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In general, what was the level of technology like in central Africa, just before the scramble for Africa?

In general, what was the level of technology like in central Africa, just before the scramble for Africa?



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I'm asking this question out of curiosity. In general, what was the level of technology like in central Africa, just before the scramble for Africa?


If only we could limit this question to specifics. Be it regional, cultural or any other qualification that would limit the scope. As axsvl77 put it "Africa is a very big place".

But since there is often a certain downward looking attitude or bias when talking about the technology of "Africans", that is a degrading outlook on anything south of the Sahara before European contact and colonisation, it may be most interesting to add just one counter example:

There was an African people that appears to have been really centuries ahead in steel technology compared to Europe or Asia.

These were - or are - the Haya people:

He was led to a tree which was said to rest on the spot of an ancestral furnace used to forge steel. A group of elders were later tasked with the challenge of recreating the forges.
At this time they were the only ones to remember the practice, which had fallen into disuse due in part to the abundance of steel flowing into the country from foreign sources. In spite of the lack of practice the elders were able to create a furnace using mud and grass which when burned provided the carbon needed to transform the iron into steel. Later investigation of the land yielded 13 other furnaces similar in design to the re-creation set up by the elders. This process is very similar to open hearth furnace steelmaking.
These furnaces were carbon-dated and were found to be as old as 2000 years. Steel of similar quality did not appear in Europe until several centuries later.

That is a technology and a level of it not usually found in other parts of Africa, or for that matter in Europe that early. But that is just one example to illustrate the impossibility of ascribing a "general level" of anything to a whole continent at that time.


Note that the quality of the Haza steel may remain somewhat disputed, but the existence of steel production and widespread use of furnaces for that purpose, also by other peoples, is apparently not in question any more.


Coastal sub-Saharan Africa was in Iron Age, towards the interior it was mixed with Copper-Bronze Age with some remote, primitive societies still in Stone Age.

Iron metallurgy in sub-Saharan Africa has long history. Before colonization it was never on level of Europe of China, and there is no evidence of blast furnaces before scramble for Africa. What is certain is that iron (as tools or weapons) was traded in coastal ports of sub-Saharan Africa, so it was widespread and known material, as evidenced for example by this well-known Zulu spear .

Copper (and bronze) metallurgy is somewhat debated topic , with arguments that it started before or at the same time as iron metallurgy. Copper ore is not widespread in Africa, yet copper and bronze objects were found all over the continent, in forms of ritual objects and jewellery, but also as tools and weapons. Copper and bronze are easier to process (if you have ore, of course) than iron, so most of these objects were made with locally produced metal.

Finally, you would have groups like Pygmies in very remote areas with very little contact with metals. Their tools and weapons were often made of wood hardened by fire and stones (sharpened or blunt). Even if they did posses metal objects they didn't know how to make them.


RETRACTED ARTICLE: A brief history of human evolution: challenging Darwin’s claim

There is a consensus among evolutionists today that man first appeared in Africa approximately four million years ago. Others counter this theory saying, “. when shall we speak of man as man”? The timeline they give is approximately one million years and to fully understand one million years is still a difficult task.

However, another even better way to understand time and man is to study it in terms of generations. So, keeping in mind that primitive people married and had children early, twenty years will make an average generation. According to this there would be 50,000 generations in a million years. Keeping this in mind if we calculate generations we find that 250 generations back take us to the time when written history began. While, another 250 generations back would take us to the time (10,000 years ago), when cultivation began, and man started settled life. Now we are left with 49,500 generations of men, plus a time span of 990,000 years. Keeping these statistics in mind let us ask the question once more, when should we speak of man as man?

Therefore, this paper attempts not only to understand the timeframe “when we can really call Man? – Man” in light of the so-called history of human evolution but also to understand that if the specie roaming the earth for a million years was truly man’s ancestor, as is claimed by Charles Darwin. Then what took man’s ancestor so long to show signs of development that we only witness in the last 12000 years.

Moreover, while keeping man’s progress under consideration of the last 12000 years, it will further shed light on why there are serious reservations about Charles Darwin theory of human evolution. As many scientists, evolutionists, archeologist and different religious scriptures strongly claim that man came to the earth fully developed and did not evolve from a lesser specie.


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Tropes To Handle With Care

  • Cool Guns. Different from Rare Guns in that many of these weapons are Awesome Yet Practical while being produced in numbers great enough to be issued to whole militaries and therefore plausibly show up in a story.
  • Drill Sergeant Nasty. While most modern drill sergeants have to turn civilians into killing machines in the space of about three months and they have to be hard on recruits to do it properly, don't go overboard with it. It is perfectly reasonable for a D.I. to shout himself blue at a character who is sloppy, but for a character who is a bit sluggish in P.T. to get the stuffing beaten out of them is another thing entirely. This was a case of Truth in Television in the past, and even into the modern era, but if you are writing in the here and now, this kind of behavior is a symptom of something deeply wrong in the service.
  • Enemy Exchange Program. Typically strongly discouraged in real life for numerous reasons.
  • Gun Porn. While it is a given those reading a war story will like accuracy in their weapons descriptions, try not to go overboard on it. Be accurate, but not gushing unless it is in-character of course, some soldiers do get a little more attached than is healthy (although unless it is a "war is hell" type of story this will be treated with suspicion by their senior officers). Few readers will thank you for page after page of minutiae on firearms when a story could be being told. Note that real soldiers do tend to get a kind of attachment to their weapons, considering that they depend upon them for daily survival.
  • National Stereotypes. Be very careful when dealing with armed conflict between nations, especially if there well known and negative stereotypes about the peoples and or countries involved.
    • Cheese-Eating Surrender Monkeys: This is a rather exaggerated and unfair characterization of the French to begin with. If French Forces are involved, then play them as Gauls With Grenades.
    • All Germans Are Nazis. If the work involves the Wehrmacht, then don't automatically assign them as German=Nazi=Evil. Beware Godwin's Law. The trope for the modern German military, called the Bundeswehr, is We Are Not the Wehrmacht.
    • Eagle Land. Both types, as type 1 can come off as jingoist and type 2 comes off as simply America bashing.
    • Reds with Rockets, if combined with inherently making them malevolent because they are Russian and/or Communist.
    • Arab Terrorists and any othersort ofterrorists should be handled very carefully.

    Prehistoric Techniques and Types | History

    In this article we will discuss about:- 1. Earliest or Palaeolithic Techniques 2. Primary Fabrication Techniques 3. Compound Techniques 4. Polishing and Grinding 5. Palaeolithic Types 6. Mesolithic Types 7. Neolithic Types.

    Man started his cultural career on a very adhoc attempt to obtain a sharp cutting edge. His loss of canines and powerful nails through evolution made it necessary to seek environmental help. Evidences show that the adhoc beginning had slowly taken a grip on him. He not only standardized working with a given raw material from his environment but slowly experimented with different raw materials.

    Thus newer techniques had to be evolved at every stage. The need of a sharp edge was also being slowly replaced by a variety of other needs. The history of man’s cultural progression is basically a history of his technological progress. Cultural terms such as Stone Age, Copper age and Iron Age are also essentially attempts to divide cultural traits with a definable technological stage.

    1. Earliest or Palaeolithic Techniques:

    Man must have begun his experiment with his environment with wood as a raw material. This must have been the easiest retrievable raw material available in the form of branches of trees in the open forests but evidences of that stage are destroyed forever and hence cannot form a part of any archaeological investigation.

    Stones are the other raw material which became quite useful to man. He found it so suitable for his needs that he continued using it for nearly a million years adding some ivory and antler only at the fag end of the period. Even after he developed techniques of metal retrieving he did not entirely give up his age old love for and habit of stone.

    The techniques in which these stones have been shaped by him are usually reconstructed by controlled experiments by the archeologist himself. These experiments can result into a fuller understanding of some fabricating techniques. Here we can summarize some important features of stone technology.

    When a given stone needs to be broken with another stone, the hammer stone needs to be bigger in mass than the piece to be broken. Further, choosing a harder raw material for this purpose can also serve the purpose. For instance, for flaking flint or quartzite, granite, basalt, dolorite or similar rocks used as hammer stones can be quite useful.

    In case of non-availability of harder rocks the stone to be flaked can often be broken by dropping it on ground and then the smaller pieces picked up to shape into tools. When a piece of rock is chipped at convenient corners (flaking) and then used, the pieces of stones knocked off are waste flakes and the tool is a core tool.

    When the reverse is the case, that is, when the piece of stone merely acts as the source of producing flakes and these flakes are further shaped (by retouchings) then the shaped pieces are called flake tools while the core is a waste. It is obvious that in the case of a core tool the length of sharp border obtained is extremely low in relation to the energy spent on it, whereas in case of a flake tool the same energy can produce 10 to 20 times more sharp borders.

    Thus, in terms of efficiency a culture dominated by flake tools can be taken as more advanced than another containing only core tools. Identification of a flake tool cannot be done by mere size as there can be cores smaller than large flakes. Here archaeologists take the use of what is known as the positive bulb of percussion. It has been noted that when force enters a stone it imprints an elevated bulb on the inner surface of the flake right under the point where the hammer hits it.

    The surface on which the hammer hits a stone is called the striking plat-form and the point on the platform, where the hammer hits, is called the bulbar scar or flake scar of detachment. The corresponding area on the core is called flake scar. This flake scar on the core maintains a deep point corresponding to the positive bulb and this is called the negative bulb of percussion.

    Since a large flake can always become core in relation to the next flake removed from it, the usage of the terms core and flake becomes relative. Since relative terms are useless in scientific analysis, a flake in archaeology is decided to be any piece of stone which maintains a positive bulb of percussion no matter- (a) how small or big it is and also (b) no matter how many flakes may have been removed from this.

    The surface of the stone which bears no evidence of human workmanship is called original cortex. Such a surface, in case of a pebble, is much more apparent than on chunks and boulders naturally derived from hills. Finally we need to introduce the term retouchings in a more specific way. Retouchings are medium to small sized chips removed in a contiguous manner along a border. These differ from flakings in only the purpose.

    While flakings are aimed at removing stone material, that is, to thin out or obtain a slope, retouchings are aimed at regularizing a border or strengthening it. Any unworked stone flake has razorsharp borders but these borders are damaged easily. The angle formed by the two surfaces at a sharp natural border can be as low as 7°-10°. Retouching increases this angle to as much as 20°-30°. The difference of the functional edges in the above two cases is the same as a safety razor blade from a sturdy pocket knife.

    2. Primary Fabrication Techniques:

    (a) Direct Percussion:

    This was the most common method adopted by prehistoric man. In this the stone hammer hits the stone in a swinging blow. Maximum amount of force enters the stone in a rather uncontrolled manner. It results in a great deal of shattering effect. The bulb is pronounced and has a fairly large outer circumference. Sometimes this technique is also referred to as free flaking technique.

    In this technique the pebble or block of stone to be worked is struck against the projecting point of a large fixed stone or anvil. The bulbs produced in this kind of flaking can be really pronounced as the force with which the stone hits the anvil is supplemented by the natural weight of the rock.

    The above methods have a risk of having no control over the fracture and hence can often defeat the purpose. The following controlled methods of stone fabrication were evolved to overcome this risk.

    (c) Step or Resolved Flaking:

    As the name signifies the flake scars produced by this technique are shaped like a step. Here the hammer directs the force inside the thicker part of the stone in contradistinction to force directed outwards in the case of free flaking technique. This restricts the force from travelling over the entire thickness of the stone and as such the force gets spent up after travelling halfway through.

    As a result of this a crack develops on the surface of the stone along the periphery of the termination of the force. This results in a vertical cleavage on the surface as also a horizontal scar (when seen from top). It has a chiselling effect which enables cutting the borders without sacrificing the thickness.

    (d) Cylinder Hammer or Hollow Hammer Technique:

    Tools with unusually shallow and elongated flake scars were discovered in prehistoric debris. Dr Leakey after experimenting with many kinds of hammers declared that such flakings could only be affected by using a hollow bone or antler or a wooden hammer. On the face of it this method might appear to be improbable, but only experimentation can demonstrate how good flakes can be removed by this technique.

    The greatest advantage of using these organic hammers is their property of absorbing the reaction of force – thus totally eliminating the shattering effect of impact. The bulb produced in this kind of scars is diffused and the flake scars have a more or less parallel running boundary ridge.

    Besides the above two, there are two other controlled flaking techniques which are usually employed for finer tools.

    It involves the use of an intermediate puncher which receives the blow on its top and transfers it to the core through the other end. Such a method has the advantage of controlling both the magnitude and direction of the force by manipulating the puncher by one hand while the force is being delivered by the other. The peckings in Neolithic celt preparation are done by this process. This method is quite useful in knocking off undesired corners or protruberances on a rock surface without the risk of undesired damage to the tool.

    Some Palaeolithic tools like the upper Solutrean points carry fine shallow flakings on the surface and these were taken to have been produced by what is described as pressure flaking technique. In this technique the media (puncher) transmitting the force keeps in contact with the core during the process the force is in action.

    This prevents radiation of the force waves in radial direction at the point of impact. (In most of the percussion techniques the hammer swings off after imparting the force on the core. Left to itself, the force, therefore, tends to radiate in the direction of the blow. The fan shaped flakes detached in free flaking technique are a good example to demonstrate this point). As a result, pressure flaking technique is quite suitable in the removal of elongated blades. Usually it is used for delicate retouchings but in blade manufacture it is one of the essential steps of fabrication.

    3. Compound Techniques:

    One or more of the above methods of primary fabrication of tools can be used to give rise to the combined methods. Here are some of the combined methods described.

    Strictly speaking this method is not a combined method but we list it here because it involves a special planning. This is the oldest flaking technique known from the British Lower Palaeolithic. The name is derived from the site Clacton-on-Sea in Essex. These flakes are known from all over Europe during various stages of Palaeolithic culture. These are essentially typified by a characteristic high flake angle and a general absence of secondary retouchings on them.

    It is a common experience that to detach a flake from a pebble one has to strike a blow in an inclined manner. The angle of this direction of force with the pebble surface is therefore always less than 90° for obtaining a good sized flake. For removing a second flake from the same surface one requires increasing the angle of the blow. If this process is repeated a stage comes when the blow delivered is at right angles-and the core in this case, shatters in several pieces instead of giving a flake.

    Hence this is known as the critical angle of percussion. The Clactonian technique eliminates this limitation of simple percussion technique. Here once a flake is removed from one surface this flaked surface is used as the striking platform to remove another fresh flake from the opposite surface. As a result the flake angle of each Clactonian flake comes out as more than 90°.

    ii. Levallois Technique:

    This technique is named after a site of this name in the suburb of Paris. It involves taking out of a number of flakes from one face of a nodule from all around its periphery in a centripetal manner as a first step. This prepared core resembles a tortoise shell and therefore is usually referred to as tortoise core.

    Finally a calculated blow is delivered on the top of the shaped surface in such a manner that a flake comes out of this core. The detached flake carries the previous dressing on its dorsal surface. It is, therefore, taken to be a technique where a previous planning and shaping of a flake to be detached is perfected.

    In other words this marks a technological development in prehistoric techniques which needs to be counted in the assessment of the characteristics of a given industry or culture. For long it has been emphasized that the diagnostic trait for the identification of a levallois flake is the occurrence of a faceted butt.

    In reality there are many normal flakes known with faceted butts and also numerous levallois flakes known without any kind of faceting present at their butt ends. The only feature which goes to define a levallois flake is the occurrence of centrally directed flake scars on its dorsal surface.

    Many or some of these dorsal surface flake scars do not have their points of impact on this flake (that is, the flake detached cuts a portion of the previous dressing from the tortoise core. Thus, most of the points of impact of these scars are retained on the core while the flake detached maintains only the distal ends of these scars).

    Besides this, the butt end of a levallois flake is rarely known to have formed an angle of more than 90° with the axis of the flake scar. Levallois technique can be modified by choosing and shaping special cores and thus producing levallois points and levallois blades.

    The technique of Mesolithic blade production is broadly termed as fluting. This term literally means the semi-cylindrical vertical grooves in pillars. And since a fluted core resembles such pillars the technique is termed fluting. The technique involves the preparation of a core as the first step.

    Here the usual percussion technique is used to transform any nodule or natural pebble into a prismatic shape. A striking platform is prepared at the end of the long axis of this prismatic core. The core is then held firmly on the ground and pressure is delivered from the edge of the striking platform.

    The pressure can be applied by using a pointed bone, antler or even specially prepared wood. In what manner this process was executed will perhaps never be known, but archaeological evidences offer enough proof of a complete perfection of the technique having been mastered by the people, and also that these blades were removed in rapid succession.

    The main points of distinction between Palaeolithic blades and Mesolithic blades are as follows:

    (a) Palaeolithic blades produced by direct or indirect percussion always maintain a pronounced bulb of percussion. The platform is thick and often maintains a slight overhang. Ripples of force are seldom present near the bulb but never any fissures of force along the length of the scar.

    (b) As contrast to the Upper Palaeolithic blades, the Mesolithic blades are smaller and produced by pressure flaking technique. Pressure being constantly in touch with the core, the bulb of percussion can never be pronounced. Usually it is as tiny as a pin-head. The platform in these blades need not be thick as the point of impact and direction of the force is totally under control. Finally, often these blades bear numerous ripples and fissures along their scar of detachment.

    The identification of the fluting technique cannot be mainly based on these features as these are not always true for all kinds of raw materials. Hence the presence of the characteristic fluted cores alone can demonstrate the presence of this technique. In flint, for instance, it is demonstrated by actual experiments that pressure flaking cannot remove a blade more than 2 cm in length.

    This has led many authorities to attempt results of pressure flaking variety by punching technique. Prof Francois Bordes has produced beautiful ‘laurel leaves’ -sometimes as big as 17 cm – by merely using punching technique. It is, however, true that none of these flake scars (produced by percussion) bears those numerous ripples of force that the original laurel leaves have.

    The flaking techniques described above may have formed the main basis of tool fabrication for nearly one million years of our prehistoric past. The microlithic technique shares more or less the same features except that the main emphasis in this period shifts to blade manufacture by fluting.

    These blades are basically different from Palaeolithic flakes in the fundamental feature of having too many built-in sharp borders. Therefore, retouching in this period mainly aims at blunting an already sharp border. This, as a technique, was evolved as early as 26 thousand years before the Microlith makers reemployed it.

    In early Perigordian or Chatelperronean blunting of an available border by steep or abrupt retouchings was first evolved. In entire Upper Palaeolithic this technique survives in various degrees and by the time Mesolithic culture starts it is adopted as the predominant retouching technique. Microliths are found to occur from almost 10,000 B.P. and continue to occur well within Christian era in many countries.

    These may or may not be found with later cultures (like Neolithic, Chalcolithic etc.) as well. These are not used individually as tools. These were mounted in multiple numbers on suitable shafts to be used as tools. Obviously the emphasis has been the lightness of the finished implement and this explains the preference for tiny shapes especially when compared with tools of the earlier cultures.

    4. Polishing and Grinding:

    Stone Age implements have all along been flaked and retouched in various techniques to suit a function. In the last of the stone ages, i.e., in Neolithic period an altogether different finishing technique is evolved. This is clearly demonstrative of an altogether new functional adaptation. All available evidences indicate that man had just evolved an agricultural economy and he had to clear a great deal of bushes and trees to obtain open cultivation land. The new techniques of grinding and polishing may have been result of this imperative.

    To suit this change in the purpose and hence technique, the raw material of the Neolithic tools is also changed. Quartzite or flint is no longer found suitable. A much finer grained and harder igneous rock such as dyke basalt, dolerite and epidiorite become the most commonly favoured raw material. It would appear quite evident that the Neolithic people not only had gathered wide practical knowledge about various rocks and their properties but had skillfully quarried two or three different varieties of rocks to shape different tools.

    That is, while chalcedony continued to be used to prepare microliths (to be used as composite tools) dolerite was mined out specially to prepare the heavy axes. Quartzite is also continued to be used but now mainly for making ring-stones or bolas. There are many Neolithic sites where all these varieties of raw materials and techniques occur together.

    A stone axe in the Neolithic period is prepared by taking a normal chunk of this special rock and then flaking it with stone hammer to obtain the shape that has been planned. Often the original surfaces of the core are used to advantage in order to decide the shape. The nature of the stone is such that unlike the result of stone hammer technique on quartzite the flaking removes only small and shallow flakes.

    Once the shape is achieved the intersection of all the scars or any other generalized undulations left on the surface is carefully knocked off with a pointed hammer. This process is called pecking. Finally the finished tool is rubbed over a rough stone surface with water thrown in. Usually the working border is ground but in many cases the entire body of the tool can also be ground.

    Many authorities believe that some kind of fat may have been used during the final rubbing stage in order to give a polish to the finished type and hence the name grinding and polishing. Many Neolithic occupations have yielded large concave sand stone slabs with marks of deep grooves along the length. These finds further demonstrate the manner of execution of this technique.

    Using fat to polish, however, seems very unlikely because rubbing is not effective with a film of fat which lessens friction. It is, therefore, quite likely that the actual technique consists of flaking, pecking and grinding only. The unusual polish seen in some Neolithic axes may have been developed by prolonged use of these axes.

    Ring stones and bolas are the other examples of the use of friction put to maximum advantage by the Neolithic people. These heavy quartzite pieces have been given a smooth shape by skillful pecking and grinding and then a hole has been driven through this by devising a drilling technique.

    Sometimes these holes can be as big as 8 cms in depth and 8 cms or even more in diameter. It is difficult to imagine how these holes were made unless we entertain the possibility of the use of a special drill with shell or choral stone inlay. That this kind of a drill could not have been operated by bare hands is also likely but to prove the existence of a bow-drill for this stage is also impossible. The holes in these ring- stones have an hour-glass cross-section and this can be taken to indicate that the hole was made from both the surfaces in order to meet at the centre.

