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Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein


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Albert Einstein was born of Jewish parents in Ulm, Germany, in 1879. He was educated at Munich, Aarau and Zurich. Disapproving of German militarism he took Swiss nationality in 1901 and the following year was appointed examiner at the Swiss Patent Office. While in this post he began publishing original papers on the theoretical aspects of problems in physics.

Influenced by quantum theory developed by Max Planck in Berlin, Einstein explained the photoelectric law that governs the production of electricity from light-sensitive metals.

In 1905 Einstein published his special theory of relativity. Einstein argued that the laws of nature are the same for all observers in unaccelerated motion, and the speed of light is independent in the motion of its source. Einstein postulated that the time interval between two events was longer for an observer in whose frame of reference the events occur in different places than for the observer for whom they occur at the same place.

Einstein took his PhD at Zurich and in 1909 became a lecturer in theoretical physics at the university. He also taught at Prague (1911-12) before Max Planck invited him to become director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Physical Institute in Berlin in 1914.

In 1915 Einstein published his general theory of relativity where he argued that the properties of space-time were to be conceived as modified locally by the presence of a body with mass. The theory of relativity revolutionized our understanding of matter, space, and time.

Einstein achieved world recognition for his general theory of relativity and won the Nobel prize for physics in 1921. As a Jew, Einstein suffered a great deal of prejudice in Germany and after being involved in a memorial service for the assassinated German politician, Walther Rathenau, he was warned that he was likely to be murdered by the Freikorps.

Einstein became increasingly interested in politics and he toured Europe making speeches on peace and disarmament. Now a pacifist, he told his audiences that: "my pacifism is an instinctive feeling, a feeling that possesses me because the murder of men is disgusting." In 1929 he upset right-wing forces in Weimar Germany by stating: "I would unconditionally refuse all war service, direct or indirect regardless of how I might feel about the causes of any particular war."

When Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933 Einstein was in California. His house was immediately attacked by the Sturm Abteilung (SA). After being told what had happened Einstein decided not to return home. Instead he toured Europe making speeches explaining what was taking place in Nazi Germany.

In 1934 Einstein emigrated to the United States where he became a professor of mathematics at Princeton. He was no longer a pacifist and argued that democratic nations needed to rearm in order to defend itself against the aggressive foreign policy of Adolf Hitler and Nazi Germany.

In 1939 Einstein warned President Franklin D. Roosevelt that German scientists were in a position to develop an atomic bomb. This encouraged Roosevelt to establish the Manhattan Project.

After the war he urged control of atomic weapons and was one of the first people in the United States to protest about McCarthyism and the activities of the House of Un-American Activities Committee. Albert Einstein, who spent his final years trying to establish a merger between between quantum theory and his general theory of relativity, died in 1955.

First, we might ask ourselves in what sense the problems of international affairs require today an approach quite different from that of the past - not just the recent past, but the past half-century. To me, the answer is quite simple: due to technological developments, the distances throughout the world have shrunk to one tenth of their former size. The production of commodities in the world has become a mosaic composed of pieces from all over the globe. It is essential and altogether natural that the increased economic interdependence of the world's territories, which

participate in mankind's production, be complemented by an appropriate political organization.

I believe the condition in which the world finds itself today makes it not only a matter of idealism but one of dire necessity to create unity and intellectual co-operation among nations. Those of us who are alive to these needs must stop thinking in terms of 'What should be done for our country?' Rather, we should ask: 'What must our community do to lay the groundwork for a larger world community?' For without that greater community no single country will long endure.

A number of people who deserve to be taken seriously have independently warned me not to stay in Berlin for the time being and, especially, to avoid all public appearances in Germany. I am said to be among those whom the nationalists have marked for assassination. Of course, I have no proof, but in the prevailing situation it seems quite plausible.

The trouble is that the newspapers have mentioned my name too often, this mobilizing the rabble against me. I have no alternative but to be patient - and to leave the city. I do urge you to get as little upset over the incident as I myself.

The personal characteristic of Einstein that is most vividly in my mind and that I like to recall most is his feeling of equality with his colleagues, his appreciation and in fact reciprocation of their friendship. My love and early admiration of physics (I studied chemical engineering) owes very much to the seminar he organized in the early twenties in Berlin on statistical mechanics. Many of the participants at the seminar, including myself, were encouraged to visit him at his home, to have personal conversations with him. We discussed, at such occasions, not only statistical mechanics, not only physics, but also personal problems, and the problems of society. His deep insights had a lasting effect on most of us, but the exchange of opinions was on an equal basis and he responded with interest to the remarks which his visitors made. In somewhat later years the subject of such conversations often turned toward politics, and his condemnation of all dictatorships, particularly Hitler's, had a great deal of influence on his friends and students. But even as far as the USSR is concerned, he wrote, when he was asked to sign a petition: 'Because of the glorification of Soviet Russia, which it includes, I cannot bring myself to sign it.'

