Set assaults Horus and loses semen to him, Horus retaliates and impregnates Set, and Set comes into possession of Horus's eye, when it appears on Set's head. Because Thoth is a moon deity in addition to his other functions, it would make sense, according to te Velde, for Thoth to emerge in the form of the Eye and step in to mediate between the feuding deities. [29]

In any case, the restoration of the eye of Horus to wholeness represents the return of the moon to full brightness, [30] the return of the kingship to Horus, [31] and many other aspects of maat. [32] Sometimes the restoration of Horus's eye is accompanied by the restoration of Set's testicles, so that both gods are made whole near the conclusion of their feud. [33]


Contents

Tanis is unattested before the 19th Dynasty of Egypt, when it was the capital of the 14th nome of Lower Egypt. [9] [b] A temple inscription datable to the reign of Ramesses II mentions a "Field of Tanis", while the city in se is securely attested in two 20th Dynasty documents: the Onomasticon of Amenope and the Story of Wenamun, as the home place of the pharaoh–to–be Smendes. [11] : 921

The earliest known Tanite buildings are datable to the 21st Dynasty. Although some monuments found at Tanis are datable earlier than the 21st Dynasty, most of these were in fact brought there from nearby cities, mainly from the previous capital of Pi-Ramesses, for reuse. [12] Indeed, at the end of the New Kingdom the royal residence of Pi-Ramesses was abandoned because of the Pelusiac branch of the Nile in the Delta being silted up and its harbour consequently becoming unusable. [11] : 922

After Pi-Ramesses' abandonment, Tanis became the seat of power of the pharaohs of the 21st Dynasty, and later of the 22nd Dynasty (along with Bubastis). [9] [12] The rulers of these two dynasties supported their legitimacy as rulers of Upper and Lower Egypt with traditional titles and building works, although they pale compared to those at the height of the New Kingdom. [13] A remarkable achievement of these kings was the building and subsequent expansions of the Great temple of Amun-Ra at Tanis (at the time, Amun-Ra replaced Seth as the main deity of the eastern Delta), while minor temples were dedicated to Mut and Khonsu whom, along with Amun-Ra, formed the Theban Triad. [12] The intentional emulation towards Thebes is further stressed by the fact that these gods bore their original Theban epithets, leading to Thebes being more commonly mentioned than Tanis itself. [11] : 922 Furthermore, the new royal necropolis at Tanis successfully replaced the one in the Theban Valley of the Kings. [12]

After the 22nd Dynasty Tanis lost its status of royal residence, but became in turn the capital of the 19th nome of Lower Egypt. Starting from the 30th Dynasty, Tanis experienced a new phase of building development which endured during the Ptolemaic Period. [11] : 922 It remained populated until its abandonment in Roman times. [9]
In Late Antiquity, it was the seat of the bishops of Tanis, who adhered to the Coptic Orthodox Church. [14]

By the time of John of Nikiû in the 7th century, Tanis appears to have already declined significantly, as it was grouped together with four other towns under a single prefect. [15]

The 1885 Census of Egypt recorded San el-Hagar as a nahiyah in the district of Arine in Sharqia Governorate at that time, the population of the city was 1,569 (794 men and 775 women). [16]

Though Tanis was briefly explored in the early 19th century, the first large-scale archaeological excavations there were made by Auguste Mariette in the 1860s. [17] In 1866, Karl Richard Lepsius discovered a copy of the Canopus Decree, an inscription in both Greek and Egyptian, at Tanis. Unlike the Rosetta Stone, discovered 67 years earlier, this inscription included a full hieroglyphic text, thus allowing a direct comparison of the Greek text to the hieroglyphs and confirming the accuracy of Jean-François Champollion's approach to deciphering hieroglyphs. [18]

During the subsequent century the French carried out several excavation campaigns directed by Pierre Montet, then by Jean Yoyotte and subsequently by Philippe Brissaud. [11] : 921 For some time the overwhelming amount of monuments bearing the cartouches of Ramesses II or Merenptah led archaeologists to believe that Tanis and Pi-Ramesses were in fact the same. Furthermore, the discovery of the Year 400 Stela at Tanis led to the speculation that Tanis should also be identified with the older, former Hyksos capital, Avaris. The later re-discovery of the actual, neighbouring archaeological sites of Pi-Ramesses (Qantir) and Avaris (Tell el-Dab'a) made clear that the earlier identifications were incorrect, and that all the Ramesside and pre-Ramesside monuments at Tanis were in fact brought here from Pi-Ramesses or other cities. [11] : 921–2

There are ruins of a number of temples, including the chief temple dedicated to Amun, and a very important royal necropolis of the Third Intermediate Period (which contains the only known intact royal pharaonic burials, the tomb of Tutankhamun having been entered in antiquity). The burials of three pharaohs of the 21st and 22nd Dynasties – Psusennes I, Amenemope and Shoshenq II – survived the depredations of tomb robbers throughout antiquity. They were discovered intact in 1939 and 1940 by Pierre Montet and proved to contain a large catalogue of gold, jewelry, lapis lazuli and other precious stones, as well as the funerary masks of these kings.

The chief deities of Tanis were Amun his consort, Mut and their child Khonsu, forming the Tanite triad. This triad was, however, identical to that of Thebes, leading many scholars to speak of Tanis as the "northern Thebes".

In 2009, the Egyptian Culture Ministry reported archaeologists had discovered a sacred lake in the temple of Mut at Tanis. The lake, built out of limestone blocks, had been 15 meters long and 5 meters deep. It was discovered 12 meters below ground in good condition. The lake could have been built during the late 25th–early 26th Dynasty. [19]

In 2011, analysis of high-resolution satellite imagery, led by archaeologist Sarah Parcak of the University of Alabama at Birmingham, found numerous related mud-brick walls, streets, and large residences, amounting to an entire city plan, in an area that appears blank under normal images. [20] [21] A French archeological team selected a site from the imagery and confirmed mud-brick structures approximately 30 cm below the surface. [22] However, the assertion that the technology showed 17 pyramids was denounced as "completely wrong" by the Minister of State for Antiquities at the time, Zahi Hawass. [23]

The Biblical story of Moses being found in the marshes of the Nile River (Exodus 2:3–5) is often set at Tanis, [24] which is often identified with Zoan (Hebrew: צֹועַן ‎ Ṣōʕan).

The novel The World's Desire by H. Rider Haggard is set primarily in Tanis.

In the 1981 Indiana Jones film Raiders of the Lost Ark, Tanis is fictitiously portrayed as a lost city which was buried in antiquity by a massive sandstorm, before being rediscovered by a Nazi expedition looking for the Ark of the Covenant. [25]

The Tanis fossil site, which may preserve unique remains from the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event, is named after the city. The paleontologist Robert de Palma chose the name based on the significance of Tanis in the decipherment of hieroglyphs, as well as its role in Raiders of the Lost Ark as the hiding place of the Ark of the Covenant. [26]


Watch the video: Deir El- Medina Egypt (August 2022).