    Preparation of pottery with specially treated clay was another prehistoric innovation seen during the Neolithic period. Here we shall get to know some of the prehistoric types.

    We have gone at length into the philosophy of types in prehistory. Therefore, it need be specially emphasized that the enunciated types are universal and any local variations observed can always be accommodated as a variant within a generalized definition of one of these types.

    5. Palaeolithic Types:

    Palaeolithic period has been mainly divided into Lower, Middle and Upper on the basis of certain predominant types.

    We shall lay down the definition for these types below:

    These are core tools prepared by unifacial flaking of the terminal end. In some rare cases the flaking might extend over one of the surfaces but do not include the butt-end which is as a rule kept untouched. A chopper can have a U shape or even circular appearance and hence the working end can range from a straight and transverse border to almost a semi-circular border.

    If the two terminals of the working border are joined by a straight line the maximum thickness of a chopper usually falls posterior to this line (towards the butt-end). If, however, the maximum thickness lies anterior to this line it is advisable to consider such a specimen as a flake core.

    (ii) Chopping Tool:

    It is merely a variation of the chopper with the only exception that here the flaking is done from both the surfaces. That is, the terminal flakings are alternately removed by altering the surface facing the worker. As a result of this the working end of a chopping tool is jagge or wavy as contrast to the sharp border of a chopper. Here also the shift of the maximum thickness towards the working border can be taken to include them as flake cores.

    Both Chopper and Chopping tools are usually prepared by primary flakings alone. These are delivered by stone hammer with a swinging blow or using block-on-block technique. In some special cases some secondary flakings may also be present. But if over and above primary and secondary flakings there is evidence of contiguous retouchings along the border these should be considered as Core Scrapers.

    It is perhaps one of the earliest tool types identified in prehistory. The main distinguishing feature of this type is that it is extensively retouched on both the faces and hence the name Biface is also used for this type. It distinguishes itself from other bifacial implements in the fact that with a few exceptions (e.g., Ovate) it has a thicker and broader end called the butt end and opposite this occurs the narrower and thinner end called the working end, and the two surfaces and the lateral borders are so flaked as to meet at the working end.

    By implication biface is a core tool, but if all these characters of a biface are satisfied in a given specimen and over and above this a small portion of the scar of detachment with its positive bulb of percussion is retained then such a specimen can be easily designated with a prefix qualifying the difference. That is, this specimen should be called a flake-handaxe.

    On the basis of their shapes the handaxes can be classified into a dozen varieties. For instance the elongated types of handaxes include Lanceolate, Micoquian and Ficron. The medium size squat group includes Triangular, Sub-triangular and Cordiform. Similarly ovoid group with rounded working end includes Amygdaloid, Ovoid and Limande.

    Besides these, there are some other types also identified but these are more or less area specific. Technologically and hence culturally these groups are not always associated. For instance, a lower Acheulian or Abbevillian handaxe can be Lanceolate or Ficron but seldom a Cordiform. Similarly an upper Acheulian can be Micoquian or Cordiform or Limande without any regard to the size.

    It is, therefore, important to remember that these categories are morphological with some technological rider alone and it is not safe to consider any of these types as specific for a cultural stage. It may be, therefore, worthwhile to attempt at some cultural terms for the handaxe.

    These are the largest of all handaxes known in prehistory and often weigh as much as 2-4 lbs. Although bifacially worked, these handaxes have scooping deep scars which give rise to very sinuous lateral borders. There are rarely any secondary flakings done along the borders. Usually these specimens are not quite symmetrical.

    These are smaller and more symmetrical in their dorsoventral contour. There are numerous secondary retouchings done and these are mainly concentrated around the lateral borders. Around middle Acheulian period cylinder hammer technique is profusedly used to execute the final shaping. In many upper Acheulian handaxes the sharp lateral border continues over the butt-end as well. A special shape of these handaxes is an Ovate which may have a twisted S or Z shaped lateral border.

    It is ordinarily a handaxe with a transverse working end. This transverse edge can be obtained by retouching from both the surfaces and also by skillfully designing the intersection of a sloping flat scar with another similar scar or a retouched or original surface on the opposite face.

    The most common cleavers which come from Africa and India are made on thick medium sized flakes where the ventral surface has a single flake scar of detachment and the dorsal surface has a sloping scar towards the anterior end. Extensive flakings along both the lateral borders and the butt-end attempt to drive a suitable shape.

    Since this flaking is alternately done, the tool has a characteristic parallelogram cross-section. According to the shape of the butt end cleavers can be classified as either U or V shaped. The working end, likewise, can be classified as transverse, left-oblique, right-oblique or divergent according to the position and nature of the bit.

    Most of these four types of tools discussed here are generally heavy duty multipurpose tools. In their manipulation, a grip involving the palm of the hand is effective.

    These are mostly found associated with the earliest group of human culture and hence they are taken as defining what will be called the Lower Palaeolithic Culture.

    The following eight types, including their sub-types and also at times with a mixture of some of the earlier described types define the cultural stage called Middle Palaeolithic. This is a period which is of shortest duration and hence can be truly considered as a period of transition from Lower Palaeolithic to Upper Palaeolithic.

    The actual name of this type is Side Scraper but most of the Non-European writings still use the term singly. That is, unless otherwise qualified as End Scrapers, Scraper will mean a Side Scraper. This forms the most common of all flake tools known from the entire Lower to Middle Palaeolithic period. There are as many as 21 sub­types identified within the side scrapers.

    There are based on slight techno-morphological variations. A side scraper is a flake tool in which one or more lateral borders are shaped by contiguous retouchings. If this retouching is done in ‘fish-scale’ manner such side scrapers are also referred to as Quina scrapers. (Fish scale is a special manner of retouching in which a series of tiny steps appear as ripples.)

    This is a tool type in which the scraping border is at the morphological end of the specimen and also the retouchings on the border are steeper than in side scrapers. In Lower and Middle Palaeolithic it occurs in simple form of an end retouched specimen while in Upper Palaeolithic it takes a specific shape. The Upper Palaeolithic end scrapers are prepared on thick blades the terminal ends of which are retouched at a high angle. At least 15 sub-types within this category have been identified.

    Point in prehistory is often a misunderstood type. There may be many broken flakes or blades which have convenient workable pointed ends (and may indeed, have been used as a point) but such specimens cannot be included into the type Point until they show evidence of deliberate reinforcement on them.

    These are triangular flakes in which one of the angles is acute and show reinforcement around the apex. In some special cases retouchings may be done along only one border while the other border has a natural fracture. Mousterian point is a very special form of this type known from only some specific areas. The speciality of these points lies in their symmetrical finish with almost all round retouchings.

    This is a type which, like the end scraper, is more of an Upper Palaeolithic character. In Lower and Middle Palaeolithic it occurs in generalized forms. It is a type in which a thick projected end of a flake is specially obtained by etching out two (ideally) notches at the base. In many cases removing of even one notch can serve the purpose.

    This is a Lower and Middle Palaeolithic knife which needs to be differentiated from the Upper Palaeolithic knife blades which are also backed. These are specific flakes which are so removed that they have three surfaces (i.e. in cross-section these tools are triangular) of which two surfaces are tranchet and converge to form an elongated sharp border running along the length of the flake.

    These two surfaces and the border created by them never have any retouchings. The surface opposite the border may be flaked to form a sort of backing. In many cases even this surface is composed of the natural cortex. That is, it is a tool type of planning and may carry no evidence of any further working on it.

    6. Notch and Denticulate:

    These are two different types named entirely structurally. Although all types are structurally defined but the names used to designate them have remained functional just to keep in conformity with earlier literature. Seen in this regard these types appear both comfortable and also uncomfortable for perception. Comfortable because the name indicated the techno- morphology of the specimen.

    A notch is any specimen with a deliberate lateral incurve while a denticulate is any specimen in which more than one notch is prepared along a border. We feel uncomfortable because unlike a ‘Knife’ or a ‘Scraper’ these type names do not appear relevant in our understanding of culture. It is important, therefore, to re- emphasize that types do not attempt to describe a culture. It is that fixed morphological description which helps to identify cultures or culture boundaries from within a complicated spread of activities and their left overs.

    7. Foliate or Blattspitzen:

    Back to types again, this is a thin bifacially worked point which is entirely prepared by controlled percussion technique. These points can be differentiated from the leaf points (laurel leaf, willow leaf) in the generalized crudeness of finish in the first place.

    Secondly, leaf points are prepared by pressure flaking technique in such a manner that the thinning of the body and regularizing the working border are both achieved by the same series of flakes. In Blattspitzen, these are done by separate flakes and hence a large number of tiny step flakings are required in the control of the flakings.

    This is again an Upper Palaeolithic type but may be known in atypical forms from as early as late Lower Palaeolithic. Burin can be prepared on a flake, blade or even on a core. The working end is exactly comparable to the same of a screw driver.

    This 0.5 to 1 cm transverse cutting edge is obtained by the intersection of two plains which meet at an angle. Hence these are also called dyhedral angle burins. The two plains are called burin facets and the manner of their preparation decides the sub-type of the burin.

    The types that discriminate the Upper Palaeolithic are all prepared on blades. These blades can be retouched in order to reinforce a border or blunt it in order to obtain desired results. Given below are some of the typical Upper Palaeolithic types and the traditions that these types define.

    These are moderately broad, thick and long blades retouched in semi-abrupt retouches. The retouchings extend all around the borders including the terminal ends. In a typical Aurignacian blade the retouching is in the manner of fish scale. In some instances two notches are made on the centre of the blade along the opposite lateral borders.

    These blades are termed Strangled blades. A similar kind of retouching done on a smaller and slender blade characterize Aurignacian industries known around the Correze valley in south west France. These are called Font-Yves points after the name of the type site.

    In the same valley another type prepared on a bladelet by semi-abrupt retouching is quite common. These are called Dufour bladelets. A Dufour bladelet is a slender bladelet of 2-4 cm in length in which one lateral border is retouched from the dorsal surface and the other from the ventral surface. Both these borders have semi-abrupt retouchings.

    2. Aurignacian Burin:

    This cultural tradition is also characterized by the occurrence of a specific variety of burin. Here one of the facets forming the burin edge is made convex by preparing a notch on the lateral border. This makes the area of the surface laying above the notch weak. Hence any oblique blow delivered on the top traverses a curved path in order to emerge from the weak region.

    This results in a convex fracture. The other facet which intersects with this plain is simple and vertical. These burins are called Basque burins. Another variety of burins quite common in Aurignacian tradition is called the axial or symmetrical burin. In French this burin is also referred to as Bec-de-flute burin. This is prepared at the distal end of a thick blade in such a way that the burin edge lies symmetrically along the mid-axis of the blade.

    It is believed that this can be achieved by holding the (would be) working end at the corner of a fixed anvil and then hitting the rear end of the blade. This results in the removal of a vertical spall (flakes removed to obtain a burin facet). Thus, the process repeated can produce two such vertical spalls which intersect to form the burin edge.

    3. Aurignacian End Scraper:

    These are end scrapers prepared on thick but small nodules and found in association with blade and scrapers in many west European Aurignacian sites. A medium sized core is taken and a large flake is removed from it to form a flat under surface. Calculated tapping blows are delivered around the periphery of this flat surface to result in a series of flake scars meetings at the apex of the pyramidical obverse.

    The special appearance of these scrapers led them being termed Carinated end scrapers. If carinated end scrapers are so designed that the scraping end projects out in the form of a nose, such a type is known as nose end scraper. This is achieved by delivering one or a pair of notches on the side of the working border.

    The above three types along with several variations of an ivory lance point form the main features of almost all Aurignacians.

    In Perigordian industries broad flat blades have been retouched to form several kinds of knives and these by far form the most frequent typology all through this stage and the subsequent cultural traditions. In the initial stages they are few and far between and constitute abrupt retouching of one naturally obtained sharp, edge of a broad and flat blade while the opposite border acts as the knife edge.

    In the later stages they are made on rather thick blades with triangular cross-section in such a way that the blunting is done upto the thick mid rib. As a result these become narrowed in appearance. Further, these backed blades show deliberate attempt at deriving a pointed distal end with flat ventral surface retouchings. These latter types, as such, are no longer called knives but points.

    Audi Knife is one of the earliest of these backed blade types. This is a rather short and broad blade where one border is blunted towards the distal end in a slanted or semi-circular manner to meet the naturally-sharp working edge.

    Chattelperronean Knife:

    Sonneville-Bordes calls it a knife point because here the blade is rather elongated and the backing is done completely along one border in such a way that it gently curves down to meet the working edge at the anterior end. Usually even the base of these blades is rounded off by extending the abrupt lateral retouchings.

    These are thick blades where bold backing along one or both the borders (often from both the surfaces) renders the breadth of the blade to almost half so that the backed ends meet anteriorly at an acute angle. The ventral surface around the pointed end also shows some flat retouchings done in order to narrow down the thickness of the point.

    Shouldered Blade Tools- (Perigordian to Magdalenian):

    Many Gravettian points show a single shoulder prepared at the butt end and along the border opposite the backed border. Most of these backed points show minor retouchings on both the borders and the ventral surface of the working end. A typical type under this category is called Font-Robert Point. This is a Gravettian point with two shallow notches at the base which gives rise to a rather elongated shoulder and a broad tang.

    During the Solutrean tradition similar shouldered points are recorded with shallow pressure flaking retouches. These are prepared on moderately broad blades with triangular cross-section in which the rippled pressure flaking retouches cover one half of the breadth of the blade (usually upto the median ridge) with a single shoulder prepared. These are termed as the Solutrean plane faced shouldered points.

    Another variety of shouldered point”, is identified in the Magdalenian period. These are likewise termed Magdalenian shouldered point. These are smaller than the Solutrean points and have a shoulder prepared almost at one third distance from the pointed lip. The tang, therefore, is both elongated (almost two third of the total length) and broad.

    2. Hamburgian Point:

    This is a moderately broad blade in which one border is so backed that the anterior half slopes to give rise to a point while the posterior half slopes in a concave fashion to form the tang. Occasionally the backing at the butt-end may be extended a little along the second border as well. This tool type is very common in the north European flat land during late Pleistocene period. It is named after a similar site found near the city of Hamburg in W. Germany.

    3. Ahrensburgian Point:

    The same area during the closing phase of Pleistocene yielded a series of Epi-Palaeolithic industries of which Ahrensburg is a famous site. Here the points are double shouldered as a rule, (besides carrying the backing along one sloping border) to from the pointed end.

    4. Kostienki Point:

    This is a type named after an Upper Palaeolithic site by the river Don in European Russia. The tool in ideal form is made on a blade with a convex sharp border (suitable to obtain on bladish flakes). The point is derived by backing the opposite border which may be slightly slanting. Flat flakings on both dorsal and ventral surfaces are removed from the pointed and the butt-end with an aim to make the point and the butt more effective. A shoulder is etched out by either straight or slightly incurved backing of the same border from around half or more length of the blade.

    5. Truncated Blade:

    This is a tool type which is taken as the type fossil of Perigordian-Vb in France. As the name indicates this is any blade or bladelet the shorter ends of which are blunted with steep and abrupt retouch. In addition to these the lateral borders as well may be given the same blunting treatment.

    6. Solutrean Leaf Point:

    These are exceptionally thin and flat points which show the zenith of stone tool manufacturing technology. Their moderately long and proportionately broad shape coupled with the extreme thinness gives them the appearance of characteristic laurel leaves and hence the name.

    The surfaces of the tool are covered with shallow and elongated flakings originating from both the borders and meeting along the mid-axis. These flakings show a characteristic ripple like appearance which is taken to interpret a very controlled pressure flaking technique having been employed.

    Prof. Bordes, however, had demonstrated that almost similar effect can be produced (in much lesser time) by the percussion flaking as well. These tools can be double or single points and also can be unifacial as also bifacial. These are found restricted only in the Southern industries from southwest France and some isolated regions of northern Spain.

    This by definition is a bifacial leaf point which may be double or single. This type is described only from Upper Solutrean layers. In some Spanish Solutrean layers the borders of these points are characteristically serrated.

    This is usually unifacial and occurs a little later than Laurel leaves in French Upper Solutrean. The ventral surface is a flat flake scar which may contain a little flaking at the pointed region to reinforce the sharpness. These points are usually shorter and narrower than average laurel leaf and are also shouldered in many instances.

    These are bifacially retouched leaf shaped pieces which by and large lack the fineness of French Solutrean retouchings. Like Central European Blattspitzen these also often carry patches of flat original surface though the final shape of these pieces and their relative thickness often compare with the Solutrean leaf points.

    6. Mesolithic Types:

    The tools belonging to the Mesolithic period are all prepared on micro-blades produced by fluting technique. These are tools which could not have been used simply by hand. There are some evidences known form Greece, Norway, Sweden and Denmark which demonstrate that these tiny stone specimens were merely elements which in combination were crafted on wooden or bone handles to be finally used as implements. Such finished types as spear heads, arrow heads, sickles, knives, daggers and similar other weapons could be easily planned by using these microliths in several forms of combinations.

    In Indian prehistoric contents, however, most of these microliths occur without their original competitive context except at Mehrgarh. Therefore, the typologies for these are purely structural in description like the earlier periods. To identify a microlithic type one needs only to specify the area of retouch on the blades – the basic tool bank of this period.

    When a blade has parallel ridges along its dorsal surface its own borders are also as a rule parallel. This kind of blade is called a parallel sided or simply P S blade. In contradistinction to these there may be some blades with series of bilateral flakings seen on the dorsal surface. These flake scars run horizontally to meet along a ridge.

    It is believed that this ridge was specially obtained by these transverse scars in order to guide the length of a blade to be removed and also to form a suitable bed for blade removal. Such blades, even though they have parallel borders, are called Crest Guiding blades. Many other thick but short blades with triangular cross-section are known to occur in every microlithic assemblage.

    These are of no regular shape and are grouped as either Core trimming blades or Core trimming flakes depending on their elongation, (i.e., L > 2B). There is a more or less universally agreed recommendation to designate all blades having length equal to or less than 5 cm and breadth equal to or less than 1.2 cm (i.e. 12 mm) as bladelets or micro-blades.

    i. Retouched Blade:

    Microlithic blades can be retouched in two different manners. These can be either bold retouchings on thick borders or a variety of microscopic retouchings. These can further be divided into two more varieties. That is to say, retouching a border to reinforce the sharpness in the manner of Aurignacian blades or retouching abruptly to blunt a border in the manner of Perigordian blades. Therefore, at least 4 different kinds of microlithic retouched blades can be identified.

    ii. Obliquely Blunted Blade:

    It is a specific variety of retouched blade. Here, one of the lateral borders is blunted. The blunting is done in such a manner as to meet the opposite sharp border anteriorly. The blunted border may be smooth and convex or it may be angular. In specifically broad blades this type looks very much like a diminutive Chattelperron knife and hence is also referred to as Pen knife. Azilian point of Europe, although quite young (Epi-Palaeolithic) in date is also referred to as Pen Knife in European literature. An obliquely blunted microlithic blade is usually much smaller than even these Azilian points.

    Any blade broken in a triangular manner and then retouched along both the sloping borders to give rise to the point is designated as the type Point. Sometimes thick blades or bladelets between 5-6 cm in length are steeply retouched along the borders to give rise to a point at both the anterior as also the posterior end.

    These double points are termed Sauveterranean points after the Mesolithic site called Saveterre-La Lemance from south France. There is also a diminutive form of Gravettian point made on bladelets during Mesolithic period and these are termed Micro-Gravette points. Instances of points made on microlithic flakes are also known in many areas and these need to be distinguished as flake-points.

    These are one of the most beautiful tool types of Mesolithic culture. The type is counted as geometric microlith. These are usually shorter and smaller than points and have no reinforcement of the point. It has usually one border or/and base which are retouched in this type.

    Two most characteristic triangles are:

    When a blade is shaped in the form of a scalene triangle by retouching the two borders that form the obtuse angle the type is called a scalene triangle. There are many variations possible within this type. In triangles all the three borders may also be retouched. When a blade is specially shaped as an isosceles triangle and only the base is retouched (usually), it is termed as an isosceles triangle. It is needless to emphasize that there may be many borders retouched in this type as well. These merely serve as variations.

    v. Crescent or Lunate:

    This is prepared by a semi-circular retouching of one of the borders of a blade and as such appears like a segment of a circle. In a typical piece the maximum width lies at the middle of the length of tool. Asymmetrical lunates can merge with the range of variations of scalene triangles.

    These are trapezoid segments of blades the borders of which are retouched. This is taken as another geometric microlith. Usually more than one border is retouched and in rare cases all the four borders may be retouched.

    Besides normal burins, often prepared on fragments of fluted cores, mesolithic industries in many areas, have yielded Microburins. It is a tiny burin prepared on a notch is such a manner that the facet below is in the same plane as the dorsal surface and the notch is in the under surface. (In normal burins the facets are across the dorso-ventral plane and hence the burin edge is equal to the thickness of the blade).

    7. Neolithic Types:

    One of the most common and almost diagnostic type fossils of this period is a ground axe. There can be a large variety of these ground axes and all of these can be clubbed together under the family name of celt. In other words, celts can be defined as simply ground axes. There are at least 3 main types within which the celts can be divided. These are- Axes, Adzes and Chisels.

    Axes are roughly triangular in form with a firm transverse edge. The specimen may be oval to rectangular in cross- section. The working edge is invariably ground and polished. In addition to this many specimens are totally ground and smoothened.

    Axes can be further sub-divided according to the nature of the butt-end preparation. In many instances butt-end may be rectangular without any grinding, in some it may be rounded off while in a third kind the butt may be specially pointed. To distinguish the axes that is biconvex in profile (minimally only the profile of the working end).