It became more difficult for him to maintain a similarly cordial relation with his colleagues, older and younger, after moving to Princeton. Though he could speak English, he never felt at home with it. But his relations with numerous collaborators in Princeton were always cordial and, even though they were not only less widely recognized, but also considerably younger than he was, he never talked down to them, and treated them as equals. He loved to take walks, often with friends like myself, with whom the conversation was in German.

If my theory of relativity is proven correct, Germany will claim me as a German and France will declare that I am a citizen of the world. Should my theory prove untrue, France will say that I am a German and Germany will declare that I am a Jew.

It may not be possible in one generation to eradicate the combative instinct. It is not even desirable to eradicate it entirely. Men should continue to fight, but they should fight for things worth while, not for imaginary geographical lines, racial prejudices and private greed draped in the colours of patriotism. Their arms should be weapons of the spirit, not shrapnel and tanks.

We must be prepared to make the same heroic sacrifices for the cause of peace that we make ungrudgingly for the cause of war. There is no task that is more important or closer to my heart. Nothing that I can do or say will change the structure of the universe. But maybe, by raising my voice, I can help the greatest of all causes - good will among men and peace on earth.

This crippling of individuals I consider the worst evil of capitalism. Our whole educational system suffers from this evil. An exaggerated competitive attitude is inculcated into the student, who is trained to worship acquisitive success as a preparation for his future career.

I am convinced there is only one way to eliminate these grave evils, namely through the establishment of a socialist economy, accompanied by an educational system which would be oriented toward social goals.

In such an economy, the means of production are owned by society itself and are utilized in a planned fashion. A planned economy, which adjusts production to the needs of the community, would distribute the work to be done among all those able to work and would guarantee a livelihood to every man, woman, and child. The education of the individual, in addition to promoting his own innate abilities, would attempt to develop in him a sense of responsibility for his fellowmen in place of the glorification of power and success in our present society. Nevertheless, it is necessary to remember that a planned economy is not yet socialism.

I would unconditionally refuse all war service, direct or indirect regardless of how I might feel about the causes of any particular war.

We have no reason to regret Einstein's resignation. The Academy is aghast at his agitational activities abroad. Its members have always felt in themselves a profound loyalty to the Prussian state. Even though they have kept apart from all party politics, yet they have always emphasized their loyalty to the national idea.

That a man can take pleasure in marching in formation to the strains of a band is enough to make me despise him. He has only been given his big brain by mistake; a backbone was all he needed. The plague-spot of civilization ought to be abolished with all possible speed. Heroism by order, senseless violence and all the pestilent nonsense that goes by the name of patriotism - how I hate them!

It must be said that, of late, pacifists have harmed rather than helped the cause of democracy. This is especially obvious in England, where the pacifist influence has dangerously delayed the rearmament which has become necessary because of the military preparations in Fascist countries.

In the course of the last four months it has been made probable - through the work of Joliot in France as well as Fermi and Szilard in America - that it may become possible to set up a nuclear chain reaction in a large mass of uranium, by which vast amounts of power and large quantities of new radium-like elements would be generated. Now it appears almost certain that this could be achieved in the immediate future.

This new phenomenon would also lead to the construction of bombs, and it is conceivable - though much less certain - that extremely powerful bombs of a new type may thus be constructed. A single bomb of this type, carried by boat or exploded in a port, might well destroy the whole port together with some of the surrounding territory. However, such bombs might well prove to be too heavy for transportation by air.

Physicists find themselves in a position not unlike that of Alfred Nobel. Alfred Nobel invented an explosive more powerful than any then known-an exceedingly effective means of destruction. To atone for this 'accomplishment' and to relieve his conscience, he instituted his awards for the promotion of peace. Today, the physicists who participated in producing the most formidable weapon of all time are harassed by a similar feeling of responsibility, not to say guilt. As scientists, we must never cease to warn against the danger created by these weapons; we dare not slacken in our efforts to make the peoples of the world, and especially their governments, aware of the unspeakable disaster they are certain to provoke unless they change their attitude toward one another and recognize their responsibility in shaping a safe future. We helped create this new weapon in order to prevent the enemies of mankind from achieving it first; given the mentality of the Nazis, this could have brought about untold destruction as well as the enslavement of the peoples of the world. This weapon was delivered into the hands of the American and the British nations in their roles as trustees of all mankind, and as fighters for peace and liberty; but so far we have no guarantee of peace nor of any of the freedoms promised by the Atlantic Charter. The war is won, but the peace is not.


Living in Switzerland, the physicist figures out that matter—the tiny particles that form objects—can be turned into energy, and vice versa. He also comes up with the famous formula E=mc2, which calculates the energy produced by converting a given amount of matter. He’s now a star!