    Adzes are similar to axes in all general features except that these are usually thinner and hence may have been prepared on suitable flakes. The transverse working border is formed by a convex surface meeting a flat undersurface. This levelling can also be done by flat rubbing of one surface of an otherwise thin axe. In profile all adzes are plano­convex in shape.

    Chisels are small, narrow, rectangular pieces in which the two broader surfaces slope down to meet at the working end while the smaller surfaces running in place of the two lateral borders remain smooth without any kind of slope. These are usually much longer than the axes or adzes.

    Shouldered celts are celts occurring in south-east Asian Neolithic sites only. These can be axes or adzes at the butt- end of which sharp rectilinear shoulders have been cut-out. The right angled nature of these shoulders led many authorities to believe that metal wires must have been used to do the cutting and hence these are younger than neolithic age (which by definition is a premetal age). Subsequent experiments seem to have demonstrated that thin silver of bamboo with sand and water can make such cuts in some softer variety of tones. Hence it is quite likely that some of them may represent a Neolithic type.

    Besides these basic types almost all Neolithic sites yield a large number of ring stones, saddle and querns, bolas and grooved bolas as well. Since these are mere stone pieces put to different uses they do not involve any specific typotechnological description. It is also important to mention that most of the Neolithic sites also introduce the use of ceramics for the first time. We can go into ceramic technology and types in the following section.

    8. Chalcolithic or Ceramic Types:

    From Chalcolithic to early historic archaeology ceramics form the most predominant left over. It is not surprising, therefore, that the typo-technology of ceramics during this period forms the main tool of analysis. Evidences of structures, ornaments, weapons and many other spheres of activities may also be known but these do not form such a regular feature as to form a unit of typology.

    Hence ceramics have to stay as the main diagnostic attribute of all Chalcolithic and subsequent cultural stages till proper history came up. Regarding the using of ceramics as diagnostic trait it needs to be emphasized that two different cultures in contemporary Indian villages may be known to use identical ceramic types and such evidences, when known from prehistory, are bound to be grouped as a single culture.

    That is, our identification is merely at the level of ceramic distributional homogeneity or heterogeneity in the absence of any other cultural attributes. Many ceramic cultures identified in the past, therefore, might have been in reality an agglomeration of different cultural groups having trade supply of ceramics from a single central group. The technique of pottery manufacturing has been studied in detail in the recent past.

    The techniques identified are represented in terms of clay preparation, process of obtaining the shape, finishing and firing. The typological classification is mainly based on the detailed morphological features. Like in the Stone Age, here also there is always an intimate relationship of techniques with types.


    Strategic Direction

    1. Build support for a stronger, more self-sufficient union

    In a deeply unstable global environment, with old power centres in disarray and Middle East rivalries infecting the continent, African multilateral diplomacy is more necessary than ever. The new chair’s challenge is to convince member states of the AU’s worth, in particular the value of its peace and security architecture. That leaders signed on to a bold reform agenda would seem to suggest they want a more effective AU. But for the process to be truly transformative, they must make tough choices on sovereignty, and the tensions between popular aspirations for more open government and the authoritarian tendencies of many of those governments.

    Working closely with presidents Kagame, Idriss Déby (Chad) and Alpha Condé (Guinea), the troika appointed to supervise implementation of the reforms, Mr Faki should build a coalition of leaders representing each region, who are committed to reform. But, building political support for a stronger AU will not be enough. Member states also need to provide adequate funding. Aside from the loss of credibility and ownership that reliance on external donors brings, the AU can no longer count on the same levels of external financing from the U.S. and Europe. The AUC’s ability to work effectively depends on member states willingness to implement the July 2016 summit decision for a 0.2 per cent levy on imports, with proceeds going to the AU. Only a handful of states have begun to enact the tax into law. Mr Faki should provide full support to the AU’s High Representative for the Peace Fund, Dr Donald Kaberuka, and encourage member states to fulfil their financial commitments. Those who pay only lip service to the idea of a stronger AU must recognise that without significant additional African financing, AU peace support operations will likely remain blocked from sustainable funding from UN assessed contributions as well.

    2. Make effective use of the existing conflict prevention architecture

    The AU has the tools necessary for conflict prevention but finds it difficult to use them effectively because of resource constraints and the great influence member states willing to play the sovereignty card to avoid scrutiny wield. Changing leaders’ thinking is hard, and Mr Faki should focus on building political support for conflict prevention among like-minded members. Even without such a coalition, there are ways to improve existing mechanisms. Translating data and analysis of the AU’s early warning system into early action has been hampered, in part, by the way information flows within the AUC and between it and the regional economic communities (RECs). The chair should break down AUC barriers, especially between the Political Affairs and Peace and Security departments.

    Mediation mechanisms are fragmented, with little oversight and direction from the chair or the Peace and Security Council (PSC). Creation of the mediation support unit (MSU) has been a good first step, but Mr Faki must ensure it is well-staffed by skilled, experienced specialists. For it to be truly effective, all mediation activities, including those of the Panel of the Wise, special envoys and representatives, liaison offices and special political missions, should be under its purview. There is little transparency in how special envoys and representatives are selected. Mr Faki should work to change this as well as examine their performance and mandates, making changes where needed. He should also use the reform process either to reinvigorate or dispense with the Panel of the Wise. Likewise, he should engage more personally in preventative diplomacy, especially to unblock stalemated processes in Burundi, Central Africa Republic (CAR) and Mali, and work to build consensus at the local, regional, continental and wider international level so as to bring coherence to the efforts of all those involved in peacemaking. Mr Faki should understand the limitations of his office and bring respected former heads of state into the mediation process.

    Many crises are predictable, especially those linked to poor governance and disputed political transitions. The effects of generational and demographic changes, the slow pace of economic growth in many countries and the persistence of repressive or authoritarian regimes mean we can expect increasing discontent and violent protest. Mr Faki must ensure that AUC fulfils its responsibility to alert the PSC to impending conflicts, engaging with affected member states and encouraging the PSC to put them on its agenda at the first signs of crisis. This will be uncomfortable and provoke backlash, but it cannot be avoided if the AU is serious about conflict prevention.

    3. Strengthen the institution

    The January summit adopted Kagame’s bold reform outline, which aims to streamline the AU, making it more efficient, focused and results oriented. The new chair is charged with realising these ambitions. This is not the first reform attempt ten years ago an independent panel drew up a comprehensive program on which Kagame’s team drew heavily. Mr Faki must learn from previous failures by not rushing the process and building broad support by consulting widely within the AUC and with member states. He should push forward on the reforms linked to the most urgent needs (eg, implementing the PSC protocols and strengthening sanctions mechanisms) and which have the greatest consensus.

    The AU’s relationship with the RECs, vital for effective conflict prevention and resolution, is often strained and competitive. The principles, rights and obligations governing this relationship are clearly set out in PSC Protocol (Article 16) and the 2007 memorandum of understanding. The chair should ensure these instruments are implemented. Some tension could be eased by more effective communication. Mr Faki should seek opportunities to work collaboratively with RECs and encourage direct, frequent exchanges at all levels during the lifecycle of a crisis. RECs should be consulted before major decisions, such as the selection of a special envoy or deployment of observers. Uncertainty regarding the principle of subsidiarity limits the AU’s its ability to intervene when regional peace processes stall, as in Burundi and South Sudan. He should use the reform process to establish comparative advantage, not subsidiarity, as the basis for the AU-RECs relationship.

    4. Revitalise security partnerships

    During the past decade, the AU has taken on a greater role in preventing and resolving conflicts. At the same time, the UN Security Council (UNSC) has increasingly delegated to it a central role in political management of Africa’s conflicts, in part due to a growing recognition that it cannot manage these crises alone. The AU’s confidence and capacity have increased, but it still relies on partners and donors to fund its peace and security activities and fill capacity gaps. As a result, relationships are often strained, sometimes blighted by mistrust and misunderstanding.

    Collaboration with the UN, arguably the AU’s most important security partner, has increased, but room for improvement remains. Together with the UN Secretary-General, Mr Faki should ensure that UNSC and AU PSC agendas are more closely aligned and reflect the continent’s priorities. By preparing PSC positions ahead of major UNSC decisions, there is a greater chance Africa will speak with one voice and so increase its influence on decisions. Closer AU-UN cooperation, including collective assessments and joint field visits, would foster more understanding and help build common positions and a shared analysis. Mr Faki should take the lead in this area, setting the tone and direction for the rest of the commission.

    The European Union (EU) is identifying its strategic interests in Africa, and Mr Faki should ensure the AU defines its interests so common security challenges can be determined. The EU is a vital partner, but the relationship was tested in 2016 by its decision to reallocate 20 per cent of its funding for the AU’s Somalia mission, AMISOM, and stop directly paying Burundian troops serving in it. The EU-Africa November summit in Côte d’Ivoire is an opportunity to renew the partnership, discuss priorities and confirm areas of cooperation. The migrant crisis and terrorism threat will likely reshape EU-AU relations and feature prominently there. The chair must try to counter EU desire to focus narrowly on unpromising short-term curbs of migration to Europe by emphasising the need to address the drivers of the exodus: war, poverty, repression and the youth bulge.

    5. Beyond a military response to “violent extremism”

    The past decade has shown the costs and limits of a military response to jihadist groups and other violent non-state actors, especially in the absence of a political strategy. Military action is sometimes a necessary part of a strategy – the efforts against Boko Haram in the Lake Chad basin and jihadists in Mali are cases in point – but recent history in Africa and elsewhere suggests governments cannot rely on coercion alone.

    The AU and its member states must not overlook the conditions that enable jihadist groups and other violent non-state actors to thrive: distrust of the state, especially in the peripheries declining state authority underdevelopment and social deprivation readily available weapons and heavy-handed, ineffective security forces. Mr Faki should articulate a stronger focus on developing coherent plans for returning effective government to affected areas. The possibility of a U.S. return to heavier-handed counter-terrorism policies could encourage others to adopt similar approaches. This is especially dangerous in Africa, where rule of law is often weak or absent. The chair should remind leaders that in dealing with these groups they must not forget human rights obligations, and he should dissuade them from labelling all opponents as “terrorists” or “violent extremists”.


    Culture Chop Suey

    Culture Chop Suey is a Fantasy Counterpart Culture cobbled together from two or more real world cultures.

    As with an Anachronism Stew, the reasons for this can vary from case to case. It can stem from the writer's ignorance on the subject: they simply might not realize that these cultural elements are alien to one another. Likewise, it can be a case of Creator Provincialism, when the writer uses aspects of their own culture in the fictional one, either because they aren't aware that they would seem out of place, or because they want to make it more familiar for their audience. Of course, when they're completely aware of the differences, they may be taking Artistic License, blurring the lines for unique Worldbuilding, or just playing to the Rule of Cool or Rule of Funny.

    These are cases where elements are of a contrasting culture elements of technology from a contrasting time period are Schizo Tech. When ninjas show up as part of a Culture Chop Suey, that is also a McNinja. A Ruritania is usually constructed using this trope. A character from one of these cultures may sport a Multiethnic Name just to drive things home.

    Compare Interfaith Smoothie for when this is done to religions.

    Since the distinction between the cultures is the point, and no example is Self-Explanatory, when citing an example, please mention what real-world cultures that the fictional one is based on.


    Haier

    The world's largest advertising company and Kantar, a brand research expert company, jointly unveiled the list of 2020 BrandZ Most Valuable Global Brands. As the only IoT ecosystem brand on the list, Haier's global ranking rose by 21 compared to last year, marking a significant improvement in brand value and a leading role in ecosystem branding. Haier also received the world's first BrandZ IoT Ecosystem Brand Award, showing its leading role in global brand evolution.

    the Global President of BRANDZ shared Haier's success.

    2019.12.26

    On 26th December 2019, the 35th anniversary of the funding of Haier Group with the launch ceremony of the sixth strategic stage and the fourth generation of corporate culture was held in Qingdao. At the ceremony, Zhang Ruimin, Chairman of the Board and CEO of Haier Group, Yang Mianmian, Deputy Chairman of the Board and President of Haier Group, and Wu Kesong, former Deputy Chairman of the Board of Haier Group jointly announced the sixth strategic stage - the Ecosystem Brand Stage.

    2019.10.25

    Qingdao Haier Biomedical Co.,Ltd (Haier Biomedical, 688139) was listed on the STAR Market of the Shanghai Stock Exchange, becoming the first STAR Market stock from Qingdao City.

    2019.08.28

    In Russia, on 28th August, the Haier Russia Industrial Park and Washing Machine Interconnected Factory was officially opened.

    2019.07.22

    On 22nd, July 2020, Fortune released the 2019 Global 500 list on its official website. As one of the subsidiary companies of Haier Group, Haier Smart Home Co. Ltd, with its global implementation of the smart home ecosystem brand, once again ranked in the 2019 Global 500 list, up by 51 compared with the previous year.

    2019.06.11

    On 11th June, BRANDZ™ published the Top 100 Most Valuable Global Brands 2019 in New York. Haier, as an IoT Ecosystem Brand, was included in the rankings. IoT Ecosystem was a new category of BRANDZ™ in 2019, and Haier was the first brand on the list.

    2019.01.08

    On 8th January 2019, Qingdao Haier Co., Ltd (SH600690) and the Italian Fumagalli family jointly announced that Qingdao has completed the acquisition of Candy S.p.A. (“Candy”). Candy is now a wholly-owned subsidiary of Qingdao Haier.

    Zhang Ruimin was awarded the medal of Reform Pioneer.

    2018.12.26

    On 26th December, the 34th anniversary of the founding of Haier Group was held at Haier University. At the ceremony, Zhang Ruimin, Chairman of the Board and CEO of Haier Group, made a keynote speech with the title “The Dual Innovation Spirit of Haier and The Dialectical Thoughts of Three Changes”, elaborating the transition from brand to entrepreneur, and to Rendanheyi as well as the development of Haier over the past 34 years.

    2018.12.18

    On 18th December, the celebration ceremony of the 40th anniversary of Reform and Opening-Up was held in Beijing. At the ceremony, Zhang Ruimin, as a representative excellent entrepreneur in business management, was conferred the accolade of Reform Pioneer.

    2018.11.01

    Harvard Business Review publishes a cover story "The End of Bureaucracy" co-authored by Gary Hamel and Michele Zanini. This article cites Haier's success as a case study and concludes that bureaucracy will come to an end, and that Haier is the best example of it.

    2018.10.24

    On 24th October 2018, Qingdao Haier shares began trading in Frankfurt, the first issuer in the D-share project on the China Europe International Exchange (CEINEX).

    2018.09.20

    The 2nd International Rendanheyi Model Forum was jointly hosted by Haier Group and Gary Hamel Management Lab at the Qingdao International Convention Center. At this forum, Zhang Ruimin, Chairman of the Board and CEO of Haier Group, delivered a keynote speech entitled "3E: Ushering in a Transformative IoT Paradigm" and systematically elaborated on the 3E systems: the actual ecosystem, ecosystem revenue, and ecosystem brand from the perspectives of originality, disruption and leadership.

    2018.07.20

    In the US, on 19th July, Fortune released the 2018 Global 500 list on its official website. As one of the subsidiary companies of Haier Group, Qingdao Haier Co.,Ltd (Qingdao Haier, 600690.SH), with its exponential revenue and brand strength in smart home and advanced manufacturing, was included in the 2018 Global 500 list.

    2018.04.09

    Zhang Ruimin, Chairman of the Board and CEO of Haier Group, puts forward the strategy of building an ecosystem brand in the era of IoT. In traditional times, product brand matters the most in the era of the internet, platform band is of paramount significance in the era of IoT, Haier should align itself with an ecosystem brand. The standard of an ecosystem brand equals to the iteration, upgrade and added-value of the best user experience. For a platform to evolve into an ecosystem, it first needs to provide the best user experience and constantly interact with users for further iteration and creates value for stakeholders within the ecosystem.

    2018.03.07

    Haier: Incubating Entrepreneurs in a Chinese Giant was included in HBS Case Collection. Harvard Business School explained the Rendanheyi model from a more comprehensive perspective. Zhang Ruimin, Chairman of the Board and CEO of Haier Group, was once again invited to delivery speeches at Harvard University.

    2018.02.27

    On 27th February, the launching ceremony of Haier COSMOPlat National IIoT + Smart Manufacturing Integrated Application Model Platform was held at Haier University. At the ceremony, Haier COSMOPlat was approved as an IIoT-based Smart Manufacturing Integrated Application Model Platform, becoming the first National IIoT Model Platform in China.

    2018.01.06

    On 6th January 2018, the Annual Innovation Meeting of Haier Group was held at Haier University. At the meeting, Zhang, Ruimin, Chairman of the Board and CEO of Haier Group introduced for the first time a new commercial concept in the era of IoT – Life X.0

    2017.01.14

    Qingdao, China- January 14, 2017- Haier Innovation & Interaction Conference on Ecological RenDanHeYi and Detonation of the Internet of Things and the Second Session of the Seventh Congress of Workers and Staff of Haier Group were held. Zhang Ruimin, Chairman and CEO of Haier Group, attended the conference and gave the strategic guidance of Be Confident with RenDanHeYi Model in Three Aspects.

    Haier and GE acquisition settlement.

    2016.11.24

    BEIJING, China – November 24th – The “2016 State of China Forum” hosted by the Counselors’ Office of the State Council officially opened in at Beijing’s Capital Hotel. As the only entrepreneur delivering a keynote speech at the opening ceremony, Haier CEO and Chairman of the Board Zhang Ruimin introduced representatives from government at all levels to Haier’s experience in the field of Internet-oriented transformation.

    2016.11.16

    WUZHEN, China - November 16th-18th - The 3rd World Internet Conference, with the theme “Innovation-driven Internet Development for the Benefit of All – Building a Community of Common Future in Cyberspace” spanned over the course of three days, bringing together 1,600 distinguished guests from more than 110 countries and regions and 16 international organizations. His second time attending the meeting, Mr. Zhang Ruimin, Haier Group CEO and Chairman of the Board, was invited to deliver a speech detailing Haier’s thought-leadership and determination to transform in the Internet age.

    2016.11.11

    QINGDAO, China – November 11th – Stuart Crainer, renowned management analyst, author, and co-founder of Thinkers50, met with Haier CEO and Chairman of the Board Zhang Ruimin to open the Thinkers50 Thought Laboratory at Haier's Qingdao (China) headquarters. Thinkers50 is the world’s foremost management analysis and ranking organization. Thinkers50 was founded in 2001, and every two years discovers, ranks and shares the best management concepts and practices. This new Chinese learning base was announced to an assembled audience which included over 30 experts from Peking University and the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences as well as many other noted industry leaders.

    2016.09.26

    QINGDAO, China – September 26th – As the “2016 Haier Global Entrepreneurs Summit” drew its curtains in Qingdao, 299 Haier “makers” from 6 continents and 17 nations conducted joint exploration into how they could each play a role in Haier becoming a leader in the Internet of Things through the win-win mechanism afforded by the “RenDanHeYi” model (integration and realization of staff value with the creation of user value).

    2016.09.09

    September 9th – Under the guidance of the Department of Telecommunication and the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, roughly 150 enterprises in the smart home industry, including Haier, Baidu and Lenovo, jointly established the industry’s first public service platform. Along with the official establishment of the China Smart Life Industry Alliance platform, Haier U+ was elected as the chairman unit of the newly-founded union.

    2016.06.15

    June 15th – Haier Group was ranked first in the 2015 China Light Industry Top 100 Enterprises for a 5th straight year. China Light Industry Top 100 Enterprises ranking offers an authoritative competitiveness evaluation of light industry firms and serves as a significant measuring tool in assessing their development and competitiveness.

    2016.06.08

    On the morning of June 8 U.S. local time, 2016, Zhang Ruimin was recognized with the Legend in Leadership Award at the 86th forum of the Yale CEO Summit. He is the only Chinese business leader with this award this current year.

    2016.06.07

    June 7th - Qingdao Haier, Inc. (SH600690, “Qingdao Haier”), of which Haier Group (“Haier”) holds a 41% stake, along with General Electric (NYSE: GE), announced that they had signed the necessary delivery documents to fulfill Qingdao Haier’s acquisition of GE Appliances, making GE Appliances a formal member of Qingdao Haier.

    2016.04.16

    On April 16, 2016, Haier Group and China Railway Corporation signed a comprehensive strategic cooperation agreement at Haier's headquarters in Qingdao, bringing railway transformation into Haier's Internet ecosystem. The two sides will jointly explore how to promote the supply-side structural reform, accelerate the construction of modern logistics, improve the effectiveness of supply for transportation, etc.

    2016.01.15

    Haier Group and General Electric announced that they had entered into a Memorandum of Understanding and established a global strategic partnership to jointly enhance competitiveness of both parties in such fields as Industrial Internet, health care and advanced manufacturing.

    Press conference of the launch of Haier Smart Home.

    2015.09.22

    Professor George Frynas of Middlesex University Business School and Professor Kamel Mellahi of Strategic Management at Warwick Business School came to Haier to conduct research on Haier's RenDanHeYi model. They further exchanged their views with Zhang Ruiminin, CEO and Chairman of the Board of Directors of Haier Group, on topics like how to promote RenDanHeYi.

    2015.07.29

    A case study exploring Haier’s Internet-based transformation titled Haier: Zero Distance To The Customer makes its way into the Harvard Business School Press.

    2015.07.16

    Cyril Ramaphosa, Vice President of South Africa, visits the Haier Group and exchanges ideas with CEO Zhang on the development of Haier within South Africa.

    2015.07.15

    Recently, Haier Haichuanghui Platform, with the approval of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China, has been incorporated into the management, service and support system of national high-tech business incubators.

    2015.07.14

    Haier America announces the establishment of its R&D Center in Evansville, Indiana.