Einstein wows the world by publishing his theory of relativity. The theory explains gravity—basically ginormous objects such as planets bend the space around them as they travel or pulsate. These curves in space then produce a gravitational pull toward the planet.


Albert Einstein: In Brief

In 1879, Albert Einstein was born to a middle-class German Jewish family. His parents were concerned that he scarcely talked until the age of three, but he was not so much a backward as a quiet child. He would build tall houses of cards and hated playing soldier. At the age of twelve, he was fascinated by a geometry book.

1895
At the age of fifteen, Albert quit high school, disgusted by rote learning and martinet teachers, and followed his family to Italy where they had moved their failing electrotechnical business. After half a year of wandering and loafing, he attended a congenial Swiss school. The next year he entered the Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich.

It is almost a miracle that modern teaching methods have not yet entirely strangled the holy curiosity of inquiry for what this delicate little plant needs more than anything, besides stimulation, is freedom.

1900
After working hard in the laboratory but skipping lectures, Einstein graduated with an unexceptional record. For two grim years he could find only odd jobs, but he finally got a post as a patent examiner. He married a former classmate.

1905
Einstein wrote four fundamental papers, all in a few months. The first paper claimed that light must sometimes behave like a stream of particles with discrete energies, “quanta.” The second paper offered an experimental test for the theory of heat and proof of the existence of atoms. The third paper addressed a central puzzle for physicists of the day—the connection between electromagnetic theory and ordinary motion—and solved it using the “principle of relativity.” The fourth showed that mass and energy are two parts of the same thing, mass-energy (E=mc 2 ). Click here for more on the 1905 papers.

“I want to know how God created this world. I am not interested in this or that phenomenon, in the spectrum of this or that element. I want to know His thoughts the rest are details.”

1909
Einstein became an assistant professor at the University of Zurich, his first full-time physics job. In 1911, he moved on to the German University of Prague. He continued to publish important physics papers, and was beginning to meet fellow scientists, for example, at the exclusive Solvay Conference. The next year, he returned to the Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich as Professor.

1914
Einstein moved to Berlin, taking a research post that freed him from teaching duties. He separated from his wife and two sons. When the First World War broke out, Einstein rejected Germany’s aggressive war aims, supporting the formation of a pacifist group.

1915
After a decade of thought, with entire years spent in blind alleys, Einstein completed his general theory of relativity. Overturning ancient notions of space and time, he reached a new understanding of gravity. Meanwhile, he continued to sign petitions for peace.

The years of anxious searching in the dark, with their intense longing, their alternations of confidence and exhaustion and the final emergence into the light—only those who have experienced it can understand it.

1918
As Germany collapsed, Einstein became more involved in politics and supported a new progressive party. The next year he remarried. And his general theory of relativity received stunning confirmation from British astronomers: as Einstein had predicted, gravity bends starlight. In the popular eye he became a symbol of science and thought at its highest.

1921
Aided by his fame, Einstein championed the fledgling German republican government and other liberal causes. Partly as a result of this, he and his theory of relativity came under vicious attack from anti-Semites. He began traveling, attended an International Trade Union Congress in Amsterdam, and he visited the United States to help raise funds for the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. The following year, he received the Nobel Prize.

1924
Einstein contributed to the struggling new quantum theory. Meanwhile, he searched for a way to unify the theories of electromagnetism and gravity. In 1929, he announced a unified field theory, but the mathematics could not be compared with experiments his struggle toward a useful theory had only begun. Meanwhile he argued with his colleagues, challenging their belief that quantum theory can give a complete description of phenomena.

1933
Unwilling to live in Germany under the new Nazi government, Einstein joined the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey. He turned away from strict pacifism, and he warned world political leaders to prepare for German aggression. He also worked to rescue Jewish and other political victims of the Nazis.

1939
Einstein signed a letter that informed President F. D. Roosevelt of the possibility of nuclear bombs, warning that the Germans might try to build them. The next year, Einstein became an American citizen.

“How I wish that somewhere there existed an island for those who are wise and of goodwill! In such a place even I would be an ardent patriot.”

1952
Einstein was asked to become the second President of the State of Israel but declined. He was supporting many causes, such as the United Nations and world government, nuclear disarmament, and civil liberties.

“The feeling for what ought and ought not to be grows and dies like a tree, and no fertilizer of any kind will do much good. What the individual can do is give a fine example, and have the courage to firmly uphold ethical convictions in a society of cynics. I have for a long time tried to conduct myself this way, with varying success.”

1955
The search for a true unified field theory for a more profound understanding of nature continued to fill Einstein’s days. While corresponding about a new anti-war project and writing a speech for Israel, he was stricken and died.

One thing I have learned in a long life: that all our science, measured against reality, is primitive and childlike—and yet it is the most precious thing we have.

This resource on Einstein’s life and work is based on a traveling exhibit that was originally created for the Institute for Advanced Study by The Center for History of Physics on the occasion of the Einstein Centennial in 1979. It was reformatted into an online exhibit, Einstein: Image and Impact, which is available in its entirety through The Center for History of Physics © Copyright 1996–2016 American Institute of Physics.


Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein rowing on Lower Saranac Lake. Jacob Billikopf is in the stern and actress Luise Rainer is in the bow, c. 1937. Courtesy of David Marshall Billikopf. Albert Einstein with his wife (seated) vacationing at Lake Clear. Adirondack Daily Enterprise, August 19, 1989 Einstein Display by Amy Catania and Mary Hotaling, Shown at History Day 2008. The boy, once thought to be the young Don Duso, is apparently another youth (photo circa 1941). Click on the image to enlarge the display. Born: March 14, 1879

Died: April 18, 1955

Married: Mileva Marić (divorced) Elsa Löwenthal

Children: Lieserl, Hans Albert Einstein (with Mileva Marić)

German-born physicist Albert Einstein is primarily known for the special theory of relativity (1905) and the equation E = mc2, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922, and for the General theory of relativity (1915). His contributions in theoretical physics contributed to the development of the atomic bomb.

In Saranac Lake he is noted as having been one of our more famous summer visitors. Einstein first came to Saranac Lake the summers of 1936 and 1937, renting architect William Distin’s house at the Glenwood Estates. He returned to Saranac Lake through the forties, spending several summers at Knollwood Club on Lower Saranac Lake, where he rented cabin six, next to the Marshalls.

Sightings on the Lake

Sightings of Einstein on the Lake were a frequent occurrence. Reporter Richard Lewis wrote, “Natives of the Saranac Lake area declare that Prof. Einstein is an expert sailboater, but expressed apprehension for him while he is on the lake, for neither he nor his sister, it was said, know how to swim.” 1

Sailing like music, was with Einstein not so much a hobby as an extension of himself in which the essentials of his character and temperament were revealed. Thus it was inevitable that he should politely return an outboard motor which had been presented him. A motor of any sort was a mechanical barrier. 2 "The natural counterplay of wind and water delighted him most," said (Gustave) Bucky, who often sailed with him. "Speed, records, and above all competition were against his nature. He had a childlike delight when there was a calm and the boat came to a standstill , or when the boat ran aground."

He carried his passion for bare essentials to the point of refusing to have life jackets or belts on board—even though he never learned to swim. He never studied navigation and never looked at a compass when in the boat.

"I like sailing," he said, "because it is the sport that demands the least energy." 3

Two other traits were revealed to friends who sailed with him. One was his indifference to danger or death, reflected in such fearlessness of rough weather that more than once he had to be towed in after his mast had been blown down. Another was his perverse delight in doing the unexpected. "Once when out sailing with him," writes (Leon) Watters, ". I suddenly cried out 'Atchung' for we were almost upon another boat. He veered away with excellent control and when I remarked what a close call we had, he started to laugh and sailed directly toward one boat after another, much to my horror but he always veered off in time, and then laughed like a naughty boy." 4

Saved by a Local Hero

The summer of 1941, Einstein’s boat capsized and local hero Don Duso came to the famous scientist’s rescue. Ten year old Duso was out in a small motor boat when he saw Einstein’s boat capsize. By the time the youngster got there, the scientist was under the water, with his foot caught in the boat’s rigging. Said Duso, "He was down for the count. If I had not been nearby, he probably would have drowned." 5

In Saranac Lake When the Bomb Dropped

Although famous world-wide for his pacifist views, Einstein wrote a letter in 1939 to President Roosevelt, warning that Nazi Germany could be developing an atomic bomb, and that the U.S. would be wise to get there first.

Einstein was in Saranac Lake the summer of 1945, when the atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima he was in the kitchen at Knollwood's Cabin Six when he heard the news on the radio. Albany Times Union reporter Richard Lewis, who interviewed him at Knollwood, quoted him saying “In developing atomic or nuclear energy, science did not draw upon supernatural strength, but merely imitated the reaction of the sun’s rays. Atomic power is no more unnatural than when I sail my boat on Saranac Lake.” 6

Einstein later said he regretted the 1939 letter. He argued against U.S. development of a nuclear arsenal, and instead advocated that the United Nations control the world’s nuclear weapons for deterrence. 7

A Mysterious Russian Visitor

In 1998, the Adirondack Daily Enterprise revisited Albert Einstein’s history in Saranac Lake, recounting one local resident’s memories of a mysterious Russian friend who visited Einstein. The woman matched the description of Margarita Konenkova, who is believed to have had a romantic liason with Einstein, and who some have suggested may have been working for the KGB. 8

Lethbridge Herald (Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada), August 23, 1944


Einstein had a lifelong passion for music

At the age of 6, he took up the violin at his mother&aposs request. Einstein was quickly won over by classical music, especially the works of Wolfgang Mozart. According to Jürgen Neffe&aposs Einstein: A Biography, Einstein once said that "Mozart&aposs music is so pure and beautiful that I see it as a reflection of the inner beauty of the universe."