    2015.07.10

    On July 10, Emmerson Mnangagwa, Vice President of Zimbabwe, paid a visit to Haier Group and, accompanied by CEO Zhang, had a tour of the Innovation Life Exhibition in Board Building. Emmerson was full of praise for Haier’s innovative technologies and smart life solutions and his entourage showed enormous interest in Haier’s hi-tech products.

    2015.04.17

    Tsingdao National High-tech Industrial Development Zone and Haier Group entered into an agreement on strategic cooperation, under which both sides agreed to open the “Haichuanghui” Entrepreneur Incubation Center to the public to support innovation and entrepreneurship and facilitate the conversion of scientific and technological achievements into reality. The two parties will share platform resources, jointly promoting the strategic cooperation between the Industrial Development Zone’s entrepreneurship and innovation programs and Haier’s entrepreneurship and innovation industry as well as its entrepreneurs, in an effort to build “Haichuanghui” into an entrepreneurship incubation brand that is domestically top-notch yet internationally renowned.

    2015.03.16

    The full open smart life platform Haier U+ and the world’s first visual connected factory system were released on the global top IT conference CeBTT. Haier showed the world China’s most advanced smart home concepts and smart production system in the Internet age, directly connecting Germany’s Industry 4.0 and China’s smart production.

    2015.03.12

    During the session of Appliance World Expo from March 10th to 12th, Haier consecutively held 5 innovation forums with different themes, namely U+ Smart Life Innovation Conference, Casarte New Product Release Conference, Haier Smart Life Strategy Release Conference, Haier Industry 4.0 Strategy Release Conference and Smart Bathroom & Smart Kitchen Release Conference. During the sessions, Haier released seven smart ecosystems, including cleaning, water, air, food, health, safety and entertainment, each with new Internet-connected appliances listed. In addition, Haier revealed its industry 4.0 strategy to the public, and launched the user interaction customization platform and module maker resource platform.

    2015.03.10

    During the Appliance&Electronics World Expo, Haier held 5 innovation forums with different themes, namely, U+ Smart Life Innovation Conference, Casarte New Product Release Conference, Haier Smart Life Strategy Release Conference, Haier Industry 4.0 Strategy Release Conference and Smart Bathroom & Smart Kitchen Release Conference. At the same time, Haier also released seven smart ecosystems, including cleaning, water, air, food, health, safety and entertainment, each with new internet-connected appliances launched. In addition, Haier revealed its practices for industry 4.0 strategy and launched the user interaction customization platform and module maker resource platform.

    2015.02.07

    Recently, the review work on the 21st Innovation Results of National Enterprise Management Modernization was published, and the conference of National Review Committee finally confirmed 29 first awards in “Innovation Results of State-Level Enterprise Management Modernization”. Of which, the results of “Human Resources Management of Meeting and Parting as per Order under Networking Strategy” applied by Haier Group won the first award.

    2015.02.05

    On February 5, Haier Group formally signed with UNICEF, the next three years the two sides will realize the depth of cooperation on 'Love school social-emotional learning programs' in the three western provinces three counties care action, left-behind children in rural areas of common interest in education and mental health problems.Haier has become UNICEF's first Chinese home appliance business partners.

    2015.01.27

    On January 27, WPP Group and Millward Brown ACSR jointly released the 5th session of Brandz Most Valuable Chinese Brands Top 100. In the sub-list of the household appliance industry, Haier ranked first with the brand value of USD 1.93 billion (About RMB12.06 billion), up by 34% than a year earlier, sharp ahead of other household enterprises.

    2015.01.08

    The International Symposium on Haier’s Business Models-Innovation for the Internet Age was held in the Ocean Hall of InterContinental Qingdao on January 8th, 2015. Themed as “Shift Gears and Accelerate: Towards a Better User Experience and a Better Life”, this symposium was aimed at discussing Haier’s business model innovation and exploring a way for Chinese enterprises to respond the challenges in the Internet age.

    Zhang Ruimin was named among The World's 50 Greatest Business Leaders.

    2014.11.13

    For the first time a Chinese enterprise has been invited to WCOA over the past 110 years. Haier was the only Chinese representative releasing achievements among the 8 global leading enterprises invited to the congress. Haier’s innovation mode attracted extensive attention, which justified its exploration orientation in the age of Internet.

    2014.10.22

    The 2014 (20th) most valuable brands in China were revealed in Beijing on October 22nd. The independent sub-brand of Haier, Goodaymart, ranked in the list for the second consecutive year with the highest growth rate of brand value worth 14.286 billion yuan among the top 100 listed.

    2014.09.24

    On September 23, STRATEGYAND, a global management consulting firm, worked together with Benelux Chamber of Commerce, German Chamber of Commerce, China Europe International Business School and School of Management Zhejiang University and jointly issued the report titled “2014 China Innovation Survey”. According to the report, Huawei, Tencent, Alibaba, Xiaomi, Lenovo, Haier, Baidu, BYD, Meizu and China Merchants Bank were rated with most innovative top Chinese companies, and Haier acted as the only home appliance business ranking top ten.

    2014.09.10

    On September 9th, the 9th Asia Brand Ceremony, praised as“Annual Oscar Prize of Asian Brand, was held in Hong Kong. In this ceremony, the“Top 500 Asian Brands”list was declared. In total, 4 companies in Qingdao city were on the list and Haier won the eleventh place.

    2014.08.29

    In the evening of August 28th, Qingdao Haier issued its semiannual report 2014. According to the report, the first half of 2014 has witnessed a continuous growth in the achievements of Qingdao Haier, with all business sectors performing better than the industry average level. Haier has successfully made the first step up to the platform company transformation process. The operating revenue for the first half of this year is 47.001 billion yuan, and the net profit attributing to the shareholders of the parent company is 2.577 billion yuan, up by 9.16% and 20.84% than the previous year, respectively, higher than the market expectation.

    2014.08.27

    In the morning of August 27th, Haier Electronics announced its semiannual report 2014. According to the report, the operating revenue of Haier Electronics in the first half of this year is 32.9 billion yuan, increased by 13.7% year-on-year net profit 978 million yuan, up by 18.9%.

    2014.07.10

    Microsoft has become a member of internet of things policy alliance-AllSeen Alliance since July 1st. The members of this alliance include top ones like Haier, Sears、LG、Sony、Panasonic and Qualcomm. 21 standards of internet of things from Haier are recognized.

    2014.07.09

    Recently, the De-Prufstelle Testing and Certification Institute presented the first VDE-QTM quality certificate in the refrigerator industry. And the star product, 3-doors Italian refrigerator from high-class brand Casarte got the certificate.

    2014.07.09

    Report from Nihon Keizai Shinbun: In washing machines industry, the top one brand Haier’s share keeps on increasing to 16.1%. And its share of 19.8% has made it the number one in the refrigerator industry. Contrastively, the second and third ones in the two areas had less shares and longer distances between them and Haier.

    2014.06.12

    Belonging to Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, the Operation monitoring and Coordination Bureau declared 2014 top 100 benefiting companies list (the 13th) for software revenue. Qingdao Haier and Hisense are on it and in the top 10 list.

    2014.05.29

    The event“Award to Gold Secretaries for Chairmen and the Ffirst Selection for Public Companies” was hold on 28th in Beijing. In the event, the best public companies and the gold secretaries for chairmen are listed. Ten public companies include Qingdao Haier were given the title of “the strongest brand image public company for 2013”.

    2014.05.17

    On May 17th, the third Chinese Industry Awards ceremony was hold in the Great Hall of the People in Beijing. In the ceremony, the winners of “award of Chinese industry”,“honor of Chinese industry”and “nomination of Chinese industry” were selected. Haier won the highest “award of Chinese industry” and this is the first time that household appliances company have won the prize.

    2014.05.10

    On April 25th, International Horticulture Exposition revealed its veil and the only future smart family theme pavilion in the park-Haier smart life pavilion opened. This pavilion was divided into 7 sections with different themes. They are intellectual life imagination section, fresh air section, safe food section, clean water section, secure community section, smart outer space section and fusion of fiction and reality section. This pavilion showed what appliances like air conditioners, refrigerators, kitchen equipment, TVs and 3D printers could bring for people’s life and their future.

    2014.04.20

    On April 20th, the ceremony for top 100 selection for China Green Companies, which is sponsored annually to assess the sustainable competitiveness of companies, was held in Nanning, Guangxi Province. 100 leader companies including Lenovo, Haier, Geely and BMW became members on the list with various sustainable cases like transformation on the internet, management innovation, globalization R&D and development for electronic cars.

    2014.04.10

    On April 10th, the ceremony sponsored by Qingdao Business Association, Qingdao Entrepreneurs Association and Qingdao Publishing Group for“Qingdao 2013 economy achievement award”was held in Qingdao broadcasting and television center. With their prominent devotions and influences to Qingdao’s economy, 10 elite entrepreneurs including the rotating president of Haier group Haishan Liang and the chairman of Qingdao Brewery Co., Ltd. Mingbo Sun had been awarded as “Qingdao 2013 outstanding economy figures award”.

    2014.04.03

    Chairman of the Board and CEO of Haier group Ruimin Zhang was elected to be “the most influential 50 business leaders ” by Fortune.

    2014.03.27

    Haier appliance released its 2013 earnings yesterday. Comparing to last year, it earned 62.26 billion yuan with a growth of 12%. The shareholders should have net profits for 2.04 billion yuan, rose 20.2% comparing with last year. The results showed that basic earnings per share for Haier appliance was 0.8 yuan, rose 13.3% year-on-year. Diluted EPS was 0.78 yuan, rose 18.1% year-on-year.

    2014.03.25

    The top awards in appliance industry “Appliance Prize” found its owners on March 19th and Haier group had been the biggest winner. Totally, six products from Haier won the awards including French-style Casarte opposite open doors refrigerator BCD-728WDCA, which won the Appliance Prize computer Yunyue mini S and pressure bearing flat solar water heater P-J-F-2-120/1.90/0.80-P2(PD), which won the Low-carbon Prize Casarte double drum washing machine XQGH100-HBF1427W, which won the Scientific Innovation Prize Haier Jetting Air Conditioner SKFR-72LW/02WAA22A and Casarte Ice Bar LC-197WBP, which won the product prize.

    2014.03.25

    In the evening on March 25th, Qingdao Haier declared a 2013 year performance brief. It said that operation revenue of Qingdao Haier in 2013 was 86.488 billion yuan, rose 8.3% year-on-year. Revenue attribution to the parent company 4.144 billion yuan, rose 26.75% comparing to the same period last year. Both of them were beyond expectation. According to the brief, the sales of refrigerators, washing machines and water heaters remained the lead in the market in 2013. The air conditioner earnings grew rapidly over 40% from the second half of 2012 via disruptive innovation for products and expansion of sale channel net. The comprehensive services for sale channels made good progress with strong expansion of sales for high growth small electronic appliances by improving the third party services like optimizing logistics, installations and after-services.

    2014.03.25

    The ceremony of 2014 brand development forum and “sunflower award”directed by Chinese Light Industry Information Center, international business daily and CCPIT car industry branch was held by Brand Study Club of China in Beijing. 10 companies including Haier group won the 2013 “sunflower award”.

    2014.03.20

    The famous financial magazine Fortune listed “The greatest 50 leaders all over the world”. The CEO of Haier group, Ruimin Zhang was the 22nd and he was commented by Fortune: “His disruptive innovation for management model changed Haier from a small refrigerator firm into the biggest household appliance manufacturer in the world. He divided personnel into small teams and let them run their business freely. The staffs could choose the leader, compete for posts and have extra benefits.” Fortune thought that “This management model is seldom seen in the west and in China, it is a revolution that never happened.”

    2014.03.20

    Zehua Ma and Lanxi Li, the senior journalists from the well-known news agency Reuters paid a visit to Haier and had an exclusive interview with the CEO of the group Ruimin Zhang. They had a deep discussion about how Haier had had a disruptive adaption in the internet period for the challenge from the market. Also, the globalization development of networked Haier and the popular event“everybody being a hacker” were talked about.

    2014.03.19

    On March 19th, ceremony of assessment for 2014 top 500 real estate companies and summit revealed its veil in Beijing. The list for prior appliance choices these top 500 real estate companies would purchase was declared, in which Haier, Robam and Siemens were on top 3 ranks. This was an innovation for real estate industry and brought more to it.

    2014.03.17

    The creator of the word “maker”and the “maker movement” sponsor Chris Anderson visited Haier and had a speech: Maker- the new industry revolution. In the speech, he shared stories and inspirations of makers, then talked about “period for everybody being a maker”.

    2014.03.17

    Nikkei Business Weekly,a Japanese business magazine with the largest circulation, published an interview with Haier: Haier-the whirlwind challenging the world. The article consists of 6 parts which tells Haier’s product innovation, revolution of individual-goal combination to get better services, globalization strategies of Haier, cooperation with Japan, exclusive interview of Ruimin Zhang and the note from the journalist.

    2014.03.09

    “Crisis”(part 7) sponsored by school of management was held in Zhongguancun teaching building room S101. The guest, CEO of Haier group, Ruimin Zhang had a speech named No Everlasting Success.

    2014.03.05

    Attending the second plenary session of the twelfth national people's congress, the rotating president of Haier group Yunjie Chow submitted 3 proposals for internet of things industry development, platform of drinking water industry development and smart baby-raising industry development.

    2014.03.01

    Haier group held the event of collecting “new image of Haier brothers” on the internet to invite people to participate in creating it.

    2014.02.25

    Invited by the chief of Armed Police Corps of Shandong Province, CEO of Haier group Ruimin Zhang gave a keynote speech to the armed police in the Qilu Forum. Integrating Haier’s development and innovative management models in internet period, he introduced the most advanced management concept and economic development situation in the world. When the speech is over, the armed police corps gave Mr. Zhang long time applause.

    2014.02.22

    The famous appliance group Haier planned to build the second firm in the north of India while the Pune factory in Maharashtra was still under construction.

    2014.02.10

    Number one brand of white goods Haier was voted to be the most creative company by well-known business magazine Fast Company.

    2014.01.30

    The former Whirlpool vice president of global engineering Adrian Micu replaced Shariff Kan to be the CEO and President of Haier in America.

    2014.01.24

    On the list of 2013 local top tax-paying 50 companies in Qingdao, Haier group with a ratal over 2 billion yuan had been the top 1 since 2011.

    2014.01.16

    Haier group 2014 interaction meeting of internet innovation was held in Haier Qingdao Industrial Park. The CEO of Haier group Ruimin Zhang had a speech of “three whats” and defined the 2014 strategy of Haier as “to build the company as a platform, to train the staff as hackers, to meet the customized demands from users”.

    Press conference, Haier and Alibaba announced a strategic partnership.

    2013.12.22

    According to Reuters, in a 2013 survey conducted by Euromonitor on the global market for large home appliances, Haier’s retail sales have topped the global market for the fifth consecutive year, with a 9.7% market share. Haier also topped the survey’s manufacturer list for the first time with an 11.6% market share. Additionally, Haier continued to lead the industry in refrigerator, washing machine, wine cooler, and freezer segments. Euromonitor is a U.K.-based market intelligence firm with 41 years of industry experience.

    2013.12.16

    Haier Group was recognized by the first China Quality Award from the General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine (AQSIQ). China Quality Award was initiated in 2012 by AQSIQ with approval from the central government as a top national recognition for quality products and services.

    2013.12.09

    Haier Group announced its strategic partnership with Alibaba. With Haier’s experience in supply chain management, logistics and warehousing, and delivery and installation services, and Alibaba’s unique position in the e-commerce ecosystem, the two companies will establish a comprehensive system and standards for the delivery and installation of home appliances and bulk items for the wider business community.

    2013.11.11

    Haier was featured along with Leyard in an episode of Focus Report, a news and documentary program produced by China Central Television. The episode titled “Smartly Made in China” tells the story of innovation efforts by Chinese companies and the government’s policy incentives for business innovation since the 18th National Congress. As a contrast to Leyard’s technological innovation approach, Haier is featured in the episode as a successful case of information sharing and Internet-based innovation.

    2013.11.09

    Mr. Zhang Ruimin, CEO & Chairman of the Board of Haier Group, attended the Third Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee in Beijing from November 9 to 12, 2013. Mr. Zhang’s opinion about plenary session was featured in Qingdao Daily in an article titled “Market-based resource allocation and forces driving innovation”

    2013.11.08

    Mr. Zhang Ruimin, CEO & Chairman of the Board of Haier Group, was interviewed by the Chinese edition of Forbes Magazine and featured in a story titled “Removing boundaries” in its November 2013 issue. The story describes how Mr. Zhang is bridging the chasm between the manufacturing industry and the Internet by turning a conventional manufacturer into an Internet-driven company. This was the second time that Mr. Zhang was interviewed by the Forbes Magazine in 2013.

    2013.11.03

    Haier was featured in Xinwen Lianbo, a daily news program produced by China Central Television, in a story about changing business mindsets in Internet era. The story selects Haier as a successful example of Internet-driven management innovation. Also featured is Haier’s Tianzun air conditioner, which has been developed based on extensive interaction with customers and stakeholders.

    2013.09.30

    Qingdao Haier Co., Ltd (600690 SH), a global market leader in home appliances, and Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co. L.P., a leading global investment firm, announced the signing of a definitive agreement under which KKR will acquire a 10% stake in Qingdao Haier, establishing a long-term strategic partnership to collaborate on multiple areas.

    2013.09.18

    The Chinese Cultural Center in Nigeria, which had chosen Haier as its supplier of air conditioners, was first opened on this day. The opening ceremony was attended by Zhang Dejiang, chairman of the Standing Committee of China’s National People’s Congress Wang Chen, vice chairman and secretary-general of the Standing Committee of China’s National People’s Congress and Deng Boqing, China’s Ambassador to Nigeria.

    2013.09.09

    Official opening of the Haier Hope Primary School built by Haier in Yengisar County, Xinjiang.

    2013.09.06

    Haier announces a new joint venture with Fagor, one of Europe's leading appliance manufacturers.

    2013.08.11

    Zhang Ruimin, chairman of the board and CEO of the Haier Group, gives keynote address at the Academy of Management's 73rd Annual Meeting in the USA. Zhang was the only business leader invited to speak at the meeting.

    2013.07.28

    2013 Haier Global Forum On Business Model Innovation in Qingdao. The forum this year focused on the business ecosystem and platform strategy, and brought together management experts, researchers, business schools and business people to discuss business models and innovation in the internet age. At the forum, Haier unveiled its new brand strategy and online brand identity. Haier's traditional red theme has been replaced with blue, for a more technical feel, and its new slogan is, "Your Life Smarts, My Smart Life".

    2013.06.28

    Tsinghua University Qingdao Presidents Forum. Haier chairman and CEO Zhang Ruimin gives special address, says there are no successful enterprises, except those of the times.

    2013.06.17

    Low Carbon China program launched in Beijing by the NDRC and other ministries Haier joins the Low Carbon Alliance and is the only appliance maker represented at the launch.

    2013.05.24

    Opening of Haier Hope Primary School in Zhangfang, Shanghe County, Shandong.

    2013.05.18

    CCTV's flagship news program Xinwen Lianbo reports on the development of Haier's Emperor Air Conditioner as an example of how innovation is driving a structural shift in industry in Shandong.

    2013.05.10

    Publication of Reinventing Giants, a book about Haier's policy of sharing profits between company and salespeople. The book was written by Bill Fischer, professor at the International Institute for Management Development (IMD) in Switzerland, Umberto Lago, associate professor at Bologna University in Italy, and Liu Fang, associate researcher at IMD, in Lausanne.

    2013.02.08

    Gary Hamel, author of The Future of Management, visits Haier to conduct interviews and learn about Haier's business model for the internet age.

    Zhang Ruimin received an IMD Management Thought Leadership Award.

    2012.12.20

    Euromonitor publishes report on the global appliance market, finds that Haier brands represented 8.6% of the large domestic appliances sold globally in 2012. This is the fourth year Haier has led the world in this area, and its market share increased by 0.8% on 2011.

    2012.12.14

    To celebrate 15 years of publication, Fortune magazine's Chinese edition profiles the most influential Chinese business leaders over the last 15 years. Haier chairman and CEO Zhang Ruimin is one of the business leaders assessed to have had a lasting impact on China's business world. Fortune summarizes Zhang's management philosophy and his success: "What really sets him (Zhang Ruimin) apart is that he has combined Western management expertise with traditional Chinese thinking. This management approach has set the tone for Chinese managers for the last 15 years."

    2012.12.11

    Haier chairman and CEO Zhang Ruimin sparks vigorous debate when he speaks about the Haier "win-win model of individual-goal combination" at top European business institutes IMD (Switzerland) and IESE (Spain). IESE writes up the Haier multicultural adaptation of "individual-goal" for its case study database. IMD gives Zhang an award for IMD Management Thought Leader.

    2012.11.15

    Zhang Ruimin returns from his Party Congress duties as a Party delegate, alternate member of the 18th CPC Central Committee and Party secretary of the Haier Group. Secretary Zhang says: "The 18th Party Congress reflected continuity with the past and new ideas for the future. For Chinese companies, the most important thing we can do to support the decisions made at the Congress is to seize the business opportunities of the internet and innovate better in the internet age."

    2012.11.14

    Closing of the 18th National Congress of the CPC. Haier Party secretary comrade Zhang Ruimin attended the Congress as an alternate member of the CPC Central Committee. Comrade Zhang was also an alternate member at the 16th and 17th Party congresses.

    2012.11.06

    With the 18th National Congress of the CPC due to start tomorrow, Haier Party secretary Zhang Ruimin records a video interview with News of the Communist Party of China, in which he discusses his work as a Party delegate and Haier's management innovations in the internet age.

    2012.11.06

    Haier announces that it has taken a controlling stake of at least 90% in Fisher & Paykel Appliances Holdings Limited, and will therefore begin compulsory acquisition of the entire company as required by the Takeovers Code.