Over the years, Einstein became quite a skilled musician. A 17-year-old Einstein earned praise from his rendition of a Beethoven sonata he played for an exam at school. The evaluator stated that he "shone in a deeply felt performance," according to Physics World magazine. For the rest of his life, music would be a source of joy for the famous scientist.

Albert Einstein and his first wife Mileva Maric met while studying at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology and were married in 1903. Letters between the couple reveal Maric helped Einstein by looking up scientific data, checking calculations and copying notes. 


New letters revealed a different side of Einstein

Biographers used such correspondence to describe Einstein as a cold and cruel husband and father, but in 2006 the release of close to 1,400 previously unknown letters from the scientist offered a more well-rounded view of his relationship to both his wives and family.

In the more recent letters, we find that Einstein had compassion and empathy for his first wife and their children, offering a portion of his 1921 Nobel Peace Prize winnings to support them. Of his son Eduard, Einstein wrote how much he enjoyed receiving his poetry and pictures and added: "The more refined of my sons, the one I considered really of my own nature, was seized by an incurable mental illness." As for his second marriage, Einstein apparently discussed his affairs openly with Elsa and also kept her apprised of his travels and thoughts.

"My lectures here. . .are already behind me. This morning quartet — very beautiful, like old times," he wrote her in 1921. "The first violin is played by a youth of 80 years! Soon I&aposll be fed up with the relativity. Even such a thing fades away when one is too involved with it."


64 Interesting Facts About Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein, a German-born physicist, is best known for his famous equation, which has been dubbed as ‘the world’s most famous equation’ – “E=mc2.” Albert Einstein was not very satisfied with Newtonian mechanics, as he thought that these theories were not enough to explain classical mechanics and the electromagnetic field. And this inspired him to develop his singular Theory of Relativity. With these 64 interesting facts about Albert Einstein, let us learn about his childhood, brain, theories, notable work and papers, married life, and more.

1. Born: Albert Einstein was born in Ulm, Germany to parents Hermann Einstein and Pauline Einstein. At age 29, his father married Pauline Koch. She was eleven years his junior. He was born at 11:30 am on Friday, March 14, 1879. His parents had planned to name the boy Abraham, after his paternal grandfather. But they thought that the name felt “too Jewish” and ended up naming him Albert.

2. Fathead at birth: Albert had a fat head at the time he was born. This startled his mother and grandmother when they saw him for the first time. However, the fat head slowly receded and turned into a normal size. Interestingly, a head containing the brain that would inspire millions of people in the future was not so perfect at birth.

3. Speech difficulty during childhood: Einstein did not speak until the age of three. He revealed this fact about the delay of his speech abilities to his biographer. Today there is a term, “Einstein Syndrome,” which was coined by Dr. Thomas Sowell, to describe exceptionally bright people whose speech is delayed.

4. Early years: he spent his teenage years in Munich. His family operated an electrical equipment business in the city. Einstein at a young age liked to work on puzzles, erect complex structures with his toy building sets. According to his sister Maja Einstein, Albert Einstein could erect card structures as high as fourteen stories. His ability to stay with problems longer than most others demonstrated that persistence and tenacity were already part of his character.

5. His friend: Einstein was affected by the company of a medical student whom he invited for a meal every Thursday. Talmud, the student, brought him science books, including a popular illustrated series called People’s Books on Natural Sciences. The company of these books aroused Einstein’s interest to a large extent in sciences which he pursued until the very end of his life. Talmud also introduced to Einstein the subject of geometry with a book two years before he was scheduled to learn it in school.

6. School: Einstein was not comfortable in school as he did not like the style of teaching. He did not believe in the systematic training in the worship of authority and instead promoted individuality and free thinking without any bias. He once stated, “A foolish faith in authority is the worst enemy of truth.”

7. Why he was different? His success is attributed by many to his unconventional approach to learning, challenging authority and obsessing him with mysteries that others did not find amusing. Einstein insisted on the importance of individuality.

8. A symptom of psychiatric disorder: Einstein, throughout his life, had a mild form of echolalia, which caused him to repeat phrases to himself, two or three times, especially if he liked them. He liked to think in pictures, an important tactic of some of the world’s most renowned thinkers and scientists including Nikola Tesla.

9. The parietal lobe in Einstein’s brain was 15% larger than that of an average brain.

10. Fascination for Science: the beginning of Einstein’s fascination about science came from a pocket compass, which was shown to him by his father when Einstein was five years old. He wondered what made the needlepoint in a certain direction and not anywhere else. This was the beginning of his long and illustrious career in science, which made him renowned around the world. He later quoted, “I can still remember – or at least I believe I can remember – that this experience made a deep and lasting impression on me.”

11. His favorite scientist: Galileo Galilei was Einstein’s favorite scientist.

12. Did you know that Sir Isaac Newton was born the year Galileo Galilei died and Einstein was born the year that Maxwell died?

13. Not suitable for employment: his teachers did not consider him a good student, and they refused to recommend him for further employment.

14. Failure at 16: at 16, Einstein is said to have failed an exam that would have let him train to become an electrical engineer.

15. Did you know that Einstein wrote his first essay on theoretical physics at the age of 16, which he titled “on the Investigation of the State of the Ether in a Magnetic Field.”?

16. Forgetfulness was a big part of his personality since his childhood days. He would often leave behind his suitcase and could not keep track of his keys.

17. Citizenships: Einstein was born German and a Jew. Einstein renounced his German citizenship in 1896. He became a Swiss citizen in 1901. However, he died in 1955 as an American citizen.

18. Einstein received his Swiss citizenship on the condition that he will be able to get a permanent job in the country. He also had to pay some fee to secure the citizenship. Einstein saved some amount each month so that he could pay the said fee. He wanted to be a Swiss citizen because he admired the country which respected the individuality and privacy of its residents.

19. Could not swim: Albert Einstein never learned to swim. However, he loved sailing and continued to do so as a hobby throughout his life. Also, Einstein never wore socks. He thought wearing socks was a pain, and he would often get holes in them.

20. An Avid Smoker: Einstein’s love for smoking was so enormous that he credited his pipe smoking with a calming and judgmental effect. The technique to visualize things and experiments helped him a great deal.

21. Invented refrigerator: Amazingly, Einstein also co-invented a refrigerator that would work on compressed gases. Einstein is also considered to be the man behind the inventions such as – the photoelectric cells, lasers, nuclear power, and fiber optics and even semiconductors.

22. Einstein had trouble getting an academic job. Interestingly, it took him 9 years before he could finally land at his first job after graduation from the Zurich Polytechnic in 1900.

23. Einstein got second time appointed as a Technical Expert Class 3 of the Federal Office for Intellectual Property. There he was paid 3,500 Franks annually and he had to work for eight hours every day, six days a week. He enjoyed his work to the core, which involved examining patent applications. After a few days of service, he realized that he could do the whole days work in just a few hours and thus he utilized the remaining free time at the office to do his scientific work and thinking.

24. At the age of 30, in 1909, he moved to Zurich and got appointed as a junior professor at the University of Zurich. Einstein had a distinct style of teaching. He used cards instead of papers for preparing notes and he would also note down his ideas during the lectures. Moreover, he allowed his students to interrupt him he would also stop and ask his students if they were following him. This interaction between the teacher and the pupils was unique at the time.

25. When Einstein received his doctorate, he was promoted from a third class to a second class technical expert at the patent office and his salary was raised to 4,500 Francs a year.

26. Einstein became one of the most famous faces on the planet when his prediction that gravity bends light was confirmed during an eclipse in 1919.

27. An analytical and curious mind: Einstein was very curious and had an analytical mind at a very young age, showing great abilities in both mathematics and science. It is a common misconception or belief that Einstein failed in math during his school days. However, this is wrong. He quoted, “I never failed in mathematics. Before I was fifteen I had mastered differential and integral calculus.” According to his sister, Einstein by age 12, already had a predilection for solving complicated mathematical problems in applied mathematics. Einstein, however, had a better intuition for physics than for math.

28. Another interesting fact about Albert Einstein is that he had a poor memory. He could not remember names, dates or phone numbers.

29. The Nobel Prize in 1921: the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to Albert Einstein “for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect.”

30. Love and Hate: he loved the violin and sailing, and hated socks and haircuts. He also loved bird watching.

31. Einstein made groundbreaking discoveries during the earlier years of his life. While he continued to perform research, he did not produce anything of significance during the later years of his life.

32. If not a scientist – a musician: Einstein was very fond of music, and his mother played a vital role in his inclination towards music. She played the violin, which became a source of enjoyment and inspiration for the young Einstein, who himself learned to play the instrument at the tender age of five. He said, “If I were not a scientist, I would be a musician.”

33. Imagination over knowledge: he always said, “Imagination is more important than knowledge, for knowledge is limited, but imagination encircles the world.”

34. Illegitimate daughter: Einstein had an illegitimate child with fellow student Mileva Maric, who later became his first wife (1903-1919). Their child is believed to have died in 1903 because of an infection just one year after her birth.