    2012.09.26

    Foundation laying ceremony for the first phase of the Haier (Zhengzhou) Market Innovation Industrial Park, a production facility that will manufacture up to six million air conditioning units per year. The Park will serve the appliance market of Henan and the surrounding provinces. Provincial officials and Haier chairman and CEO Zhang Ruimin attended the ceremony.

    2012.09.19

    Haier chairman and CEO Zhang Ruimin is invited to give a Distinguished Lecture at Hong Kong University of Science and Technology. Zhang delivered the talk "Successful enterprises move with the times" to an enthusiastic audience comprising 500 HKUST faculty members, students, alumni, professionals and community leaders, describing the development and practice of Haier's "win-win model of individual-goal combination".

    2012.08.06

    Celebration and awards following the successful docking of the manned Shenzhou 9 mission with Tiangong-1. Chen Shanguang, director of the China Astronaut Research and Training Center, presented an award to Haier and praised the company for the support and assistance it provided to the mission.

    2012.07.13

    Mitsuru Homma, executive vice president of Sanyo, visited Haier thank Haier chairman and CEO Zhang Ruimin and Haier president Yang Mianmian for the success of Haier acquisition of Sanyo.

    2012.05.11

    2012 Annual Conference of CEC/CEDA and Liangjiang Forum in Chongqing. Haier chairman and CEO Zhang Ruimin attended the forum to receive the Yuan Baohua Enterprise Management Gold Award. He is the first businessman in the appliance industry to be given the award.

    2012.04.06

    Market research company GFK publishes data showing that the sales of Haier's two brands in Japan (Haier and AQUA) put it in the top five appliance managers by market share. It is just three months since Haier started its two-brand strategy in Japan.

    2012.02.15

    New Haier brand AQUA launched in Tokyo, marking Haier's entry into the Japanese mass market. Haier's Asia HQ and research center also established in Japan, marking the official start of Haier's five-center R&D strategy.

    2012.02.01

    Economic Daily prints an interview with Haier chairman and CEO Zhang Ruimin titled "Zhang Ruimin: focusing on innovation for the 'win-win model of individual-goal combination'," part of its series "Springtime visits, meeting innovators".

    2012.01.05

    Formal acquisition ceremony for Haier purchase of Sanyo Electric's home appliance business. Haier Asia International and Haier AQUA Sales were established as companies, and the new AQUA brand was officially launched.

    Press conference of Haier's acquisition of Japan SANYO Electric Co., Ltd.

    2011.12.28

    2011 Annual Meeting of China's Independent Innovation at the Great Hall of the People, organized by Economic Daily. Haier chairman and CEO Zhang Ruimin is recognized as one of China's top ten innovators. Haier was also named one of China's top ten innovating companies because of its management innovations, which have attracted global attention. At the meeting, Zhang spoke on the theme of China using innovation to respond to the changing global economic landscape, touching on new opportunities and challenges in management innovation and management models in the internet age.

    2011.12.18

    Action Learning Management Accounting/ALMA awards in Beijing, organized by the US Institute of Management Accountants (IMA). Haier's "win-win model of individual-goal combination" is awarded the ALMA award 2011. Ding Pingzhun, IMA senior consultant and former secretary-general of the Chinese Institute of Certified Public Accountants, gave a thorough analysis of Haier's win-win model of individual-goal combination in five areas: its conceptual innovations, strategic adaptability, organization, corporate culture and accounting.

    2011.11.15

    China SAPPHIRE NOW + SAP TechEd Beijing at China National Convention Center in Beijing. Haier chairman and CEO Zhang Ruimin is the only business leader invited to speak at the event, because the organizers believe that he has been extremely influential in driving innovation in both management and IT together. SAP cofounder and chairman of the Supervisory Board Professor Hasso Plattner said afterwards that Zhang had spoken brilliantly, and that it was the best speech he had ever heard in all the 22 SAPPHIREs he had attended. He said it was the perfect synthesis of a Chinese company with Western management techniques.

    2011.11.08

    Steve Jobs and Zhang Ruimin appear together in a headline: China Business Times commentary writer Gao Chujian has written a column about these two figures, who have become almost synonymous with visionary business leadership in their respective fields. He discusses the release of the Jobs biography and the acquisition of Sanyo by Haier, and analyzes the innovations that the two have developed.

    2011.09.24

    Umberto Lago, a Bologna University professor engaged in a long-term study of innovation at Haier, returns to the company to gather more data, and interviews Haier chairman and CEO Zhang Ruimin. Professor Lago is an economist and an expert in transaction costs. He began researching the Haier win-win model of individual-goal combination in 2010, and is extremely interested in this innovative management practice. He is now writing a book about Haier's business model. This visit to the company is to collect more survey data and interviews for the new book.

    2011.09.03

    2011 China Top 500 Companies List published at the Large Enterprise Summit in Chengdu by the China Enterprise Confederation and China Enterprise Directors Association. Haier was named one of China's top 500 companies and one of the top 500 manufacturers of 2011, and was the largest appliance company in China. Haier chairman and CEO Zhang Ruimin attended the summit, and spoke on the theme of the meeting: "Breaking through to become market leaders: the new challenge for large companies".

    2011.08.26

    Haier is visited by a team from major Taiwanese business magazine CommonWealth, including Diane Ying, chairperson, and Wu Wan-Yu, deputy managing editor. They discuss the win-win model of individual-goal combination with Haier chairman and CEO Zhang Ruimin.

    2011.08.25

    Haier chairman and CEO Zhang Ruimin is interviewed by global business magazine Forbes. The interview focuses on the attention Haier is attracting with its innovative internet-era business model. In the interview, the Forbes journalist is very interested in the win-win model of individual-goal combination which Haier is now rolling out. The interviewer also says that companies need to develop self-propagating systems if they are to remain vigorous.

    2011.08.19

    Vice-president Xi Jinping and US vice-president Joe Biden attend the China-U.S. Business Dialogue at the Beijing Hotel. Discussions focused on how to improve cooperation between China and the USA, the world's two biggest economies. Haier chairman and CEO Zhang Ruimin was also at the event.

    2011.08.12

    The Chinese edition of Fortune magazine has published its list of China's most innovative companies in 2011. Haier is the leading appliance company on the list of 25. Fortune (Chinese) has also published an article on Haier's innovation, titled "Haier: everyone is an innovation center".

    2011.08.05

    CCTV's flagship news program, Xinwen Lianbo, devotes a segment to Haier's "inverted triangle" and "win-win model of individual-goal combination" strategies. These models capture customer demand and new market opportunities in the new economy. Haier chairman and CEO Zhang Ruimin was interviewed by Xinwen Lianbo for the segment.

    2011.08.01

    Haier and Carlyle sign MOU for strategic partnership between Haier and the Carlyle Asia fund. The Carlyle Group has agreed to invest US$137 million in Haier through Convertible Bonds and has an option to invest an additional US$57 million when warrants are exercised.

    2011.07.15

    On July 15, 2011, Fortune magazine published a column by senior editor-at-large and columnist Geoff Colvin entitled "Zhang Ruimin: Management's Next Icon", in which Colvin described the Haier Group's business model innovation in simple language. Regarding the Group's exploratory approach, Colvin wrote: "I don't know of any manager innovating on a larger scale or more broadly or fearlessly than Zhang. His energy mirrors the larger forces driving China's amazing rise and explains why he'll probably be a global management icon: he's still hungry. I think he will have an even bigger reputation in future."

    2011.07.09

    On July 9, 2011, a delegation from Harvard Business School led by Professor Tarun Khanna paid a visit to Haier Group. Professor Khanna exchanged ideas with Haier's CEO Zhang Ruimin and President Yang Mianmian on such topics as the integration of first-rate human resources, the importance of integrating virtual and physical networks in the Internet era and Haier’s innovative cultural integration practice in its “go global” process.

    2011.06.24

    On June 24, 2011, China's flagship television channel CCTV-1 broadcast the sixth episode of "Banner," a jointly produced ten-part documentary commemorating the 90th anniversary of the founding of the Communist Party of China. In the episode, entitled "Rolling Torrents of Spring," Haier's CEO Zhang Ruimin talked about how business changed in the early period of reform and opening up, as someone who had witnessed and experienced it firsthand.

    2011.06.16

    On June 16, 2011, the 2011 International Forum on Low-Carbon Innovative Development and Beijing Global Political and Commercial Leader Summit was held in Beijing. The summit's annual Global Wise Leader Elite Award for 2011 was presented to Haier's CEO Zhang Ruimin, the first Chinese entrepreneur to be awarded the prize since it was established in 2006.

    2011.06.02

    On June 2, 2011 in Guangdong, China's Ministry of Industry and Information Technology published the list of the Top 100 Chinese Electronic Information Enterprises in 2011, with Haier ranking as number one in the household appliances industry.

    2011.05.19

    On May 19, 2011, the 14th China (Chongqing) International Investment and Global Sourcing Fair opened its doors at Chongqing Exhibition Center. On the opening day Bo Xilai, member of the CPC Central Committee Political Bureau and secretary of the CPC Chongqing Municipal Committee, paid a visit to Haier's exhibition area. During the visit, Bo Xilai listened to staff presenting the products on display and expressed approval of Haier's central concept of meeting user demand for green appliances.

    2011.04.28

    April 28, 2011, Feng Jingqiu, an inspector with the Party’s Organization Department, inspects Haier and gives guidance Haier chairman and CEO Zhang Ruimin receive Feng and his team. During their conversation, Feng learned the details of Haier’s experiments with the individual-goal combination model, and praised the company’s high-tech, user-friendly innovation.

    2011.04.22

    China's top 100 green companies named at 2011 Annual Summit of China Green Companies in Qingdao. Haier chairman and CEO Zhang Ruimin attends and gives keynote address. Haier is also named one of China's greenest companies because of its green strategy and the green product solutions it offers customers.

    2011.04.21

    Haier is visited by Lu Hao, first secretary of the Communist Youth League, and his team. Haier chairman and CEO Zhang Ruimin and executive vice president Zhou Yunjie received the guests.

    2011.03.30

    Haier is visited by team headed by Li Faquan, member of the Shandong Provincial Standing Committee of and secretary of the Discipline Inspection Commission. Haier chairman and CEO Zhang Ruimin and executive vice president Zhou Yunjie received the guests. Li Faquan praises Haier's commitment to Chinese innovation and building a global brand name. He suggests making use of the company's insights in anti-corruption and clean government work.

    2011.03.25

    Foundation laying for Haier-Foshan (Sanshui) Market Innovation Industry Park in Guangdong. The Park will bring together manufacturing, logistics and services. It is Haier's 18th industrial park worldwide. It represents a step forward in Haier's move from manufacturer to service provider.

    2011.03.24

    Wang Yang, Central Committee member and Party secretary of Guangdong, met with Haier chairman and CEO Zhang Ruimin and his team. They discussed IT integration in industry and innovation in commercial operating models.

    2011.03.20

    Official opening of new teaching building at Pingxiang Haier Hope Primary School. This school is in the foothills of the Faka Mountains, in the extreme south of China. It is the third Hope Primary School that Haier has sponsored in Guangxi.

    2011.03.08

    Exhibition of technology breakthroughs during the 11th Five Year Plan. Central Committee member and State Councilor Liu Yandong stopped at the Haier digital home display, and said, "This is what technology should be, helping improve living standards." She warmly endorsed Haier's technical success during the 11th Five Year Plan.

    2011.03.05

    4th Plenary Session of the 11th National People's Congress opens in the Great Hall of the People. Haier president Yang Mianmian attends as an NPC delegate.

    2011.02.22

    Haier president Yang Mianmian gives keynote address at the Women Leadership Forum Asia 2011, and receives the Most Innovative Women Entrepreneur award. The forum is organized by Naseba and sponsored by the prime minister of Malaysia.

    2011.02.21

    To mark the 90th anniversary of the founding of the CPC, the Party's Publicity Department and Party Literature Research Centre jointly produce the major television documentary "Banner". The documentary includes interviews with 60 people who have witnessed the changes brought by the reform and opening up, including Haier chairman and CEO Zhang Ruimin. On February 21, 2011, producers invite Zhang Ruimin to the CCTV studios to discuss his experiences. Zhang describes the changes in enterprises during the early reform period, starting with the "smashing fridges" incident, and the opportunities and challenges for businesses in the internet era.

    2010.12.22

    Signing for the Haier-Foshan (Sanshui) Market Innovation Industry Park at the Haier Group central offices. Signing is attended by deputy Party secretary and mayor of Foshan Li Yiwei, Haier chairman and CEO Zhang Ruimin and Haier president Yang Mianmian.

    2010.12.16

    Launch of the Management Accounting Research Center sponsored by UIBE, Haier and IMA. Representatives of the IMA, Wharton Business School and University of Bologna in Italy attend the event in Beijing. Haier chairman and CEO Zhang Ruimin gives the keynote address.

    2010.12.14

    Haier signs agreement with Shenbei New District in Shenyang to build the Haier (Shenyang) Industry Part and Optoelectronics & IT Cluster. Haier (Shenyang) Industry Part and Optoelectronics & IT Cluster will manufacture mainly LEDs. Construction of the first phase will begin in April 2011, and will be ready to begin production at the end of 2012.

    2010.12.03

    Haier releases specifications for a standardized vent module. It is the first standardized vent module ever to be used in the white goods industry, and Haier is the first white goods company to modularize production.

    2010.11.10

    European management expert and educator Professor Fredmund Malik visits Haier from November 10-12. Professor Malik discusses Haier's development of its individual-goal combination win-win model and the ZZJYT organizational structure with CEO Zhang Ruimin and president Yang Mianmian. Professor Malik says: "Haier's ZZJYTs are an autonomous model."

    2010.11.01

    Kazuo Inamori, hailed as a savior of Japan's economy, visits Haier. Haier chairman and CEO Zhang Ruimin and president Yang Mianmian meet Mr. Inamori and his team.

    2010.09.15

    Haier chairman and CEO Zhang Ruimin signs framework collaboration agreement with Lixil Group chairman and CEO Yoichiro Shioda in Tokyo. The deal is part of an attempt to coordinate high quality materials, homeware and design resources, and to create modular designs for living spaces, ultimately leading to a new type of single integrated design solution for residential units.

    2010.07.06

    Professor Marshall and Assistant Professor Philip of Wharton Business School visited Haier for management research and interviews between July 6-13. The interviews covered the origins, objective, key elements and operating principles of the ZZJYTs Chinese management and Haier management. The process of debate with these experts helped develop and systematize Haier's ZZJYT system.

    2010.06.14

    Vice President Xi Jinping makes an official visit to Bangladesh, Laos, New Zealand and Australia. During the trip, Xi visited Haier's strategic partner in New Zealand, Fisher & Paykel Appliances (FPA). Haier deputy chairman Wu Kesong and FPA chairman Ralph Waters accompanied Xi on his visit to FPA and outlined the companies' strategic relationship.

    2010.05.27

    Haier and Norway's leading provider of green technology FramTech sign an green tech agreement in Shanghai. Haier will introduce the world's leading green technologies into its products.

    2010.04.30

    On April 30th, 2010, member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee and Secretary of Central Commission for Discipline Inspection He Guoqiang visited Shandong Pavilion of the 2010 Shanghai Expo. Secretary He was also quite interested in Haier’s internet-of-things household appliances platform.

    2010.04.30

    On April 30th, 2010, member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee and Secretary of Central Commission for Discipline Inspection He Guoqiang visited Shandong Pavilion of the 2010 Shanghai Expo. As shown in the picture, Secretary He (second from left in the front) is quite interested in Haier’s internet-of-things household appliances platform.

    2010.04.28

    On April 28th, 2010, Professor John L Thornton, who was also Chief of World Leading Competence Project of School of Economics and Management at Tsinghua University, visited Haier Group and exchanged ideas with Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin on issues like mode of enterprise management. Mr. Thornton once served as President of Goldman Sachs Group. During their conversation, Zhang Ruimin and Mr. Thornton reached a common ground on issues like strategic/customer positioning, down-ward triangle structure, and the necessity of integrating enterprise development with the use of internet.

    2010.04.27

    On April 27th, 2010, led by Headmaster Wang Xibin and accompanied by Assistant Commanding Officer of Jinan Military Area Liu Shanyang and Deputy Secretary of the CPC Qingdao Municipal Committee meanwhile Governor of Qingdao Xia Geng, the 36th National Defense Seminar of National Defense University, which were made up of 81 students, paid an investigation tour to Haier Group and met with Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin. Headmaster Wang was deeply expressed by Haier’s innovative concepts, and he also spoke highly of the achievements Haier had made.

    2010.04.23

    During April 22nd to 23rd, 2010, the domestically first “China Top 100 Green Enterprises” was jointly publicized by China Entrepreneur Club and Chengdu Municipal Governmetn, and Haier was among the top 100.

    2010.04.19

    On April, 19th, 2010, Meeting on Operation of Shandong Pavilion of 2010 Shanghai Expo was held by Shandong Provincial Government. During the meeting, it was announced that Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin was invited to act as Honorary Curator of Shandong Pavilion.

    2010.04.15

    On April 15th, 2010, Business Week publicized “World Top 50 Competitive Enterprises of 2010”. Haier ranked No.28 in the selection, and it was also the only listed Chinese enterprise. Apple, Goggle, and Microsoft ranked the top 3. Jointed conducted by Business Week and Boston Consulting Group, the selection was based on innovation capacity and technical contribution of the many enterprises around the world, and it is also of great influence in the industry. This was also the first time that over 50% listed enterprises came from outside the US.

    2010.04.14

    On April 14th, 2010, Yushu County of Qinghai Province was stricken with M 7.1 earthquake. In “Boundless Love—Fund Campaign for Yushu”, the program of CCTV, Haier Group donated 12 million RMB to the disaster area. On April 21st, Haier Group filed a flag at half-mast to mourn over the dead in the disaster.

    2010.04.11

    On April 11th, 2010, Chinese Ambassador to India Zhang Yan, accompanied by Counselor Peng Gang, paid an investigation tour to Haier Group. After touring Haier Group, Ambassador Zhang and his wife planted a tree in Haier Industrial Park for a memorial.

    2010.04.10

    On April 10th, 2010, led by Professor Yang Qiubao, the Department of Economics of Central Party School paid an investigation tour to Haier Group and met with Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin and Vice Chairman of the Board of Directors of Haier Group Wu Kesong. Professor Yang was quite interested in Haier’s individual-order combination mode and its new performance appraisal system, and he considered Haier’s innovation worthy of being studied by other enterprises.

    2010.04.08

    On April 8th, 2010, the agreement signing ceremony of “Chongqing•Shandong Economic & Trade Cooperation” was held in Chongqing, and member of the Political Bureau of CPC Central Committee and Secretary of Chongqing Municipal Committee Bo Xilai and Secretary of Shandong Provincial Committee and Chairman of Standing Committee of Shandong Provincial People's Congress Jiang Yikang attended the ceremony. The project of Haier high-end refrigerator production line was also signed at the ceremony, which would satisfy high-end customers of southwest China. On April 9th, led by Secretary Jiang Yikang, Shangdong Delegation paid an investigation tour to Haier Chongqing Industrial Park.

    2010.04.02

    In spring of 2010, Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi were stricken by a drought. On April 2nd, Haier Group, together with China Youth Development Fund, donated 1 million bottles of purified water to over 50 Hope primary schools of the stricken area, and local media spoke highly of Haier’s sense of shouldering the social responsibilities.

    2010.03.30

    In March of 2010, the globally authoritative industrial design award 2010 Germany RedDot Award was publicized. 5 products of Haier became award winners, among which Jane 7 Laptop, M Series Cabinet Air-conditioner, and FiWoo Wall Air-conditioner won RedDot Design Award, and QHA93 Gas Stove and I WASH Washing Machine won RedDot Honorary Award Nomination. Haier had won the award for the fifth consecutive year in a row. Known as the world top 3 design awards together with IF and IDEA, RedDot is also called Oscar of Industrial Design.

    2010.03.27

    On March 27th, 2010, Haier Group and Leading Group of Shandong Province for 2010 Shanghai Expo signed the strategic cooperation agreement in Shanghai, by which Haier became the official partner of Shandong Pavilion of Shanghai Expo. Following the event, Haier US, Haier Europe, and Haier Australia Trade Company also forged partnership with the US Pavilion, Italy Pavilion, and New Zealand Pavilion. By the opportunity of Shanghai Expo, Haier exhibited its world leading innovative and environmental concept to the whole world.

    2010.03.18

    On March 18th, 2010, the awarding ceremony of “Economic Achievement Award of Qingdao 2009” was held in Qingdao TV Station, and Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin won honor of “Economic Figure of the Past 10 Years of Qingdao”. In the following day Qingdao Financial Daily devoted large coverage on the event.

    2010.03.17

    On March 17th, 2010, under the guidance of “accelerate the pace of restructuring and practice scientific development concept”, Qingdao Daily devoted the Column of “Accelerate Restructuring”, with its first report entitled “In-depth Review—Haier’s Individual-Order Combination”. The report gave a full account on Haier’s innovative transitions from production-oriented mode into service-oriented mode and from traditional business model into individual-order combination.

    2010.03.08

    On March 8th, 2010, the large feature party “Brilliance of Women” was jointly held by All China Women's Federation and CCTV. As representative of outstanding business women, Haier President Yang Mianmian said at the party: “without the reform and opening up, Haier wouldn’t have become a global brand, and we women entrepreneurs wouldn’t have such a platform to play with, either. I will cherish the opportunity now and contribute more to our motherland”.

    2010.03.07

    On March 7th, 2010, the 100th Anniversary of International Working Women's Day was held in Beijing, and Haier President Yang Mianmian, as representative of the outstanding women of the time, attended the anniversary.