35. The second child from his first marriage with Mileva Maric was born on May 14, 1904. The couple named him Hans. His wife’s father when came to visit the couple to bless the newborn is reported to have offered Einstein a sizeable dowry of 100,000 Franks, which Einstein politely denied.

36. Conditional marriage: Einstein lived on certain conditions with his first wife, which she agreed to. Here are the terms of the marriage, which were laid down in 1914 when they were having difficulties in their relationship.

He said (conditions) in the contract, you (Mileva Maric)

A. You will make sure

  1. that my clothes and laundry are kept in good order
  2. that I will receive my three meals regularly in my room
  3. that my bedroom and study are kept neat, and especially that my desk is left for my use only.

B. You will renounce all personal relations with me insofar as they are not completely necessary for social reasons. Specifically, you will forego

C. You will obey the following points in your relations with me:

  1. you will not expect any intimacy from me, nor will you reproach me in any way
  2. you will stop talking to me if I request it
  3. you will leave my bedroom or study immediately without protest if I request it.

D. You will undertake not to belittle me in front of our children, either through words or behavior.

37. Connections with women: Even after his second marriage to his first cousin, he maintained connections with six women, receiving gifts and spending time with him. This was revealed from his letters, later on.

38. Did you know that almost immediately after Albert Einstein learned of the atomic bomb’s use in Japan, he became an advocate for nuclear disarmament?

39. The miracle year 1905: this year is believed to be a miracle year in Albert Einstein’s life. He published four papers during this year, representing his most creative work. These papers were about the Quantum theory, Brownian motion (existence of atoms), Electrodynamics of moving bodies and the most famous equation in the world – the E=MC2 equation – establishing the relationship between mass and energy. At this time, he was just 26 years old and worked during the day at a patent office.

40. His Masterwork: Einstein considered his general theory of relativity, published in 1915, to be his masterwork. The theory was the first theory on gravity to be published in the 250 years since Sir Isaac Newton’s theory of gravity was revealed. It brought Einstein a lot of attention from all over the world. Soon, he started touring the world and began speaking in front of crowds of thousands.

41. Left Germany forever: Einstein left Germany in December 1932, a month after Adolf Hitler became the chancellor of Germany. Einstein’s move to the United States was permanent he never entered the country of his birth again.

42. Brain preserved: In 1955, after the death of the famous physicist and scientist, his body was cremated and ashes scattered. However, the only part of his body that was retained by pathologist Thomas Harvey at Princeton Hospital while conducting his autopsy was his brain. Thomas Harvey was later fired from the hospital for not returning Einstein’s brain, which he removed during the autopsy. (Interesting facts about the brain)

43. Unified Theory: During the later years of his life, Albert Einstein was working on unified field theory. His aim was to develop a theory that would explain the entrie universe and all the laws of physics, bringing them into a single framework. However, this theory remained unfinished at the time of his death in 1955.

44. Copely Medal in 1925: the Royal Society of London awarded him its prestigious Copely Medal in 1925 for his theory of relativity and contributions to quantum theory.


March 14, 1879 Birth, Ulm (Germany).

1896 – 1900 Obtained Teaching Diploma, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich, Zurich (Switzerland).

1902 – 1909 Technical Expert, Third Class (1902-1906) and Technical Expert, Second Class (1906-1909), Eidgenössisches Institut für Geistiges Eigentum (Switzerland), Swiss Patent Office, Bern, Bern (Switzerland).

1905 Obtained PhD in Physics, University of Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland).

1908 – 1909 Lecturer, University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland).

1909 – 1911 Extraordinary Professor of Theoretical Physics, University of Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland).

1911 – 1912 Professor of Theoretical Physics, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland).

1911 – 1912 Professor of Theoretical Physics, German University in Prague (Univerzita Karlova).

1914 – 1933 Professor of Theoretical Physics, University of Berlin (Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Berlin), Berlin (Germany).

1921 Awarded Nobel Prize in Physics "for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect".


What did Albert Einstein contribute to science?

“Everyone knows that Einstein did something amazing, but very few people know exactly what he did in reality.”

It is generally so, Einstein became a symbol of intellectual development, although not many people actually know what his contributions to science were.

Albert Einstein managed to prove the existence of atoms explain the rotation of the planets around the sun show the particles that break down the light demonstrate that time and space are relative and stated that the universe is constantly expanding.

Albert Einstein was born in Ulm, kingdom of Württemberg, German empire. His parents were Hermann Einstein and Pauline Koch, who got married in 1876. Einstein’s ancestors, both paternal and maternal, were shopkeepers and artisans, and in a historical exercise, no matter how many attempts to go back in time, without slightly significant distinctions in any cultural or academic branch.

Einstein spent his childhood in the bosom of a Jewish family. His parents settled in1880 in München, where he lived his first 15 years of age. At that time Einstein was a student of a catholic school, being the only Jewish in it. His performance did not arouse any particular interest.

From an early age he developed a taste for mathematics thanks to the interest generated by the operation of a compass, he began to develop a particular interest in physics. However, many historians affirm that Albert Einstein was not considered a good student, he did not like the study of languages, natural sciences or history despite this, he began to excel in mathematics and developed a taste for music, especially the violin.

At the age of 15, his father, Herman Einstein, had to emigrate to Italy, a country in which his business failed as well as in Germany. Albert remained in Germany, he dropped out of school since he felt a bit isolated. However, sometime later, he needed to find some profession, so he aspired to enter the Zurich institute of technology (polytechnic) and was not accepted, due to lack of preparation in subjects such as languages ​​and natural sciences. Einstein opted for a year of preparation in the school of Arau, then he had access to the polytechnic, meeting with his family in Switzerland, an academic stage that he experienced with a certain disdain, given his self-taught nature.

From his self-taught nature, guided by his intuition, he began to lean decisively for physics and decided to study with ardor and rigor Maxwell, Hertz, Helmholtz, Kirchhoff, Boltzmann.

In 1901, he would graduate from the polytechnic and be granted the Swiss citizenship. He remained unemployed for several months and experienced a very difficult financial situation.

In 1902, he got a job in the patent office of Berne, with a salary according to his aspirations and enough free time. This stage of his life is characterized by the loneliness of Albert, he distanced himself considerably from his family, friends and from society itself he minimized everything that could be considered as a distracting element and went into study and meditation about the vicissitudes that clogged physics.

In 1903, he married Mileva Maric, a woman he met at the polytechnic. Two years later, Albert Einstein would publish five memories in a physics journal in Berlin. This work is considered a great manifestation of his ingenuity with which Einstein would print his mark in the twentieth century.

The first and third reports addressed the molecular dimensions and the Brownian motion the second memory addressed the quantum properties of light, a discovery that would make him worthy of the Nobel Prize, although belated (1922). As for the fourth and fifth memories, he built the special theory of restricted relativity.

In 1907, Einstein raises the equivalence between gravity and acceleration. Two years later, and until 1914, he began to work in several universities.

In 1916, Albert Einstein poses and publishes successfully his general theory of relativity. Einstein announced that light, instead of propagating in a straight line, should be characterized by a deflected trajectory, something like the trajectory of a projectile, once it crosses an intense gravitational field.

The famous formula E = mc2 is one of the main conclusions of the theory of relativity. It describes the relationship between the mass (m) and the energy of a body (e). Energy is its mass multiplied by the speed of light squared. Revealing the existence of large amounts of energy, even in the tiniest masses.

His theory was immediately striking. However, only until May 20, 1919, the day on which an English astronomical expedition was able to verify not only the deviation but also the order of magnitude of the deviation that Einstein had predicted, and only until that day, would confirm his theory about gravitational fields. The announcement of this observation shocked the scientific world, the academic opinion, and suddenly elevated Albert Einstein as the most famous man in the world.

Einstein was called as a professor in Berlin. However, a short time later, Hitler would rise to power, and with it the wave of persecution towards the Jews. Albert Einstein moved to the united states in 1932, leaving all his assets in Germany, country to which he would never return.

Einstein’s history recalls his deeply pacifist nature, and once he learned about the progress made by Germany in the field of nuclear fission, warned the president of the United States, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, on the need to prepare for an atomic conflict, called for the release of atomic energies and declared with absolute conviction that the threat of this bomb would suffice to complete the war although he strongly opposed the use of these against Japanese cities.

Albert Einstein died on April 18, 1955, in Princeton, at the age of 76, due to an internal hemorrhage.


Interesting Albert Einstein Facts: 41-45

41. Einstein’s success mostly came from visual experiments he used to conduct in his mind. He rarely went to lab to test his theories.

42. After Einstein’s death, the pathologist who was in charge of the autopsy of Einstein’s body actually stole Einstein’s brain and kept in a jar. He denied to return the brain and was eventually fired from his job. He still did not give up the jar but finally returned the brain after 20 years of possession.

43. His first wife Maric actually received the money he won as a part of Noble Prize.

44. Despite the fact that the credit for creating the formula E=mc 2 goes to Einstein, it was actually first used by Friedrich Hasenöhrl. This led to a big controversy but eventually, Einstein’s work on relativity and the deep implications allowed the academic world to give the credit to Einstein.

45. Einstein’s eyeballs are preserved in a safe box in New York City.


Watch the video: ROBLOX ALBERT SCP FACILITY.. (July 2022).


Comments:

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  2. Kigaran

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  3. Reece

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