    2010.03.06

    On March 6th, 2010, with the theme of “transform for development”, News Probe of CCTV News reported on how domestic enterprises were restructuring for larger development, with Haier’s innovative transition as the breakthrough perspective. In the program, Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin talked about Haier’s strategy in maximizing its profitability through business process reengineering. At last the program commented: “in 2010, Haier is accelerating its transition from a production-oriented enterprise into a service-oriented enterprise, and is striving for a higher position of the global value chain”.

    2010.03.05

    On March 5th, 2010, the 3rd Session of the 11th National People’s Congress was held at the Great Hall of the People in Beijing. As Deputy to the congress, Haier President Yang Mianmian attended the session, listened to the Government's Work Report by Premier Wen Jiabao, and submitted a bill on livelihood issues to the congress. On the afternoon of March 5th, Haier President Yang Mianmian, together with other members of Shandong Delegation, examined the Government's Work Report.

    2010.03.03

    On March 3rd, 2010, shortly before the opening of the 11th National People’s Congress, Haier President Yang Mianmian attended Interviewing the Two Conferences (i.e. the National People's Congress and the Chinese Political Consultative Conference) upon invitation of People Net. And, During the Two Conferences, a number of media organizations like Xinhuanet.com, Economic Daily, and Sina.com interviewed Yang on issues like Haier’s brand building strategy, which attracted wide social attention.

    2010.02.24

    On February 24th, 2010, the 3rd Session of the 14th Qingdao People's Congress was held in Qingdao, and Senior Vice President of Haier Group Liang Haishan, as Deputy to the congress, attended the session. On February 23rd, the 3rd Session of the 11th Qingdao Political Consultative Congress was held, and Senior Vice President of Haier Group Yu Zida, as Deputy to the congress, attended the session.

    2010.02.05

    On February 5th, 2010, Haier held the 2010 Spring Festival Forward-Looking Party, and Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin gave the congratulatory address, hoping that senior managers of Haier Group would devote more to the common objective and “string the pearls into the necklace”. The Pearl Necklace Prize was awarded during the party, and Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin explained the profound meaning of the prize: an accomplished objective is a polished pearl, and to copy the success is to string the pearls into a necklace.

    2010.01.30

    On January 30th, 2010, Haier 2009 Awarding Ceremony meanwhile 2010 Innovation Conference was held at Haier Central Research Institute. Guided by the concept of two transitions of “traditional business model into individual-order combination” and “production-oriented into service-oriented”, the conference had a review about the development of 2009, and Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin gave a detailed interpretation of Haier’s 2010 strategy.

    2010.01.30

    In January of 2010, authorized by Ministry of Science and Technology, Haier Group became the domestically first pilot innovation enterprise. This was the first pilot project initiated by Ministry of Science and Technology, National Development and Reform Committee, Ministry of Education, and Chinese Technology Association, with only 2 enterprises defined qualified for the project—Haier Group and China Datang Corporation. This also showed that Haier’s innovation practices had won support from the government.

    2010.01.26

    On January 26th, 2010, Haier Group and Hewlett-Packard Company signed the strategic agreement in Qingdao. According to the agreement, HP would provide China’s rural market with its high-quality products and services under the support of Haier Goodaymart network. Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin exchanged ideas with Executive Vice President of HP and meanwhile President of HP Information Product Group Todd Bradley on how to better service the customers of China’s rural market.

    2010.01.23

    During January 21st to 23rd, 2010, Symposium on 2010 Market Strategy, Global Distributors Annual Conference, and Technology Conference were held successively by Haier Group under the theme of “Create, Win-Win, Share”, “Focus on Customers, Integrate Resources, and Strive for Win-Win”, and “Focus on Costomers, Innovate for Win-Win” respectively. Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin, Haier President Yang Mianmian, local government officials, and experts of various fields attended the three conferences. Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin introduced two transitions to the guests: traditional business model into individual-order combination production-oriented into service-oriented.

    2010.01.19

    On January 19th, 2010, the awarding ceremony of “20 Years of Hope Project” organized by Communist Youth League of Shandong Provincial Party committee and Shandong Youth Development Fund was held in Jinan. During the ceremony, 231 organizations and individuals were awarded for their contribution to Hope Project over the past 20 years, and Haier won honor of “Outstanding Partner of Shandong”.

    2010.01.18

    President Hu Jintao makes a state visit to the USA, January 18-21, accompanied by four representatives of Chinese business, including Haier chairman and CEO Zhang Ruimin. During the visit, Hu and US president Obama hold a meeting with Chinese and American business leaders.

    2010.01.17

    On January 17th, 2010, at the 2009 China Industrial Innovation Forum Annual Conference, Haier won honor of “Most Innovative Enterprise of 2009”, and Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin won honor of “Innovative Figure of 2009”.

    2010.01.16

    On January 16th, 2010, the 2nd China Brands Forum organized by China Brands Development Committee was held in Beijing, and Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin won honor of “Meritorious Figure of the 60 Years of China Brand”.

    2010.01.14

    The 2010, Jan 14th News for Reference, in the 14th page column of Economies Insight, carried an article named “Chinese Corps rising in International Electronics Consuming”. Focusing on the globally first “Tail-less TV”, the newspaper devoted a whole page demonstrating the outstanding performance of Chinese enterprises in the 43rd CES. When interviewed by News for Reference, Jason•Oksman, senior vice-president of the American Consumer Electronics Association, made a special mention of Haier. The vice-president said: “typified by Haier and Lenovo, Chinese enterprises are also striving to enhance their brand appeal. They too, are the rising participators for the market of International Electronics Consuming.”

    2010.01.10

    On January 10th, 2010, President of Xinhua Daily Press Group Xu Hongxiang, accompanied by Deputy Secretary of the CPC Qingdao Municipal Committee and Mayor of Qingdao Xia Geng, visited haier Group and met with Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin. Zhang Ruimin exchanged ideas with President Xu on aspects of “individual-order combination”, the transition from “sell products” to “sell services”, and the new opportunities brought by the internet of things.

    2010.01.09

    The 2010, Jan 9th News for Reference, P8, with the title of “China Haier Aims at Top-end Products”, reprinted the reports on Haier by some overseas media. Among those overseas media which covered reports on Haier there were San Francisco Chronicle, the famous newspaper with a history of 145 years, and Les Echos, the most authoritative economic newspaper in French.

    2010.01.07

    On January 7th, 2010 (US time), the 43rd International Consumer Electronics Show (CES) was held in Las Vegas, US, and Haier introduced its globally first Tail-less TV at the show. Local media was greatly interested in Haier’s Tail-less TV, and a great many of them came to Haier booth to know more about Haier’s innovation.

    2010.01.07

    On January 7th, 2010, (US time), the 43rd International Consumer Electronics Show (CES) was held in Las Vegas, US. At the show, Haier introduced its globally first Tail-less TV, which fully demonstrated the strength of China’s manufacturing industry and which attracted wide attention. Haier Tail-less TV won honor of “2010 CES Future Tech-product Prize”. CES is the world largest consumer electronics annual show, and Haier has attended the show for 11 years in a row.

    According to EUROMONITOR, Haier was recognized as the number one appliance brand in the world for the first time.

    2009.12.30

    In Haier Europe Call Center, telephonists were required to face the real products when answering questions from customers. Such method greatly improved the customer satisfaction towards Haier service.

    2009.12.29

    On December 29th, 2009, the 1st awarding ceremony of Shandong Governor Quality Prize was held in Jinan, and Haier Group became one of the winners of the prize. The prize was the highest quality award of Shandong Province.

    2009.12.23

    On December 23rd, 2009, the 10th awarding ceremony of 2009 CCTV Economic Figures of the Year, which is also known as Economic Oscar of China, was held in Beijing. During the ceremony, 10 Economic Figures of the Year as well as 10 Business Leaders of the 10 Years were publicized. Typified by Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin and Lenovo Board Chairman Liu Chuanzhi, totally 10 entrepreneurs were listed.

    2009.12.22

    On December 22nd, 2009, the Shandong Enterprise Management Meeting was held by Shandong Provincial Government in Jinan. During the meeting, the 1st Shandong Enterprise Management Prize was awarded to 10 enterprises and 20 innovation projects. Haier Group won title of “Outstanding Enterprise in Management of Shandong Province”, and its project of “market-based business process reengineering” won honor of “Innovation Prize of Enterprise Management of Shandong Province”.

    2009.12.21

    On December 21st, 2009, Haier President Yang Mianmian met with Israeli Premier Shimon Peres during her tour in Israel. Yang said: “to better satisfy its customers, Haier needs to integrate its global resources. And Haier can combine its strategy with Israel’s advanced technologies, so that a win-win situation will be achieved’. Premier Peres said that he loved Chinese culture very much and was quite interested in Haier’s management innovation, and Israel was willing to cooperate with Haier.

    2009.12.17

    On December 17th, 2009, the agreement signing ceremony between Haier Group and Qingdao Handicapped Children Rehabilitation Fund was held in Qingdao Children’s Hospital. According the agreement, Haier Group would donate 3 million RMB to the fund, and the annual interest of 80,000 RMB would be used to improve ward environment and provide those handicapped children of needy families with better medical treatment. Formerly Haier Three Million Care Fund, Haier Care Special Fund had helped 231 handicapped children of needy families over the past 10 years.

    2009.12.17

    In December of 2009, 12 Figures of the Year appeared on the cover of Forbes Chinese Edition. All these 12 figures came from business circle, and among them 10 were entrepreneurs of global influence, 1 was Figure of the Year of Enterprise Social Responsibilities, and 1 of Low Carbon Figure of the Year. Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin won honor of “China’s Most Respectable Entrepreneur of Forbes 2009”.

    2009.12.08

    On December 8th, 2009, the 30th Anniversary of the Establishment of China Quality Association was held in Beijing, member of the Political Bureau of CPC Central Committee and Vice Premier of the State Council Zhang Dejiang attened the anniversary and gave speech. During the meeting, Haier Group won honor of “Outstanding Enterprise of the 30 Years of Quality Management”, and Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin won honor of “Outstanding Manager of the 30 Years of Quality Management”.

    2009.12.02

    On December 2nd, 2009 (US time), “China’s Most Valuable Brands” was publicized in New York, and Haier successfully defended its championship for the eighth consecutive year with a brand value of 81.2 billion RMB. Lenovo and GOME ranked No.2 and No.3 respectively.

    2009.11.19

    On November 19th, 2009, the 20th anniversary of Hope Project jointly organized by Central Committee of the Communist Young League and China Youth Developing Fund was celebrated in Beijing, and Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin won honor of “Special Contribution Award of the 20 Years of Hope Project”.

    2009.11.19

    November 19th, 2009 was the 100th birthday of the management master Peter Drucker. Harvard Business Review of 11 language editions worldwide simultaneously devoted the anniversary tribute to the great master, and the journal also invited five business leaders and nonprofit organization leaders who were once deeply influenced by Peter Drucker to talk about how they were enlightened by the master. Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin was one of them, and the rest four were: P&G CEO Alan Lafley, Chairman of Leader to Leader Institute Frances Hesselbein, and Managing Partner of Amana-Key & Deita Management Consulting Company Peter Tasker.

    2009.11.19

    All editions of Harvard Business Review around the world devoted the signed article by Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin—Distance is gone, and its Chinese edition added an interview on Zhang Ruimin by Senior Editor Cohen: Drucker in My Eye—Words of Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin.

    2009.11.16

    On November 16th, 2009, Haier Group was awarded honor of “National Technical Achievement Prize”, showing that Haier’s concept of satisfying customers and lead to better life through technical innovation had achieved substantial success.

    2009.11.16

    On November 16th, 2009, Business Week publicized “China’s Top 40 Influential Figures of 2009”, and Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin was listed. The list was produced based on each candidate’s media exposure frequency and the social attention he/she had aroused.

    2009.11.13

    On November 13th (Cuba time), the signing ceremony of Agreement of China (Shandong)-Cuba Trade Cooperation was held in Havana. Senior Vice President Zhou Yunjie of Haier Group and President of Cuba Electronics Group Pacheco signed the LED Street Lamp Project Agreement among Haier Group, Cuba Electronics Group, and China State Grid. According to the agreement, Haier Group would donate high energy-efficiency street lamps to Cuba. Secretary of CPC Shandong Provincial Committee Jiang Yikang and Vice Minister of Ministry of Foreign Investment of Cuba attended the ceremony. The street lamp project would not only promote Cuba’s “energy revolution”, but also further the implementation of Haier’s green concept.

    2009.11.10

    On November 10th, 2009, the founding ceremony of Haier Digital-Home National Engineering Laboratory was held in Qingdao, and 27 top research organizations attended the ceremony. Zhang Minggao, Academician of Chinese Academy of Engineering, attended the ceremony and spoke highly of Haier national engineering laboratory as well as Haier’s digital home innovation. Established under the authorization of National Development and Reform Committee, Haier Digital-Home National Engineering Laboratory was the core innovation project of the national 11th Five-year Plan, and it was also the only national-level engineering laboratory of household appliances industry.

    2009.11.07

    On November 7th, 2009, Press Conference of the 14th Round Enterprises’ Innovation was held in Jinan. During the conference, Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin won title of “Meritorious Entrepreneur of Independent Innovation of Shandong Province”, and Haier Group won honor of “Independent Innovative Enterprise of Shandong Province”.

    2009.11.07

    On November 9th, 2009, the 3rd China Brand Festival was held in Qingdao, and Haier won honor of “Most Beloved Green Brand of 2009”.

    2009.11.07

    On November 7th, 2009, the “Forum of Better Self, Better Operation” was held in Haier Central Research Institute, and Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin, Haier President Yang Mianmian, and managers of different levels attended the forum.

    2009.11.05

    On November 5th, 2009, the awarding ceremony of “Glory of the 60 Years—Classics for the City” organized by Qingdao Daily Press Group was held, and Haier Group won 2 honors of “Soaring Qingdao—Example of the City” and “Splendid Qingdao—The Most Influential Brand in Eye of Medias”.

    2009.11.02

    On November 2nd, 2009, at the 18th International Management Seminar, Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin (first from left) had a conversation with Kazuo Inamori (middle), the Management God of Japan. Right of the picture is the well-known Managerialist Yang Peiting.

    2009.11.01

    Kazuo Inamori and Zhang Ruimin gave speeches under the theme of “Go Beyond Economic Downturn and Win Sustainable Development” and “Be Your Own CEO” respectively. The two management masters also attended the forum under the theme of “Leading Competence under the Age if Crisis” and exchanged ideas with the audience.

    2009.10.31

    During October 31st to November 2nd, 2009, the 18th International Management Seminar organized by the famous financial magazine Sino-Foreign Management was held in Beijing. Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin and Mr. Kazuo Inamori, the founder of Kyocera Industrial Ceramics who was also known as Management God of Japan, both gave speeches and talkshow, which became the biggest highlight of the seminar.

    2009.10.30

    In October of 2009, to celebrate the 60th anniversary of New China, ASIAN BUSINESS LEADERS devoted a special issue---Born in 1949. The cover story was on Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin, with the title “Chinese Elephant Dances, Too”. As a famous management journal, ASIAN BUSINESS LEADERS differs from traditional commercial journals in that it probes into the inner world of those entrepreneurs other than their business “skills”.

    2009.10.22

    On October 22nd, 2009, on the invitation of Dell Computer, Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin and Board Chairman of CEO of DELL Michael Dell had a strategic conversation about bilateral cooperation of resource interchange.

    2009.10.22

    On October 22nd, 2009, “The Establishment Ceremony of Undertaking Base for the 2nd Round Returned Overseas Talents meanwhile Forum of Returned Overseas Talents” was held in Dalian, and Haier Group was the only enterprises of Shandong Province qualified for an undertaking base. On behalf of Haier Group, Haier Vice President Yu Zida attended the ceremony. The undertaking base would play as the talent pool for China’s economy, which would also act as a larger platform for Haier’s human resource integration.

    2009.10.22

    The periodical also published the article “Road to Success for the All-round Winner”, which commented Haier as the following: “a world-class enterprise is always ready to innovate for customers, so as to enhance the competence of its products and services. This year’s all-star winner Haier is such an enterprise who never ceases innovating.

    2009.10.11

    On October 11th, 2009, the awarding ceremony of “60 Brands of the 60 Years of Shandong” was held in Jinan, and Haier Group won a position for its contribution over the past years.

    2009.10.01

    On October 1st, 2009, the 60th anniversary of New China was celebrated in Beijing, and Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin, Haier President Yang Mianmian, and employee of Haier Qingdao Washing Machine Division Li Ziquan were invited to attend the ceremony and watch the military parades. Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin was invited by All-China Federation of Trade Unions Haier President Yang Mianmian by All-China Women's Federation and Li Ziquan, as the only representative of national outstanding migrant worker invited to Beijing from Shandong Province, was invited by Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security.

    2009.09.29

    On September 29th, 2009, Forbes.Com published the signed article by Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin-- Winning Ways for Chinese Brands in the International Market. This was a feature program by Forbes, going with the the 60th anniversary of New China. And it also invited experts of various fields to talk about the next 10 years of China.

    2009.09.27

    Jointly produced by Propaganda Department of the CPC Central Committee, Party Literature Research Center of the CPC Central Committee, Party History Research Center of CPC Central Committee, General Bureau of Radio, Film and Television, and CCTV, the film documentary was designed to celebrate the 60th anniversary of New China. And, with an all-inclusive perspective, “Glory of the 60 Years of China” offers a review on the glorious achievements the Communist Party of China has made since 1949.

    2009.09.27

    On September 27th, 2009, Haier’s road of success and how it had built itself into a global brand under the leadership of CEO Zhang Ruimin were presented for the public in the film documentary My China Dream. The documentary was produced to celebrate the 60th anniversary of New China.

    2009.09.27

    On September 27th, 2009, Episode 7 of film documentary, “Glory of the 60 Years of China---Sailing for New Century” was for show on CCTV-1. The film gives a full account on the strategic transition from “bring-in” to “step-out” during China’s reform and opening up, and Haier Group stands for the typical case which can fully demonstrate the strategic transition. Haier established its plant in the US, and the road near Haier U.S. plant was even named as Haier Road. The film also contains an interview on Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin.

    2009.09.24

    On September 24th, 2009, to celebrate the 60th Anniversary of New China, the awarding ceremony of “Qingdao Economic Achievement Prizes” was held in Qingdao Olympic Sailing Center, and Haier Group as well as other 9 enterprises won honor of “Contribution Award for Qingdao’s Economy”. Vice President of Haier Group Yu Zida received the award on behalf of Haier Group and accepted media interviews.

    2009.09.19

    During September 19th to 20th, 2009, “Achievements Exhibition of the 60 Years of People’s Republic of China” was held in Beijing Exhibition Center, and Pakistan Haier - Ruba Economic Zone and Haier Innovative Product Solutions were exhibited in the event. On September 19th, Chinese President Hu Jintao as well as other central government leaders came to the exhibition, and President Hu spoke highly of the event.

    2009.09.19

    On September 19th, 2009, the “60 Years of China—Seminar on Social Responsibilities of Enterprises” organized by China CRS Research Center was held in Beijing. During the meeting, “2009 China Top 100 Meritorious Enterprises in Shouldering Social Responsibilities” was publicized, and Haier won honor of “Special Award in Shouldering Social Responsibilities”. Still, Haier’s initiation of “One Gold Medal, One Hope School” won honor of “Meritorious Case Award in Shouldering Social Responsibilities”.

    2009.09.18

    During September 15th to 18th, 2009, the 4th Plenary Session of the 17th Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party was held in Beijing. And, as alternate member, Party Committee Secretary of Haier Group Zhang Ruimin attended the session.

    2009.09.15

    In September of 2009, In order to carry out in-depth patriotism education and celebrate the 60th anniversary of the founding of P.R.C, Shandong Provincial Organization Department, Shandong Provincial Publicity Department, and other 10 departments jointly organized the “Shandong Top 100 Models of Outstanding Contribution to the Foundation and Construction of P.R.C” selection activity. Zhang Ruimin, Secretary of Haier CPC Committee and CEO of Haier Group won the honor.

    2009.09.15

    In September of 2009, in the selection of “China’s Most Globally Competitive Companies” organized by Global Entrepreneur and Roland Berger Strategy Consultants, Haier Group ranked No.3, the highest position among Chinese household appliances enterprises.

    2009.09.08

    On September 8th, Professor Hideki Yoshihara of Nanzan University and Professor Ouyang Taohua of Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics paid a management-investigation tour to Haier Group, and Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin talked with Professor Hideki Yoshihara on the innovative practices of “independent operating entity mechanism of individual-order combination” and “sell-on-demand mode of zero inventory”. Professor Hideki Yoshihara once served in Kobe University. In 2000, he added Cartoons and Captions by Haier Staff into the management case study of Kobe University since then, Professor Hideki Yoshihara has added another 4 Haier cases into the textbook, namely, Haier’s Culture, Haier’s Human Resource, Haier’s marketing, and Haier’s Management.

    2009.09.01

    During September 1st to 15th, 2009, to celebrate the 60 Anniversary of the People’s Republic of China, “Pride of Qingdao—Vote for the Working Model You Admire” jointly organized by Qingdao Labor Union and Qingdao Daily Press Group was held, and 119 working models were selected by Qingdao citizens. Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin won a position on the list and attended the Working Models Symposium on September 25th.

    2009.08.30

    In August of 2009, nominated by BMWI, Haier Italian-Style Three-door Refrigerator, French Door Refrigerator, Three-Door Ice Bar, and Deep-Enjoy Electric Water Heater were selected candidates for 2010 GFR Design Award. This was the first time that Chinese brands had ever been shortlisted for the award, indicating that Haier had won recognition among European designers.

    2009.08.29

    Jointly established by Haier Real Estate and Green Town Group, Haier Green Town National Games Village is a top-level construction project and also the first National Games Village in history. The establishment of the village could well guarantee the accommodation for athletes of the 11th National Games as well as the media reporters.

    2009.08.29

    On August 29th, 2009, under the theme of “Harmonious Games, Glory Shandong”,the Completion Ceremony of Jinan Village for the 11st National Games meanwhile the Operation Handover Ceremony was held in National Games Jinan Village Center. Vice Governor of Shandong Province and Vice Chairman and Secretary General of Organizing Committee of the 11st National Games Huang Sheng, Asisstant Secretary General of Shandong People’s Governmet and Asisstant Secretary General of Organizing Committee of the 11st National Games Si Anmin, Deputy Secretary of Jinan Municipal Committee Yin Luqian, Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin, and Board Chairman of Haier Real Estate Lu Qiang attended the ceremony.

    2009.08.28

    On August 28th, 2009, the 4th Reforming Stars Awarding Ceremony meahwhile China High-level Reforming Forum was held in the Great Hall of the People, and Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin won honor of “Reforming Star—Top 60 Reforming Figures over the 60 Years of China”.

    2009.08.25

    On August 25th, 2009, Haier Chenjiaba Middle School was established. The middle school was donated by Qingdao Municipal Government, with Haier Group as the co-donator donating 10 million RMB. 15 months after the earthquake, children in Chanjiaba went back to classroom.

    2009.08.20

    On August 20th, 2009, at Beyond the Strait---Benefit Party for the Stricken Taiwan Compatriots, Haier Group donated 2 million RMB for Morakot-stricken Taiwan compatriots. To help Taiwan to fight the disaster and rebuild their homes, Haier Group lent a hand.

    2009.08.19

    In August of 2009, the political and economic Party journal Red Flag illustrated, which was managed by Qiu Shi Journal, publicized “Meritorious Figures over China’s 60 Years”, and Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin won a position on the list. Acting the ideological and cultural front, Red Flag illustrated would serve as a major supplement for Qiu Shi Journal.

    2009.08.18

    On August 18th, 2009, the awarding ceremony of CCTV 60 Brands of the 60 Years was held in Peking University Hall. Haier Group became one of the 60 prize winners, and Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin was invited to attend the ceremony and was presented honor of Award of Outstanding Contribution to Chinese Brand.

    2009.08.17

    On August 17th, Chairman of China National Light Industry Bu Zhengfa and Chairman of China Household Electrical Appliances Association Huo Dufang paid an investigation tour to Haier Group and met with Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin.

    2009.08.16

    On August 16th, 2009, Deputy Secretary of Central Commission for Discipline Inspection of the CPC Zhang Yi, accompanied by Deputy Secretary of Shandong Provincial Committee, Secretary of Shandong Commission for Discipline Inspection of the CPC, and Secretary of Beijing Municipal Party Committee, pain an investigation tour to Haier Group in Qingdao Industrial Park and met with Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin.

    2009.08.13

    August 13th, 2009 fell on the Japanese traditional festival-- Ghost Festival. On the very day, a baseball game of Nippon Professional Baseball attracted a great many fans, and Haier had, by then, became the title sponsor of Nippon Professional Baseball. Baseball is the favorite sports of Japanese people therefore, Haier’s entering into the baseball league had greatly enhanced its brand image and integrated itself with local culture.

    2009.08.09

    On August 9th, 2009, Xinhuanet.com devoted the article “Zhang Ruimin---Contemporary of the Republic, Creates a World Brand for His Motherland”. The article gave a vivid story on Zhang Ruimin, who was born in 1949, and the development of his Haie Group. After the publication of the article, media organizations like People Net, Netease, and Sohu all came to reprint the story.

    2009.08.08

    On the evening of August 8th, the TV Awarding Ceremony Huapu Prize of the 3rd China Brand Festival was held in Qingdao, and Haier won honor of “National Card of China”.

    2009.08.08

    On August 8th, 2009, the 3rd China Brand Festival jointly organized by China Council for the Promotion of Internationa, Shandong Provincial Governmetn, and Brand China Industry Union, was held in Qingdao International Conference Center, and Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin was invited to attended the opening ceremony and give speech.

    2009.07.30

    In July of 2009, Propaganda Department of the CPC Central Committee directed People’s Daily, Xinhua News Agency, Guangming Daily, Economic Daily, China National Radio, CCTV, and Science and Technology Daily to conduct in-depth propaganda on the achivements of saving energy and reducing emission through the spreading of energy-saving air-conditioners. Haier was one of the demonstration enterprises priscribed by Propaganda Department of the CPC Central Committee.

    2009.07.18

    On the morning of July 18th, Seminar on Home Appliances Go into Rural Areas of the 2nd Session of the 10th National People's Congress was held by Ministry of Finance at Qingdao Badaguan Hotel, and Haier President Yang Mianmian was invited to give speech at the seminar.

    2009.07.17

    On July 17th, 2009, Vice Chairman of National Supply and Marketing Cooperation Council Gu Guoxin and President of Board Chairman of Renewable Resources Development Co., Ltd Guan Aiguo visited Haier Group and exchanged ideas with Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin and Haier President Yang Mianmian on issue of strategic cooperation. The picture shows the scene of the signing ceremony of the strategic cooperation agreement.

    2009.07.17

    On July 17th, 2009, Vice Chairman of National Supply and Marketing Cooperation Council Gu Guoxin and President of Board Chairman of Renewable Resources Development Co., Ltd Guan Aiguo visited Haier Group. Vice Chairman Gu and Board Chairman Guan exchanged ideas with Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin and Haier President Yang Mianmian on issue of strategic cooperation and attended the agreement signing ceremony.

    2009.07.17

    On July 17th, 2009, Vice Minister of Ministry of Finance Zhang Shaochun visited Haier Group to study the implementation of "Home Appliances Go into Rural Areas". The Vice Minister also met with Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin and Haier President Yang Mianmian.

    2009.07.09

    On July 9th, 2009, the 8th China International Consumer Electronics Show was held at Qingdao International Convention Center. As shown in the picutre, Haier Senior Vice President Zhou Yunjie (first from right in front row) is reporting to Vice Chairmen of the NPC Standing Committee Yan Junqi about Haier’s innovation ideas on providing customers with comprehensive product solutions.

    2009.07.09

    On July 9th, 2009, the 2nd Women Entrepreneurs Forum of China Mailand, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Macau was held in Taipei International Conference Center, and nearly 300 women entrepreneurs from China Mailand, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Macau attended the forum. Haier President Yang Mianmian gave speech at the forum.

    2009.07.09

    On July 9th, 2009, Haier exhibited its Casarte front-loading washing machines at the 2nd Sino-CES, which attracted a great many consumers.

    2009.07.09

    On July 9th, 2009, the 8th China International Consumer Electronics Show was opened at Qingdao International Convention Center, and Vice Chairmen of the NPC Standing Committee Yan Junqi, Vice Minister of Ministry of Commerce Jiang Yaoping, and Vice Minister of Ministry of Science and Technology Du Zhanyuan attended the opening ceremony and visited Haier Exhibition Hall. Haier Senior Vice President Zhou Yunjie reported to Vice Chairman Yan about Haier’s innovation in better satisfying the customers.

    2009.07.03

    On July 3rd, 2009, the 2009 Haier Management Innovation Seminar jointly organized by China Women Entrepreneurs Association and Qingdao Women Entrepreneurs Association was held in Haier International Training Center, and Honorary Chairman of China Women Entrepreneurs Association and former Deputy Secretary-General of the State Council Yan Ying, Chairman of China Women Entrepreneurs Association Zhao di, and member of Standing Committee of the CPC Qingdao Municipal Committee and Head of the United Front Work Department of the CPC Central Committee Zang Aiming attended the seminar. During the meeting, Haier President Yang Mianmian gave speech entitled “take advantage of the financial crisis and restructure Haier through three transform-s”. Three transform-s mean: firstly, go with the current information age secondly, correctly position the self and transform from a production-oriented mode into a service-oriented mode lastly, establish the enterprises culture of individual-order combination.

    2009.06.30

    In June of 2006, to enhance Haier’s reputation, Haier erected a super outdoor billboard at Victoria Harbour in Hong Kong. The neon-light billboard on the top of the central building of Sun’s Group, was one of the largest billboards at Victoria Harbour.

    2009.06.27

    On June 27th, 2009, Haier Group celebrated the 88th anniversary of the founding of the Communist Party of China, and Party Committee Secretary and CEO of Haier Group Zhang Ruimin, Haier President Yang Mianmian, and other Party members attended the ceremony. Vice Chief of Qingdao Care for the Future Generation Propaganda League Zhou Baozhang, who was also the nephew of Premier Zhou Enlai, gave speech on Premier Zhou’s story as a lesson for the Party members.

    2009.06.21

    On June 21st, 2009, the unveiling ceremony of Haier–IEC Standard Innovation Base was held in Haier Group, and IEC/TC61 President Derek Johns and Haier Senior Vice President Liang Haishan unveiled the monument for the innovation base. This was the globally first standard innovation base.

    2009.06.18

    On June 18th, 2009, Samsung Vice President and CEO Lee Yoon-woo visited Haier Group and met with Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin. Both parties exchanged ideas on issue of strategic cooperation.

    2009.06.12

    On June 12th, 2009, the Global Alumni Forum of Wharton School of University of Pennsylvania was held in Beijing, and Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin was invited to give speech at the opening ceremony. Lifetime Professor of Warton School on management and sociology Marshall said: “Haier’s independent operation entity under the concept of individual-order combination is not only a new method, but a subversion of traditional management”

    2009.06.08

    On June 8th, 2009, CEO of Fisher & Paykel Mr. John visited Haier Group and exchanged ideas on future cooperation with Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin and Haier President Yang Mianmian.

    2009.06.01

    The localized products of Haier US plant, Haier poikilothermic 3-door refrigerator and Haier France 4-door refrigerator, are featured by large room and can even put in a large turkey. The picture shows the Casarte production line in Haier US plant (May of 2009).

    2009.05.27

    On May 27th, 2009, Haier Group announced that it would take part in the stock-right financing plan of Fisher & Paykel of New Zealand, including additional issuing, shares rationing, and supplementary issuing. Haier Group would hold 20% of the company’s stock and thus become a controlling shareholder.

    2009.05.26

    On May 26th, 2009, member of the Political Bureau of CPC Central Committee and Vice Premier of the State Council Zhang Dejiang paid an investigation tour to Haier Group, and Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin reported to Vice Premier Zhang about Haier’s conditions.

    2009.05.26

    On May 26th, member of the Political Bureau of CPC Central Committee and Vice Premier of the State Council Zhang Dejiang paid an investigation tour to Haier Group, and Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin reported to Vice Premier Zhang about Haier’s conditions. At Logistics Center of Qingdao Industrial Park, as shown in the picture, Vice Premier Zhang (middle in the front) points out that to strengthen network competence is of vital importance.

    2009.05.17

    On May 17th, 2009, the 2009 National Entrepreneurs Activity Day jointly organized by China Enterprise Confederation, China Entrepreneurs Association, and Yunnan Provincial Government was opened at Kunming International Conference Centre, and Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin gave speech at the conference.

    2009.05.16

    On May 16th, 2009, the 2009 National Entrepreneurs Activity Day jointly organized by China Enterprise Confederation, China Entrepreneurs Association, and Yunnan Provincial Government was opened at Kunming International Conference Centre. And, as part of the activity, the entrepreneur symposium was held. As shown in the picture, member of the Political Bureau of CPC Central Committee and Vice Premier of the State Council Zhang Dejiang (left in the front) is shaking hands with Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin. (picture by Lin Ruiquan, China Enterprise Newspaper)

    2009.05.16

    As part of the activity, the entrepreneur symposium was held. Member of the Political Bureau of CPC Central Committee and Vice Premier of the State Council Zhang Dejiang, other officials from State Property Management Commission of the State Council, Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, and Yunnan Provincial Government attended the symposium. Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin gave speech at the symposium, and Vice Premier Zhang Dejiang spoke highly of Zhang Ruimin’s innovative ideas and directed the Xinhua News Agency reporters to give in-depth report on Haier’s innovative thoughts.

    2009.05.12

    On May 12th, 2009 (Norway time), the Conference of Safety Standardization of Household Refrigerator of International Electrotechnical Commission was held in Norway, and, as the only representative from China, Haier attended the conference. During the cofenrence, 4 Haier’s technical proposals were approved and set as international standards. By 2009, Haier had participated the standard-setting job of some 23 international standards, among which 7 of its proposals, such as shock-proof wall, had been put into service.

    2009.05.11

    On May 11th, 2009, Shandong Charity Meeting was held by Shandong government in Jinan, and Haier won honor of “Most Charitable Domestic Enterprise”. During the meeting, Haier announced that it would appropriate 100 million RMB to establish Haier Benevolent Fund and donate the earnings to the Hope Project and other charity projects.

    2009.05.11

    On May 11th, 2009, the unveiling ceremony of Sample Chamber of CDMP Data Bank was held in Beijing, and Chairman of China Red Cross Association Peng Peiyun and Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin attended the ceremony. To show Haier’s support, it donated a batch of -86℃ ultra-low temperature refrigerators to the Sample Chamber of CDMP Data Bank.

    2009.05.09

    On May 9th, 2009, Working Meeting on Studying and Practicing the Scientific Concept of Development of Haier Group was held in Haier Brand Center. Party Committee Secretary and CEO of Haier Group Zhang Ruimin reported to the Scientific Development Concept Guidance Group of Qingdao government about Haier’s implementation in carrying forward the spirit of the central government.

    2009.04.30

    On April 30th, 2009, the 10th anniversary of Haier US plant was celebrated. From a scarcely known Chinese brand that entered the US market by gap products, Haier had grown into a localized brand enjoying backbone distribution channels of the US market.

    2009.04.29

    On April 29th, 2009, the 2nd Anniversary of the Restructuring of Haier Group was held in Haier Central Research Institute, and Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin, Haier President Yang Mianmian, as well as a number of experts attended the meeting.

    2009.04.29

    On April 29th, 2009, former German Premier Gerhard Schroeder, accompanied by Chairman of Qingdao Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference and member of Standing Committee of Qingdao Municipal Party Committee and Deputy Mayor of Qingdao Zhang Hui, visited Haier Group. Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin warmly greeted Mr. Schroeder and accompanied the former Premier to take a look at the showroom of Haier Central Building. During the tour, Mr. Schroeder put his thumb up and said: “Haier is quite competitive, and I think there will be a day for Haier to surpass MITELE”.

    2009.04.29

    On April 29th, 2009, at the 2nd Anniversary of the Restructuring of Haier Group Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin presented awards to all prize winners and had a group photo taken to mark the occasion.

    2009.04.29

    On April 29th, 2009, former German Premier Gerhard Schroeder, accompanied by Chairman of Qingdao Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference and member of Standing Committee of Qingdao Municipal Party Committee and Deputy Mayor of Qingdao Zhang Hui, visited Haier Group. Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin warmly greeted Mr. Schroeder and accompanied the former Premier to take a look at the showroom of Haier Central Building. During the tour, Mr. Schroeder put his thumb up and said: “Haier is quite competitive, and I think there will be a day for Haier to surpass MITELE”.

    2009.04.28

    On April 28th, 2009, “2009 China Charity List” was publicized by Forbes Chinese Edition, and Haier Group and Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin were seen on the list.

    2009.04.20

    On April 20th, 2009, member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of CPC Central Committee and Premier of the State Council Wen Jiabao, accompanied by member of Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee and Secretary of Guangdong Provincial Committee Wang Yang, Minister of Ministry of Commerce Chen Deming, Vice Minister of Ministry of Commerce Zhong Shan, visited Haier Exhibition Hall in the Canton Fair. Vice Chairman of the Board of Directors of Haier Group Wu Kesong reported to Premier Wen about Haier’s conditions.

    2009.04.17

    On the morning of April 17th, 2009, Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin met with former Board Chairman and CEO of IMB Louis Gerstner (right) in Florida.

    2009.04.17

    On April 17th, 2009 (US time), Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin met with former Board Chairman and CEO of IMB Louis Gerstner in Florida and exchanged ideas on the issue of strategic restructuring of enterprise.

    2009.04.08

    On April 8th, 2009, the guidance group of Shandong Provincial Party committee, led by government leaders of Shandong Province, visited Haier Group and met with Party committee secretary and CEO of Haier Group Zhang Ruimin and President of Haier Group Yang Mianmian. Zhang Ruimin and Yang Mianmian reported to the guidance group about Haier’s practices in studying and practicing the scientific concept of development.

    2009.03.27

    On March 27th, 2009, Haier Hammer was collected by China National Museum as National Cultural Relics. The title of the Haier Hammer: Tool of Director of Qingdao General Refrigerator Factory Zhang Ruimin, who, in 1985, broke 76 under-level refrigerators before the eyes of his staff. The relic was numbered China National Museum No.092.

    2009.03.26

    On March 26th, 2009, Minister of Ministry of Commerce Chen Mingde, accompanied by Vice Governor of Guizhou Province Meng Qiliang, paid an investigation tour to Zunyi City. During the tour, Minister Chen visited Haier Nanbai specialty store in Zunyi.

    2009.03.20

    In March of 2009, 28 subordinate companies of Haier Group were approved certification of high-tech enterprises with a license validity period of 3 years.

    2009.03.20

    In March of 2009, 25 divisions of Haier Group passed ISO 14001. And among the 25 divisions, Chongqing Air-conditioner, Chongqing Washing Machine, Chongqing Water Heater, and Jiaonan Electric Heating were newly approved division.

    2009.03.15

    On March 15th, 2009, member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of CPC Central Committee and Vice Premier of the State Council Li Keqiang paid an investigation tour to Yan’an. As shown in the picture, Vice Premier Li (middle) is listening the report given by Senior Vice President of Haier Group Zhou Yunjie (first from right in the front) on Haier’s washing machine solutions for local customers.

    2009.03.15

    On March 15th, 2009, member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of CPC Central Committee and Vice Premier of the State Council Li Keqiang paid an investigation tour to Yan’an. Vice Premier Li was quite concerned about the implementation of the policy of "Home Appliances Go into Rural Areas" in Yan’an, the old revolutionary base area, and he also paid a visit to the Haier Yaodian specialty store in Baota District of Yan’an. Haier President Yang Mianmian reported to Vice Premier Li about the implementation of "Home Appliances Go into Rural Areas" and gave a presentation on Haier’s products solutions for local customers.

    2009.03.14

    On March 14th, 2009, The Mobilization Meeting of Studying and Practicing the Scientific Development Concept of Haier Group was held in Haier Brand Center. At the meeting, Party Committee Secretary and CEO of Haier Group Zhang Ruimin gave a mobilization report on how to study and practice the Scientific Development Concept.

    2009.03.07

    On the morning of March 7th, member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee and Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress Wu Bangguo joined Shandong delegation for the examination of the government report. During the meeting, Chairman Wu shook hands with Haier President Yang Mianmian.

    2009.03.07

    On March 4th and 7th, upon invitation by People Net and CCTV.com, Haier President Yang Mianmian attended Interviewing the Two Conferences (i.e. the National People's Congress and the Chinese Political Consultative Conference). During the Two Conferences, a number of media organizations like Economic Daily, China Electronics News, and Science and Technology Daily interviewed Yang on issues like Haier’s counter-financial crisis measures and the policy of "Home Appliances Go into Rural Areas", which attracted wide social attention.

    2009.03.07

    On the afternoon of March 7th, member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the Communist Party of China Central Committee and Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress Wu Bangguo joined Shandong delegation for the examination of the government report. During the meeting, Chairman Wu shook hands with Haier President Yang Mianmian. (picture by Wang Hui, People’s Right Daily)

    2009.03.05

    On March 5th, 2009, the 2nd Session of the 11th National People's Congress was held at the Great Hall of the People. And, as deputy to the National People's Congress, Haier President Yang Mianmian attended the session and submitted a bill to the congress.

    2009.03.05

    On the afternoon of March 5th, member of the Political Bureau of CPC Central Committee and Vice Premier of the State Council Wang Qishan joined Shandong delegation for the examination of the government work report. And, with the topic of “create customers by innovation, enhance enterprises value for a better society”, Yang Mianmian gave speech at the meeting.

    2009.03.01

    On March 1st, 2009, Shandong Industrial Restructuring Meeting was held in Jinan. Secretary of Shandong Provincial Committee and Chairman of Standing Committee of Shandong Provincial People's Congress Jiang Yikang and Deputy Secretary of Shandong Provincial Committee and Mayor of Shandong Province Jiang Daming attended the meeting. Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin gave speech at the meeting. During the meeting, Shandong government praised about Haier’s contribution to Shandong’s economy over the past years, and presented Haier Group the honor of “Meritorious Enterprise of the 30-year Reform and Opening up of Shandong”. Secretary of Shandong Provincial Committee Jiang Yikang personally presented the award to Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin.

    2009.03.01

    On March 1st, 2009, Shandong Industrial Restructuring Meeting was held in Jinan, and Haier Group won honor of “Meritorious Enterprise of the 30-year Reform and Opening up of Shandong”. The picture shows Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin (middle in the front) receiving the honor.

    2009.02.27

    On February 27th, 2009, the awarding ceremony of “Qingdao’s Top 10 Female Economic Figures” was held in Qingdao TV Station. The picture shows Haier President Yang Mianmian (middle in the front)with other female entrepreneurs of Qingdao and officials of Qingdao government.

    2009.02.19

    On February 19th, 2009, Senior Vice President of Haier Group Zhou Yunjie (right in the front) and Vice Minister of Ministry of Light Industry Internal Trade of Karlino Granadillo signed the agreement of cooperation on white goods technology, standard output, and production base establishment at the Presidential Palace of Venezuela. Chinese Vice President Xi Jinping and Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez attended the signing ceremony. The signing of the agreement indicated that Haier would play a significant role in Venezuela’s white goods industry and in establishing the industrial chain of Venezuela market.

    2009.02.19

    On February 19th, 2009, Senior Vice President of Haier Group Zhou Yunjie (right in the front) and Vice Minister of Ministry of Light Industry Internal Trade of Venezuela Karlino Granadillo signed the agreement of cooperation on white goods technology, standard output, and production base establishment at the Presidential Palace of Venezuela. Chinese Vice President Xi Jinping and Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez attended the signing ceremony.

    2009.02.01

    In February of 2009, , Haier Italian-style Three-door Refrigerator was televised for 8.5 minutes on QVC, a famous German TV sales channel. And on the very day, 67 Haier refrigerators were sold.

    2009.01.13

    On the evening of November 13th, 2009 (Cuba time), the Central Avenue in Havana was lighted by Haier LED high energy-efficiency street lamps, and local children were shouting and playing about on the street.

    2009.01.10

    On January 10th, 2009, Haier 2008 Commendatory Meeting meanwhile Interpretation Meeting of Haier’s 2009 Strategy was held at Haier Central Research Institute. In 2008, Haier achieved a global sales turnover of 119 billion RMB and a profit of 2.25 billion RMB, with a profit growth rate 2 times of its sales income.

    2009.01.10

    On January 10th, 2009, at Haier 2008 Commendatory Meeting meanwhile Interpretation Meeting of Haier’s 2009 Strategy, Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin (middle) presented awards for those Gold Medal employees.

    2009.01.06

    On the morning of January 6th, 2009, member of the Political Bureau of CPC Central Committee and Vice Premier of the State Council Wang Qishan (first from right in the front) visited the Haier specialty store in Xinzheng City of Henan Province, which was one of Haier’s stations of “Household Appliances go into Rural Areas”, and talked with the service men there. (picture by Henan Daily)

    2009.01.06

    On January 6th, 2009, member of the Political Bureau of CPC Central Committee and Vice Premier of the State Council Wang Qishan, accompanied by Secretary of Henan Provincial Committee and Chairman of the Provincial People's Congress Xu Guangchun, Deputy Secretary of Henan Provincial Committee and Governor of Henan Province Guo Gengmao, visited the Haier specialty store in Xinzheng City of Henan Province which was one of Haier’s stations of “Household Appliances go into Rural Areas”, and had a field survey on the implementation of the project.

    2009.01.04

    On January 4th, 2009, the world famous consumption market research organization Euromonitor International publicized: with a 6.3% market share, Haier Refrigerator surpassed Whirlpool, becoming the world champion. This was China’s first global championship of household appliances industry since China’s reform and opening up.

    2009.01.01

    On January 1st, 2009, Premier of the State Council and member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of CPC Central Committee Wen Jiabao visited Haier Group to have a survey on Haier's performance under the background of global financial crisis and checked the implementation of the national project of "Home Appliances Go into Rural Areas". Director of National Development and Reform Commission Zhang Ping, Minister of Ministry of Industry and Information Technology Li Yizhong, and Minister of Ministry of Commerce Chen Deming also took part in the tour.

    2009.01.01

    Zhang Ruimin also reported to Premier Wen about Haier's solutions to fight the financial crisis, including the following aspects: firstly, product innovation focusing on providing solutions for customers secondly, business model innovation incorporated with real-time supply and demand on the basis of zero inventory thirdly, mechanism innovation based on independent operation entity and individual-order combination. Premier Wen said: “all these solutions cannot go without innovation. Haier’s counter-crisis solutions tell us that crisis also brings bout opportunities however, new opportunities are based on innovation”. Zhang Ruimin answered: “under such a crisis, we consider it important not only to conquer such a commercial winter, but also learn to be a winter swimmer”. On hearing that, Premier Wen said: “we should brave such a hard period instead of fleeing the crisis”.

    2009.01.01

    Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin reported to Premier Wen Jiabao about Haier's "Three-Step" Strategy of "stepping out, stepping into, and stepping up" for the purpose of tapping international market and creating global brand. In addition, Zhang Ruimin introduced Haier' ideas of developing various solutions to satisfy rural users' needs by means of grasping the golden opportunity of "Home Appliances Go into Rural Areas".

    2009.01.01

    On January 1st, 2009, accompanied by Secretary of Shandong Provincial Committee Jiang Yikang and Vice Secretary meanwhile Governor of Shandong Province Jiang Daming, member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of CPC Central Committee and Premier of the State Council Wen Jiabao visited Haier Group.

    2009.01.01

    Uncle Hang was the first beneficiary of Haier’s policy of “Household Appliances go into Rural Areas” in Jiang Bei District of Chongqing City. As shown in the picture, Haier service men are carrying a haier automatic tumbling-box washing machine, which is newly bought by Uncle Hang, to his home. (picture by Information Office of the State Council)

    2009.01.01

    Premier Wen spoke highly of Haier's thoughts and practices, and he said, "the government cares a lot about Haier’s development. Haier’s great achievements demonstrate that independent innovation is the lifeline for an enterprise. Haier has not only withstood the financial crisis, but also will further its innovation And what can guarantee Haier’s future? Not only its unbending leading group and innovative team, but also its innovation mechanism which has been testified over the years. Under such a critical time, I am convinced that Haier is bound to achieve greater success in the future and realize the objective of “step out, step into, and step up”.

    2009.01.01

    It is wonderful for Haier Group to cudgel their brains for solutions and regard ‘Home Appliances Go into Rural Areas' not only as an opportunity to expand the market, but also a chance to serve our peasant brothers, Premier Wen praised when he heard about Haier' solutions for satisfying rural users' needs by means of grasping the golden opportunity of "Home Appliances Go into Rural Areas".

    Foundation stone laying ceremony of One Gold Medal, One Hope School project.

    2008.12.05

    On December 5th, 2008, the opening ceremony of Qingdao Haier Inter-continental Hotel ( built and controlled by Haier) was held in Qingdao International Sailing Center of the Games of the 29th Olympiad. Director of the Standing Committee of Qingdao Municipal People’s Congress Zhang Ruofei, Deputy Mayor of Qingdao Municipality Hu Shaojun, member of Qingdao Municipal CPC Committee and Chief of the United Front Work Department Zang Aimin, Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin, and Haier President Yang Mianmian attended the ribbon-cutting ceremony.

    2008.12.01

    Localization plays a significant role in Haier’s global strategy. Guided by such concept, Haier developed the Fat Refrigerator for India market which won wide recognition among Indian consumers who praised Haier Fat Refrigerator for its “fast ice making”.

    2008.12.01

    In December of 2008, 2009 IF Design Award was publicized, and Haier Three-door Refrigerator, Haier Electrical Water Heater, and Haier Double-burner Gas Stove won honor of IF International Design Award. This was the first time that China’s kitchen household appliances enterprise had won such prize, and 2008 was also a year during which Chinese household appliances enterprises had historically won the greatest number of prizes.

    2008.11.20

    The results of the second bidding project of Household Appliances Go into Rural Areas jointly held by Ministry of Commerce and the Ministry of Finance of the People's Republic of China were announced, and Haier Color TV, Mobilephone, and Refrigerator won the biddings. This time, the project had, based on the originally 3 provinces of Shandong, Henan, and Sichuan, recruited another 11 provinces, and apart from color TV, mobile phone and refrigerator, washing machine was added to the list.

    2008.11.08

    On November 8th, 2008 (US time), Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin paid a visit to Haier US Industrial Park. Local County Mayor Clay Armstrong and Economic Minister Nelson Lindsey specially came to meet with Zhang Ruimin and conferred honor of Community Job Development to Zhang to thank for the job opportunities Haier had created for local community.

    2008.11.02

    Shortly before leaving, Vice Premier Li Keqiang tightly held hands with Zhang Ruimin, saying: “I am really happy about Haier’s achievements. May Haier a greater success!”

    2008.11.02

    As shown in the picture, during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, the Bird’s Nest was greatly upgraded by Haier’s innovative green products like Haier natural cooling medium refrigerators, central air conditioners, and freezers.

    2008.11.02

    On getting off the car, Vice Premier Li came to shake hands with Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin and said: “what great achievement Haier has made over the past 20 years!” At the refrigerator showroom, Zhang Ruimin told Vice Premier Li: “we now focus on 2 sectors: expand overseas market by upgrading marketing mode, and develop domestic market by deepening the research on customers’ need”. On hearing that, Vice Premier Li said: “upgrade overseas market and deepen domestic market, that’s the right way”.

    2008.10.30

    In October of 2008, the “Awarding Ceremony for Excellent Chinese Brands during the 30 Years of Opening-up and Reform” meanwhile “the 1st Chinese Brands Internationalized Development Summit Forum” was jointly held by the SASAC Research Center of the State Council. Haier Group won honor of “Chinese Brand Achievement Award during the 30 Years of Opening-up and Reform” and Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin won title of “Chinese Brand Contribution Figure during 30 Years of Opening-up and Reform”.

    2008.10.20

    In October of 2008, Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin was conferred the award of “Meritorious Figure at the 30th Anniversary of Reform” at “China Reform & Development Summit Forum meanwhile Awarding Ceremony for Meritorious Figures/Units during the 30 Years of Reform” held in Beijing.

    2008.10.12

    During October 9th to 12th, 2008, the 3rd Plenary Session of the 17th Central Committee of the Party was held in Beijing. And, as alternate member of the Seventeenth CPC Central Committee, Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin attended the session.

    2008.10.02

    On November 2nd, 2008, accompanied by Secretary of Shandong Provincial Committee Jiang Yikang, Vice Secretary and Governor of Shandong Province Jiang Yikang, Mayor of Qingdao Xia Geng, member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of CPC Central Committee and Vice Premier of the State Council Li Keqiang visited Haier Group. Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin and President Yang Mianmian gave report to Vice Premier Li about Haier’s conditions.

    2008.09.01

    In September of 2008, Forbes publicized “World Top 100 Influential Women of 2008”. 4 Chinese women were listed, including Haier President Yang Mianmian. Moreover, Yang was also the only Chinese woman who had won such honor for three consecutive years from 2006 to 2008.

    2008.08.30

    In August of 2008, “2008 Industrial Design Excellence Awards (IDEA)” was jointly publicized by Business Week and Industrial Designers Society of America (IDSA). The Italian-style three-door refrigerator designed by Heico Companies LLC of Haier Group won honor of Best Household Life Design Award, becoming the only award-winner in refrigerator industry of the year apart from Haier, there were only two other award winners in household appliances industry, namely, Whirlpool and Samsung. It is known that IDEA, initiated in 1980, enjoys as wide an influence as IF Design Award, RedDot Design Award of Germany, and G-Mark Award of Japan. The award is conferred once a year.

    2008.08.08

    On August 8th, 2008, when Beijing 2008 Olympic Games was to be declared open in the evening, Haier initiated its project of “One Gold Medal, One Hope Primary School ”, that is to say, Haier would donate to build a Hope Primary School and name it after a Chinese Olympic champion upon his/her winning a gold medal. By the time when Beijing 2008 Olympic Games was closed, Chinese athletes totally won 51 gold medals then, Haier donated 51 Hope primary schools, bringing the Olympic spirit to all the pupils. During the games, as the exclusive global white-goods sponsor for the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games, Haier provided 37 Olympic venues like the Olympic Village, National Stadium, Water Cube and the Qingdao Olympic Sailing Center with some 60,000 green, cost-saving innovative products, including Haier natural cooling medium refrigerators, super-silent refrigerators, “Olympic” air-conditioners, washing-powder-free washing machines, central air-conditionings, solar air-conditionings and shockproof water heaters. Haier established its Olympic Service Center opposite the Bird's Nest and organized a volunteer team of 200 Haier Gold-Medal service engineers to maintain, track and monitor Haier’s home appliances round the clock at Olympic venues, so as to assure zero-downtime operation of Haier products.

    2008.08.08

    On August 8th, 2008, when Beijing 2008 Olympic Games was to be declared open in the evening, Haier initiated its project of “One Gold Medal, One Hope Primary School ”, that is to say, Haier would donate to build a Hope Primary School and name it after a Chinese Olympic champion upon his/her winning a gold medal. After the Olympic Games, Haier donated 51 Hope schools, a move that has bettered the studying environment for some 30,000 pupils.

    2008.07.20

    On July 20th, 2008, Chinese President, General Secretary of CPC Central Committee, and Chairman of the Central Military Commission of the People's Republic of China Hu Jintao visited Haier Group. President Hu spoke highly of Haier’s innovation on energy-saving and emission reduction, and encouraged Haier to devote more to this field. The picture shows that Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin is showing Haier’s water-saving washing machine to President Hu.

    2008.07.20

    On July 20th, 2008, Chinese President, General Secretary of CPC Central Committee, and Chairman of the Central Military Commission of the People's Republic of China Hu Jintao visited Haier Group. Liu Qi (member of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, Secretary of the CPC Beijing Municipal Committee and BOCOG President), Ling Jihua (member of the Secretariat of the CPC Central Committee and Director of the General Office of the CPC Central Committee), Wang Huning (member of the Secretariat of the CPC Central Committee and Director of the Policy Research Office of the CPC Central Committee), and Zhu Zhixin (Director of the Office for the Central Leading Group in Economic and Financial Affairs) also took part in President Hu’s tour. The team was accompanied by Jiang Yikang, Secretary of the CPC Shandong Provincial Committee, Jiang Daming (Deputy Secretary of the CPC Shangdong Provincial Committee and Governor of Shandong Province), Yan Qijun (member of the Standing Committee of the CPC Shandong Provincial Committee and Secretary of the CPC Qingdao Municipal Committee), Secretary-General Wang Min (member of the Standing Committee of the CPC Shandong Provincial Committee), and Qingdao Mayor Xia Geng (Deputy Secretary of the CPC Qingdao Municipal Committee). Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin and Haier President Yang Mianmian gave report to President Hu about Haier’s conditions. President Hu also visited the showrooms of U-Home products, refrigerator, washing machine, commercial air-conditioner, water heater, color TV, and computer, and took an aerial view of Haier Industrial Park and Haier Information Park at the 12th floor of Haier Central Building. During his tour, President Hu encouraged Haier to further its independent innovation and try to achieve world-class level in saving energy and reducing emissions. President Hu also confirmed Haier’s ideas on operation and management improvement. Then, President Hu visited the air-conditioner workshop, observing the production process and studying the impact of increasing labor cost and international raw materials cost upon Haier. At last, President Hu encouraged workers like Shi Yunhu and Sun Mengchuan to be more initiative and innovative in their positions.

    2008.07.01

    In July of 2008, Haier Refrigerator entered the second largest retail channel of the UK to sell its A+ energy-conservation refrigerators. The UK Government stipulates that real estate agents who use Haier A+ energy-conservation refrigerators in newly-renovated buildings or local consumers who buy Haier A+ energy-conservation refrigerators will be allowed an official subsidy of 20-70 GBP.

    2008.07.01

    In July of 2008, in the survey of “Asia’s Top 200 Enterprises” organized by Wall Street Journal Asia, Haier topped the list of “Excellent Chinese Mainland Enterprises in Comprehensive Leadership” for the fifth consecutive year. In the selection of “China’s Top 5 Respectable Enterprises”, Haier won two titles in “credibility” and “quality”.

    2008.07.01

    In Indonesia Haier’s billboard stands shoulder to shoulder with other world famous brands.

    2008.05.30

    On May 30th, 2008, Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin accompanied South Korean President Lee Myung-bak (first from left) to visit the product showroom in Haier Headquarters, Qingdao.

    2008.05.30

    On May 30th, 2008, South Korean President Lee Myung-bak, accompanied by Governor Jiang Daming and other leaders of Shandong Province, visited Haier Group and visited Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin and Haier President Yang Mianmian.

    2008.05.27

    On May 12th, 2008, Wenchuan County of Sichuan Province was stricken by an M 8.0 earthquake. And, on May 27th, Haier CEO braved a long way to go to see the students in the tent school in Mianyang Jiuzhou Stadium. As shown in the picture, Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin is presenting school supplies to the students of the tent school.

    2008.05.27

    Haier is always ready to serve the society. At 14: 28 of May 12th, 2008, Wenchuan County of Sichuan Province was stricken by an M 8.0 earthquake. And, on May 27th, Haier CEO braved a long way to go to see the students in the tent school in Mianyang Jiuzhou Stadium. The picture shows Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin (second from right) and his fellows at the Huangtu Settlement of Mianyang City.

    2008.05.15

    On May 15th, 2008, member of the Political Bureau of CPC Central Committee, member of the State Council, and Vice President of BOCOG Liu Yandong, accompanied by government officials like Shandong Party Secretary Jiang Yikang and governor Jiang Daming, visited the Honor room, show room, Central Research Institute, and Mould Center of Haier Group. Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin and President Yang Mianmian gave report on Haier’s development to the government leaders.

    2008.05.13

    At 14: 28 of May 12th, 2008, Wenchuan County of Sichuan Province was stricken by an M 8.0 earthquake. And, on May 27th, Haier CEO braved a long way to go to see the students in the tent school in Mianyang Jiuzhou Stadium and announced that Haier would donate 17.5 million RMB to establish a Luchuan Haier Hope Middle School and 15 Hope primary schools. By early June, Haier had donated totally 38 million RMB for the disaster area.

    2008.05.07

    On May 7th, 2008, Chinese Vice President, member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, and Secretariat of the CPC Central Committee Xi Jinping visited the honor room and showroom of Haier Headquarters, accompanied by Liu Qi (Secretary of the CPC Beijing Municipal Committee), Ou Yangsong (Vice Minister of the Organization Department of the CPC Central Committee), Jiang Yikang (Secretary of CPC Shandong Provincial Committee), Jiang Daming (Shandong Provincial Governor), Yan Qijun (Secretary of the CPC Qingdao Municipal Committee), and Qingdao Mayor Xia Geng. Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin gave report to the Vice President about Haier’s current conditions, and the latter spoke highly of Haier’s achievements and said: “Haier is competent and Haier spirit should be widely spread.”

    2008.05.02

    On May 2nd, 2008,the torch relay of 2008 Olympic Flame came to Hong Kong, the first station in China, and the employees of Haier Hong Kong Trading Company waved five-starred red flags, regional flags of Hong Kong SAR, and Haier flags in their hands and shouted support for the torch bearers.

    2008.04.28

    On April 28th, 2008, Commercial Bank of Qingdao under Haier Group was renamed as Bank of Qingdao.

    2008.04.09

    On April 9th, 2008, Secretary of Shandong Provincial Committee of and Director of Standing Committee of Shandong Provincial People's Congress Jiang Yikang visited Haier Industrial Park in Qingdao. Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin and President Yang Mianmian gave reports to Secretary Jiang about Haier’s current conditions. When Secretary Jiang finished his tour, he shook hands with Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin and said: “may Haier a greater success.”

    2008.03.09

    On March 9th, 2008, Haier President Yang Mianmian gave a report on the development of Haier-Ruba Economic Zone of Pakistan to Chinese President Hu Jintao at the Shandong delegation meeting of the 1st Session of the 11th NPC.

    2008.03.05

    On March 5th, 2008, the 1st Session of the 11th National People's Congress was held in Beijing, and Haier President Yang Mianmian, as deputy to the National People's Congress, Haier President Yang Mianmian attended the meeting. On March 9th, General Secretary of CPC Central Committee and Chairman of the Central Military Commission of the People's Republic of China Hu Jintao attended the Shandong delegation meeting of the 1st Session of the 11th NPC and when delegation discussion concluded, President Hu came to shake hands with each deputy. Haier President Yang Mianmian reported to President Hu that Pakistan Haier - Ruba Economic Zone had been put into service and was generating considerable returns. On hearing that, President Hu was quite satisfied and he encouraged Haier to achieve greater success in overseas market.

    2008.03.01

    2008 was the 30th year of China’s reform and opening up. Under such a background, “China’s Top 100 Economic Figures of the 30 Years of Reforming and Opening Up” was publicized by China Economic Weekly, and Haier CEO Zhang Ruimin was one of the 100 figures. As commented by China Economic Weekly, “Zhang created the brand of China Haier, made a miracle during China’s reform and opening up, and realized China’s dream of owning a world-renowned brand of China.”

    2008.03.01

    In March of 2008, China Brand Institute published the 3rd Session of China’s Top 500 Valuable Brands, and Haier won both honors of “General Industrial-Best Brand in China” and “Best Brand in Shandong Province”, becoming the only double champions of home appliances industry.

    2008.02.01

    Haier solar air-conditioning was used to cool the lobby of over 20,000 square meters at the athletes dining hall in the Olympic Village. In the picture is Haier solar air-conditioning external units outside the athlete dining hall. The Olympic Village, the Beijing Olympic Green Tennis Center, and the Qingdao Olympic Sailing Center were all equipped with Haier solar air-conditioning, demonstrating the concept of Green Olympics.

    2008.01.11

    On January 11th, 2008, under the theme of “Openness, Equity, Share, and Global Operation”, 2007 Haier Global Annual Conference was held in Haier Central R&D Institute. Managers of 7 main market divisions participated at the conference via internet video.


    As the discussion stresses from Zara we can identify the broad strategies applied to strengthen the brand being as follows: the marketing mix, its people, short lead times and scarce supply. However, that is not to say that the Zara brand&rsquos success lay solely on the mentioned factors. The organization as a whole has been able to clearly-define its brand values and allowed them to permeate throughout the entire organization. Zara has a distinct ownership for management of the brand right from the top management level.

    This has meant that critical activities such as sales, operations, customer service, product development and others are made use of in supporting the whole organization&rsquos strategic management process.From this paper it is clear that the marketing mix is represented by product, price, place and promotion. With regards to product, the Zara strategy has been to anticipate the latest fashion in apparel and to produce them before other competitors. Secondly, the garments are manufactured to be non-durable so as to prompt the consumer not to store them in their wardrobes but to wear them and to visit Zara shops frequently for replenishment.

    Thirdly, the company ensures that its stores have a wide variety of products because each store receives new products at least twice per week. Clothes that have low demand are quickly spotted, removed and replaced by new trendier designs such that customers are always spoilt for choice.


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